Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia, 49, — Moats, L. Teaching reading is rocket science: What expert teachers of reading should know and be able to do Item No. Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers 2nd ed. Basic facts about dyslexia and other reading problems. Response to intervention: Policy considerations and implementation.
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Alexandria, VA: Author. National Reading Panel. Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Nevills, P. Building the reading brain, PreK—3 2nd ed. Norlin, J. What do I do when: The answer book on Section 4th ed. Olson, R. Why do children differ in their development of reading and related skills?
Scientific Studies of Reading, 18 1 , 38— Pennington, B. Diagnosing learning disorders: A neuropsychological framework. Peterson, R. Developmental dyslexia. The Lancet, , — Pisha, B. Perspectives, 29 4 , 14— Pressley, M. Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching. Putnam, L. How to become a better reading teacher: Strategies for assessment and intervention.
Rhodes, R. Assessing culturally and linguistically diverse students: A practical guide. Sawyer, M. Health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with mental disorders. Sedita, J. Adolescent literacy: Addressing the needs of students in grades 4— Birsh Ed. Shaywitz, S. Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. The education of dyslexic children from childhood to young adulthood. The Annual Review of Psychology, 59, — Siegel, L. Understanding dyslexia and other learning disabilities. Snow, C. Reading for understanding: toward a research and development program in reading comprehension.
Prevention of reading difficulties in young children. Snowling, M. Swanson, H. Handbook of learning difficulties. Torgesen, J. Lessons learned from research on interventions for students who have difficulty learning to read. Chhabra Eds. A basic guide to understanding, assessing, and teaching phonological awareness. Vail, P. Smart kids with school problems: Things to know and ways to help. Introduction to the 3-Tier Reading Model: Reducing reading disabilities for kindergarten through third grade students 4th ed.
Austin, TX: Author. Vaughn, S. Group size and time allotted to intervention. Foorman Ed. Parkton, MD: York Press. Vellutino, F. Specific reading disability dyslexia : What have we learned in the past four decades. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45 1 , 2— Wilkins, A. Basic facts about dyslexia: What every layperson ought to know. The Orton Emeritus Series 3rd ed. Go Back. By Marcia K. Henry Ph. Chall, J. Stages of reading development 2nd ed. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace. Dehaene, S. Reading in the brain: The new science of how we read.
Rather, the present invention allows for lessons to be based on real language texts at par with the student's verbal intelligence. For the student struggling with Phonological Processing Disorder, the present invention offers the advantage over prior art that the student is equipped to experience a genuine normal reading experience—of a real text at par with the student's verbal intelligence level—typically within two days of commencement of the treatment.
Profoundly delivering a restoration in motivation, which—in turn—generates the motivational basis to continue on the treatment path. For the student struggling with Phonological Processing Disorder, the present invention offers the advantage over prior art that it consistently delivers reading fluency in the normal reading experience at par at the student's verbal intelligence.
This fluency being the result of the sequence in which the present invention presents different exercises. A student first exercises and sight reads individual words with the aid of audio input, and then reads the complete text based on those words. For the student struggling with Phonological Processing Disorder, the present invention offers the advantage over prior art that it uses computer routines to produce sequential exercises individual words, as well as texts to read that structurally build the student's vocabulary.
In a highly motivating way due to the fact that reading fluency is attained from day two and that all exercises are at par with the verbal intelligence of the student the student is brought to a vocabulary of 3, words in the span of lessons. This exposure to words in a pleasant and empowering way trains the phonological decoding mechanism in the student, equipping the student to phonologically decode words outside of the cumulative vocabulary build up during the treatment. For older students struggling with Phonological Processing Disorder, the present invention offers the advantage over prior art that it allows for easy and automated production of custom lessons based on their jargon needs.
If a 15 year old student struggling with Phonological Processing Disorder desires to prepare for a Driver's License written exam, source texts from the Driver's License theory book can be uploaded, and custom lessons can be produced. The present invention thus allows the student to become fluent in reading words belonging to this jargon steering wheel, brakes, turns, rearview mirror, etc. As stated in paragraph , fluency is of the essence for reading comprehension.
DRAWINGS 01 , 02 , 03 and 04 contain a working algorithm to execute the process of manipulating and storing a source text, extracting all words from the said source text, and subsequently store these words in a vocabulary database table. The words being extracted from the aforementioned vocabulary database table and grouped in groups pertaining to their original source text. DRAWING 06 contains a simplified diagram of the process of presenting the original source texts to the student to read. The detailed description, and the algorythm contained in the drawings use database jargon based on the popular and commonly used MySQL relational database management system.
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Further, the detailed description, and the algorythm contained in the drawings uses HyperText Markup Language or HTML jargon, commonly used in internet web site development programming. This component of the present invention allows for uploading and processing of digital source text, resulting in segmentation of the digital source text into sequential individual reading exercises or lessons, linked to groups of individual words to be exercised by the student prior to reading the associated individual reading exercise or lesson.
This component of the present invention is responsible for the presentation of the individual words to be exercised by the student. This component of the present invention is responsible for the presentation of the reading exercises to the student. Task 1 : The process of extracting words from individual source texts; Task 2 : The subsequent storing of these words in the syllabus vocabulary database table; Task 3 : The storing of the source text.
One syllabus for example could contain texts that match the interest and verbal intelligence of 7 to 9 year olds. Another syllabus for example could contain texts that match the interest and verbal intelligence of 15 year old girls in High School. And yet another syllabus for example could match the needs of those seeking to write their Driver's License written exam.
The definition for each of the said three tables are specified in the following three paragraphs. Required fields are:. Next, the present invention is provided with a source text. A source text is any text digital text considered suitable for the student or student group. This source text could be custom-written for use in a syllabus. This source text could be acquired from an existing source. The only criteria from a computer-programming point of view is that it is digital. In that process, however, we are hindered by the fact that the source text contains all sorts of punctuations, graphical signs, abbreviations, and other typographies not belonging to a word dictionary exclusively containing individual words.
Thus, these punctuations, graphical signs, abbreviations, and other typographies need to be filtered out. First, the present invention duplicates the source text that was originally stored the step described in paragraph . This duplicate source text is required to allow modification of it and filtering, without loosing the original source text. The preferred means to do so is as follows:.
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The present invention needs to retain the original source text, including all its punctuations, graphical signs, abbreviations, and other typographies, as we need the said original source text for the presentation of the reading exercises see DRAWING The present invention also removes all multiple spaces.
Lastly, the present invention adds a space at the very beginning and very end of the source text to assure that the opening and closing word of the source text is not missed. The count result will be equivalent to the total number of individual words or charactergroups in the said duplicate sourcetext.
The result being, that the present invention will perform the steps described in paragraphs  through  for each individual word or charactergroup in the said duplicate sourcetext: One individual word or charactergroup at a time, in sequence of occurance in the said sourcetext. A word without a period will be identified and acted upon as well: however, since there is no period, the word remains unchanged. Next, IF the said search described in  results in a record count of zero i. Task 5 has as its objective to review all the individual words or charactergroups and either block, remove or accept them.
There is no need for this CharG or word to be trained by the student. Nor do we want to have to be confronted with this word in future when we are processing new source texts. The operator should accept the word, if the word needs to be included in the word exercises. The operator should block the word, if the word or charactergroup should not be included in word exercises, and should never again be considered to be included in the context if this particular syllabus.
The operator should remove i. The words will be rendered together with a means to mark each individual word in one of the following three ways: Accept, Block, or Delete. The preferred means is as follows:. One word or charactergroup per table row.
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One for each of the three mark options: Accept, Block, or Delete. Drawing 04 displays the present invention's final Task 6 in the word loader or source text word extraction process. Note: The present invention does this, because it is preferred to group 24 words maximum into a single student word drill exercise. The maximum number of words grouped into a student exercise is not determinative of the present invention.
The inventor considers a group of 24 words a preferred means. This means that after a maximum of two days of exercising these 24 words, the student is able to read the section of the source text pertaining to these 24 words. A maximum of two days thereafter, the student will be able to read both the aforementioned first section, plus a new, subsequent, section of the source text. And so on. Such progress typically enhances student motivation. This constitutes a preferred means which allows the words in the actual word drill exercises see Drawing 05 to be presented in random sequence, instead of in the same sequence of occurrence as in the source text.
This, in turn, allows for word drill exercises to be presented in their correct and logical sequence see Drawing In that process, the present invention include a random color code random number between 1 and This is done, to couple each word permanently with a specific color one of 74 different colors which will be displayed on the word drill exercise screen with the word, to help boost memorization in the word drill exercises.
The aforementioned use of color, or the way in which this paragraph suggests to use the color, is not determinative of the present invention, but does constitute a preferred means. We will now continue with the detailed description of Component B: Word Drill Exercise component, which is depicted on Drawing The following paragraphs describe a preferred means to present individual words to a student, to drill or exercise.
The said preferred means is not the only means, as the presentation of individual words can be done in manifold ways.
For example: Words to be practised can be presented in groups of two, or three, or six, or any other number. Words to be practised can be presented in rows, or columns, or scattered randomly on the display, or in a circle, or any other form of organization. Words to be practised can be set in any font, serif or sans-serif, any font size, large or small, any color and on any background color, or varying colors and background colors. The computer skills required in the task of presenting the word drill exercises Drawing 05 or reading exercises Drawing 06 are routine for any database-driven web site developer.
Drawing 05 displays a preferred means of the Task of constructing and presenting word drill exercises. Starting at  it was explained that a single source text, if containing more than 24 new words i. Review paragraphs  and . An example of the query follows below:. A preferred means of producing the layout of a fully functional word drill exercise is described below. Note, the present invention is not determined by the layout of choice, but rather by the method to teach a dyslexic student how to read, using individual word exercises based on custom source text, and this within days of commencing the student's training.
The student repeats the word verbally: As a parrot—going back and forth between the teacher or US pronouncing the word, and the student parroting the word. This process is repeated for each and every of the six words. The colors will help trigger associative memory of the word and exercise page, making it easier for the student to commit the word-pronunciation combination to memory.
A preferred means is to display the said colors  in or as unique shapes, coupled to each of the unique 74 colors described in paragraph . Example: Bright red is presented in or as a square; Ecru is presented in or as an elipse; Olive Green is presented in or as a pentagon; Etcetera. This completes the description of Component B of the present invention.
Component C of the present invention is responsible for the presentation of the reading exercises to the student.
Drawing 06 demonstrated a preferred means to present a reading exercise to the student. Internal factors are intrinsic to the individual, can cause a person to learn differently, are usually life-long, and are usually considered a learning disability — also referred to as a specific or significant learning difficulty in Australia and the UK , or learning disability in the US and Canada. Dyslexia is generally considered to be a learning disability, or specific learning difficulty. Australian surveys have indicated that 10 to 16 per cent of students are perceived by their teachers to have learning difficulties and have support needs, particularly in literacy, that go beyond those normally addressed by classroom teachers.
Within the population of students with learning difficulties there is a smaller sub-set of students who show persistent and long lasting learning impairments and these are identified as students with a learning disability. It is estimated that approximately 4 per cent of Australian students have a learning disability. Many of them would learn to read to an age appropriate level if they were exposed to the right kind of reading instruction in the classroom. But others would still be struggling even if what was being delivered to them in their classrooms was the best, most systematic evidence-based classroom instruction in reading.
These are children who are often referred to as dyslexic. Both groups of children require intervention, but the period over which intervention is required and the intensity of the intervention will vary according to the degree of difficulty experienced and its cause. Expert views on dyslexia largely agree on two basic points. First, dyslexia is identifiable as a developmental difficulty in learning to read.
Secondly, the long running debate about its existence should give way to building professional expertise in identifying dyslexia and developing effective ways to help learners overcome its effects. It is also generally agreed that the earlier dyslexic difficulties are identified the better are the chances of putting children on the road to success. Louden, W. Mapping the territory, primary students with learning difficulties: Literacy and numeracy, Vol.
Effective working memory is crucial and necessary to undertake many everyday tasks and learning activities. This conference focused on working memory, how it relates to other cognitive functions, its role in classroom learning and in the acquisition of academic skills. In addition, methods of identifying poor working memory in school aged children and interventions to improve working memory were presented. Research indicates that working memory is a strong predictor of learning success. This paper reports findings from an investigation of 20 children, aged 7 to 10 years, who were regarded as lazy by their parents and teachers.
Questionnaire measures provided evidence of low levels of motivation and classroom engagement. Psychometric assessments revealed the presence of a range of difficulties including phonologically-based learning disabilities and significant problems with attention in 17 of the 20 children. The paper concludes that the special needs of an unknown number of children may be overlooked because they are simply presumed to be lazy. The present study investigated the prevalence and predictors of neuromyths among teachers in selected regions in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.
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Beck Department of Psychology and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Since the advent of human neuroimaging, and of functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI in particular, the popular press has shown an increasing interest in brain-related findings. I suggest that part of the allure of these data are the deceptively simply messages they afford, as well as general, but sometimes misguided, confidence in biological data. In addition to cataloging some misunderstandings by the press and public, I highlight the responsibilities of the research scientist in carefully conveying their work to the general public.
In addition, methods of identifying poor working memory in school aged children and interventions to improve working memory will be presented. Click here to read the Jim Rose Paper. Children who read substantially less well than most children of their age may be referred to as exhibiting 'specific learning difficulties' or 'specific reading impairment' or 'developmental dyslexia' 'dyslexia' for short. These different terms are typically used interchangeably. Learning to write and spell is not easy, either, and some children lag behind their peers here, too.
The distinction between difficulty in learning to read and difficulty in learning to write and spell is worth making because there are children who are normal readers for their age but poor spellers: these children are dysgraphic poor at writing and spelling while not being dyslexic poor at reading. Children who have had difficulty in learning to read but have managed to catch up with their peers as far as reading is concerned often still exhibit poor writing and spelling.
Gough William E. Tunmer DOI: It follows that there must be three types of reading disability, resulting from an inability to decode, an inability to comprehend, or both. It is argued that the first is dyslexia, the second hyperlexia, and the third common or garden variety, reading disability.
Remedial and Special Education, Vol. In the study reported here, we used functional MRI fMRI to examine whether differences in brain activation during phonological processing that are characteristic of dyslexia were similar or dissimilar in children with poor reading ability who had high IQ scores discrepant readers and in children with poor reading ability who had low IQ scores nondiscrepant readers.