The saliva, bacteria, and proteins in your mouth form a thin layer that covers your teeth at almost all times.
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When you eat, tiny particles, acids, and sugars from the food stick to this film, creating a buildup on the teeth known as plaque. The bacteria that lives in this plaque can cause gum disease and tooth decay. Brushing, flossing, and regular dental cleanings will help remove the plaque and prevent more serious problems.
If you have healthy gums, the tissue will fit tightly around the tooth and keep plaque out. However, if gum disease begins to form, this tissue will loosen. Healthy gums attach to the tooth just 1 to 3 millimeters below the gumline.
These can fill with plaque, worsening your problems and causing symptoms like bad breath. If you have pockets of 4 millimeters or more, your dentist will probably recommend dental scaling to remove the plaque beneath the gumline and help treat the gum disease. There are two basic methods for scaling teeth. If your dentist uses handheld instruments, he or she will scrape plaque from the tooth using a metal tool known as a dental scaler and curette.
Alternately, your dentist may choose an ultrasonic instrument to scale your teeth. This features a vibrating metal tip combined with a cool water spray.
The tip chips tartar away as the water flushes out the pocket. Dental scaling is typically followed by a procedure known as root planing. This is done in the same manner as scaling. Root planing smooths the surface of the root so the gums can reattach properly. Dental scaling can be uncomfortable, particularly if you have sensitive gums.
Your dentist may offer a local anesthetic to numb your gum tissue and make the procedure more comfortable. Dental scaling can take several visits, each one addressing a different portion of the mouth. Some dentists divide the mouth into four quadrants, while others will perform dental scaling in two halves. Your mouth may feel sore and sensitive after your dental scaling and root planing.
Some patients experience swelling or bleeding for a few days following the procedure.
Scaling and root planing with and without periodontal flap surgery.
Your dentist may suggest a desensitizing toothpaste to help ease this discomfort. We develop and implement tools that assess capacity and track performance. For instance, we used our Capacity Scan CAPScan diagnostic tool in Iraq to assess the education sector capacity of the national government and local municipalities. In Egypt and Morocco, we developed a tracking tool with benchmarks for the skills development of assessment specialists in curriculum analysis, item banking, test construction, data management, and psychometrics.
We provide technical assistance for research into systems strengthening and sustainability. We led the Sustained Outcomes in Basic Education SOBE study, which resulted in recommendations for fostering the sustainability of education programming in developing countries.
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We supported the Education Systems Strengthening ESS study, which analyzed patterns of institutional strengthening in developing countries and provided recommendations for sustaining education systems. In addition, as a leader in supporting the scale-up of successful interventions, we apply our research-based guidelines — the Scaling Up Management Framework and the Scaling Up Toolkit — in the education sector.
We have used these guidelines with donor education officers in our global Scaling Up for Sustainability training and with government education specialists on the scale-up of a bilingual primary school curriculum in Senegal. Scaling Up.
We support countries in achieving sustained improvements in education access and learning outcomes through increased government capacity. Related Experts. Nitika Tolani. Strategy, Evaluation and Analysis. Susan Minushkin. Evaluation and Research.
Democracy and Governance.