Buy now. It resulted in the birth of the modern Middle East and also created one of the most enduring myths of the war: the story of Lawrence of Arabia. This book examines the revolt, describing and analyzing the background and events of the uprising. While some of the recruiting initiatives proved unsuccessful, a number of extremely capable Ottoman officers were convinced to shift their allegiance. The majority of the rank and file were Arab soldiers of the Ottoman army who were also recruited from POW camps. Each army had tribal forces deployed with it and these were led by their own tribal chiefs.
During the course of the campaign, the Arab Eastern and Southern Armies remained in the vicinity of Medina and Mecca for strategic reasons. The Arab Northern Army under Feisal was to have a more active war and it became the main manoeuvre force of the Arab armies. From , the Hejaz railway had been identified as a major strategic target. This single line railway was crucial to the survival of the Turkish garrison at Medina and elsewhere. From attacks of increasing size and ferocity were aimed against it until large numbers of Turkish troops were tied down in its defence.
The Hejaz Railway represented the single most important lifeline for the transport of all Turkish material. Lawrence would later state that attacking the line suggested one of the main principles of modern guerrilla warfare, writing:. We were to contain the enemy by the silent threat of a vast unknown desert, not disclosing ourselves till we attacked. The attack would be nominal, directed not against him but against his stuff, so we would not seek either his strength or his weakness, but his most accessible material. Following the relocation of the Arab Northern Army to Aqaba in July , the force was reinforced with armoured cars and further artillery assets.
From this period onwards, the railway raids became more ambitious. Colonel P. Joyce, commander of Operation Hedgehog, and other British and Arab officers devised a programme for large-scale attacks on the line. By , they realised that they could approach quite large Turkish garrisons, keeping them under suppressing fire from the armoured cars, MG teams or mountain-guns while demolition parties worked on the line. Such raids were assisted by RFC planes that arrived to bomb and strafe the garrisons while the railway line was mined. These raids played a major part in this desert campaign, tying down Ottoman forces all along the line.
Arab and Allied officers of the revolt also recognised the Arabian theatre offered the potential for carrying out long-range raids into Turkish rear areas. In terms of wider strategy, it was recognised that the capture of Aqaba on the Red Sea coast would bring a number of advantages to the Arab Northern Army. It would deny the Turks their last remaining port on the Red Sea while its capture would provide the Arab Northern Army with a coastal base and a location from which it could launch further raids inland.
The possession of Aqaba would allow the Arab Northern Army to operate in Sinai and also in a north-eastern orientation towards Palestine, Lebanon and Syria in conjunction with future planned operations. He became the main protagonist in the Aqaba scheme and he left Wejh on 9 May with a small party including Sharif Nasir, Auda abu Tayi and other tribal leaders. During the course of the next two months, this raiding party covered over 1,km of inhospitable desert and, having recruited further Howeitat tribesmen en route , finally took Aqaba on 6 July By November the Arab Northern Army had been augmented by the allocation of a squadron of Rolls Royce armoured cars and also the addition of Ford and Talbot cars.
Some of the latter mounted pounder guns. By early , the officers of Hedgehog had grasped the potential of these cars and began exploring to the area north-east of Aqaba in order to find routes towards the railway and beyond. By , therefore, we can see a shift in the focus of operations. While the mobility and endurance of the camel-borne tribal raiding parties were still important, the emphasis was gradually shifting to integrating and utilising the armoured cars and other mechanized elements.
The important role played by the airpower has often been often overlooked by modern historians of the Arab Revolt. In , these air assets were reinforced with 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps. Planes also co-operated with the raiding parties. Some of these would seem to have been very basic, just holding supplies of petrol, oil and water. Landing areas were prepared just for emergency landings in the desert while some outlying fields were more substantial with larger petrol supplies and also spare parts, ammunition and bombs.
Of course, this air activity forced the Ottoman air service to respond. One of the downsides of the move to Aqaba, were daily air raids on the town due to it being range of Turkish air units. Turkish squadrons were augmented by German and Austrian pilots and ground crew. In September , Lt-Col. Intelligence suggested that Fokker pilot was Turkish, while all the remainder were German. It would seem that these aircraft were tasked with operating in a counter-insurgency role, undertaking reconnaissance missions and also attacking Arab columns.
Actual air-to-air combat, which was by then common on the Western Front, would seem to have been reasonably rare in the Arabian theatre. Occasionally, the RFC and AFC planes were used to carry supplies in the form of ammunition or explosives to raiding parties in the field. In August a Handley Page bomber was attached to X Flight and used to ferry larger quantities of supplies to the Arab Northern Army, which was then massing to the south-east of Deraa.. The military campaign that developed in Arabia between and was context specific and it should be viewed with this context in mind.
Furthermore, their direction was controlled by Arab, British and French officers who, in general, operated within the accepted norms of warfare at that time. That is not to say that there were not excesses. If it had been sanctioned, it would have been the earliest use of chemical weapons in the Middle East. There were more brutal undercurrents within this campaign, and these would be reflected in wider patterns of violence in the Middle East immediately post-WW1.
In general, however, we do not see the same levels of violence that we now associate with insurgency in the Middle East. If COIN lessons are to be drawn from this campaign, surely the focus should be on the activities of the Ottoman forces which were, after all, waging the counterinsurgency. Yet, overall, the activities of the Ottoman army during the war have received remarkably little attention. It is possible to chart Ottoman countermoves and we see an increased use of blockhouses along the Hejaz Railway, greater use of cavalry and mobile patrols and a gradual increase in the role of airpower.
Throughout and , the Arab Northern Army grew increasingly confident and aggressive in its operations. In October , soldiers of the regular contingent of the Arab Northern Army successfully engaged a Turkish column near Petra. On 25 January , the Arabs had a significant victory when a party of around tribesmen defeated a Turkish column of around 1, men at Tafila, to the south-east of the Dead Sea. These included Arab regulars, tribal contingents, Indian and Gurkha MG and mortar teams, armoured cars, mobile artillery and aircraft of X-Flight.
While Ottoman forces and their allied German and Austrian contingents were pushed back along the coastal axis, the Arab army continued to harass Turkish forces, which were now in complete disarray. Military operations in the Middle East ceased on 29 October when the crucial railway junction at Muslimiya was captured by British troops and regular Arab forces.
Two days later, the Ottoman government was granted an armistice. While the Arab Revolt continues to fascinate, it should be viewed in terms of the wider Middle East context. It complimented wider Allied efforts in Egypt-Palestine while it also drew Ottoman forces away for the Mesopotamian Iraq front. It should also be remembered that the Allies faced their own internal revolt of Arab tribesmen in the form of the Senussi Rebellion of As was the case in Arabia, the Senussi campaign saw the deployment of light car units, aircraft and cavalry in what became a highly mobile campaign.
Across the Middle East therefore, it could be argued that the was some level of commonality in how forces were deployed. Due to the vast spaces involved and also the increasing availability of motor vehicles and aircraft, we see increased use of these elements in combination as the war progresses. It can also be argued that, in the operational sense, the campaign had been decisive.
Although the process had taken longer than any British general had initially expected, Ottoman forces had been defeated in the Egypt-Palestine-Arabia theatre. As a fighting force they had evolved from being largely a tribal force to one capable of integrating light armour, motorised artillery and airpower to create a highly mobile modern force. The role of British, French and former Ottoman officers was key in this process, as was the contribution of Lawrence himself.
It is true to state that, in conjunction with the wider military operations, the Arab armies played a decisive role in defeating Ottoman forces in the Middle East. But these should be seen in the context of the military activity in the Middle East as a whole. However, the question of securing a future for the Arab movement was to prove more problematic. The Strategic and Geopolitical Legacy of the Revolt. Before the Arab Revolt had even begun, representatives of the Allied governments were already drawing up plans for the future of the Ottoman territories of the Middle East.
As an exercise in hubris and arrogance, it was perhaps unparalleled. Despite the fact that western commentators had been predicting the demise of the Ottoman Empire since the 19 th century, Allied military efforts up to had faced defeat and humiliation in campaigns in Gallipoli and Mesopotamia. Yet decisions made in London and Paris in were to have long-term ramifications for Arabia.
Senior civil servants met to decide how Ottoman territory would be ruled in the future, while at the same time their respective forces were being defeated in the Middle East. The two most prominent officials to emerge in this process were Sir Mark Sykes, who represented Britain, and M. Lawrence Jeremy and Nicole Wilson ed. Correspondence with Bernard and Charlotte Shaw, — Castle Hill Press. Foreword by Jeremy Wilson. Aurum Press. Retrieved 29 November Altounyan in Lawrence, A. Lucas 26 March Leonard Woolley in A. Lawrence, , p. Seven Pillars of Wisdom.
The passage in the front matter is referred to with the single-word tag "Sex". Sunday Times.
Lawrence of Arabia
Introduction by Angus Calder , who says that returning soldiers often feel intense guilt at having survived when others did not, even to the point of self-harm. Lawrence effigy". Church Monuments. Lawrence Lawrence of Arabia from —". Open Plaques. Lawrence "Lawrence of Arabia" — lived here. Daily Mail.
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Retrieved 5 August The Mercury. Hobart, Tas. Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 17 October Al-Khdi3a — Episode 1". Aldington, Richard Lawrence of Arabia: A Biographical Enquiry. London: Collins. Anderson, Scott Armitage, Flora Asher, Michael The Uncrowned King of Arabia. Brown, Malcolm; Cave, Julia London, J. Brown, Malcolm Lawrence of Arabia: the Life, the Legend. The Letters of T. Brown, ed. Lawrence of Arabia: The Selected Letters. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Carchidi, Victoria K. Ciampaglia, Giuseppe Roma: Strenna dei Romanisti, Roma Amor edit.
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Graves, Richard Perceval Lawrence of Arabia and His World. Graves, Robert Lawrence and the Arabs. London: Jonathan Cape. Lawrence and the Arabian Adventure. New York: Doubleday, Doran. Hoffman, George Amin. Lawrence Lawrence of Arabia and the M New York, Palgrave Macmillan. Hyde, H. Montgomery London, Constable. James, Lawrence Skyhorse Publishing, New York. Knightley, Phillip; Simpson, Colin The Secret Lives of Lawrence of Arabia. Korda, Michael Lawrence, A.
Lawrence by His Friends: insights about Lawrence by those who knew him.
Doubleday Doran. Lawrence, M. Lawrence, T. Seven Pillars of Wisdom Subscribers' Edition. Seven Pillars of Wisdom Doubleday Edition. Leclerc, C Leigh, Bruce Lawrence: Warrior and Scholar. Tattered Flag.
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Mack, John E. Boston, Little, Brown. Marriott, Paul; Argent, Yvonne The Alpha Press. Meulenjizer, V Le Colonel Lawrence, agent de l'Intelligence Service. Meyer, Karl E. Kingmakers: the Invention of the Modern Middle East. New York, London, W. Mousa, Suleiman Lawrence: An Arab View. London, Oxford University Press. Norman, Andrew Lawrence of Arabia and Clouds Hill. Lawrence: Tormented Hero.
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Nutting, Anthony Lawrence of Arabia: The Man and the Motive. Ocampo, Victoria Lawrence of Arabia. Orlans, Harold Lawrence: Biography of a Broken Hero. Paris, T. September Historical Journal. Penaud, Guy Le Tour de France de Lawrence d'Arabie Rosen, Jacob Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs.
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Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Institut du Monde Arabe in French. Paris, France 80 : 7—9. Lawrence d'Arabie. Thomas Edward, cet inconnu. Sattin, Anthony John Murray. Simpson, Andrew R. Another Life: Lawrence after Arabia. The History Press. Stang, ed. The Waking Dream of T. Palgrave Macmillan. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Stewart, Desmond Storrs, Ronald Lawrence of Arabia, Zionism and Palestine. Thomas, Lowell . With Lawrence in Arabia. Nabu Press. Wilson, Jeremy Lawrence at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Sir Thomas Chapman, 7th Baronet father A. Lawrence brother Battle of Aqaba Lowell Thomas. Seven Pillars of Wisdom The Mint