Rather, it depends on what the researcher is aiming to find out and the overall goal and purpose of the research; that is, whether the researcher is primarily interested in looking at linguistic and discourse features of the texts text-first , or understanding more about the context in which the text is produced context-first.
The issue of purpose has been given particular attention in ESP genre work. In his book, Genre analysis, Swales argued that communicative purpose was the key factor that leads a person to decide whether a text is an instance of a particular genre or not. He has since, however, revised this view, saying that it is now clear that genres may have multiple purposes and that these may be different for each of the participants involved Askehave and Swales The communicative purpose of a genre, further, may evolve over time.
It may change, it may expand, or it may shrink Swales Communicative purpose, further, can vary across cultures even when texts belong to the same genre category. Genre studies in ESP, then, have increasingly moved from linguistic descriptions, of their own, to studies which aim to understand why genres are shaped as they are, and how they achieve their particular goals.
At the same time, analyses have moved, increasingly, to being computer-assisted see e. Biber and Conrad ; Biber, Connor and Upton ; Flowerdew , allowing for analyses to be based on a larger set of texts and, thereby, providing greater generalisability of the results. Biber's , p. Hyland , b , equally, argues for specificity in ESP teaching and research. His work has shown how the use of language varies in terms of rhetorical patterns and linguistic features across disciplines, especially in their written genres, and this needs to be accounted for in the teaching and researching of specific purpose genres see Huckin, for a further view on this.
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Bhatia presents a number of steps for carrying out the analysis of genres, in his case, written genres. The first step is to collect samples of the genre that will be examined. Bhatia suggests taking a few randomly chosen texts for exploratory investigation, a single typical text for detailed analysis, or a larger sample of texts if the interest is in investigating a few specified features of the texts.
The next step is to consider what is already known about the particular genre. This includes knowledge of the setting in which it occurs as well as any conventions that are typically associated with the genre.
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For information on this, existing literature such as guidebooks and manuals are useful as well as practitioner advice on the particular genre. It is also helpful to look at what analyses have already have been carried out of the particular genre by looking at research articles or books on the topic. It is also important to consider the goal, or purpose, of the texts.
Typical discourse patterns for the genre also need to be considered; that is, how the texts are typically organized, how the texts are typically presented in terms of layout and format, and language features that typically re-occur in the particular genre. A further issue is what people need to know in order to take part in the genre, and what views of the world the text assume of its readers; that is, the values, beliefs and assumptions that are assumed, or revealed by the particular genre.
It is also important to consider the networks of texts that surround the genre and to what extent knowledge of these is important in order be able to write, or make sense of, the particular genre. Genre-based teaching emerged, in many ways, as a response to the process approach White and Arndt to teaching writing, with teachers and researchers arguing that process-based teaching does not address issues such as the requirements of particular writing tasks and variation in individual writing situations.
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It also, they argued, with its focus on personal meaning, gives students a false impression of what is required of them in academic settings Horowitz The genre-based approach has not, however, been accepted without criticism. One key criticism has been that it is a product-based view of learning only and that it encourages learners to look for fixed patterns and formulae for their writing. Flowerdew , in his proposal for a process approach to genre-based teaching, argues that models of genres should not be treated as fixed, rule-governed patterns, but rather as prototypes which allow for individual variation.
Badger and White take a similar view, arguing that process and genre-based approaches are complementary rather than in opposition to each other and that both have their place in the language learning classroom. As Johns argues, genre-based classrooms need to focus on both genre awareness and genre acquisition; that is, learners need to be given strategies for responding to new and different tasks and situations genre awareness , at the same time as they need to acquire the genres that are important to them genre acquisition.
Writers such as Hammond and Mackin-Horarick have argued that genre-based teaching can help students gain access to texts and discourses which will, hopefully, help them participate more successfully in second language spoken and written interactions. Others, such as Luke , have argued that teaching genres of power leads to uncritical reproduction of the status quo and does not necessarily provide the kind of access we hope it might provide for learners. Martin , however, argues that not teaching genres of power is socially irresponsible in that it is the already disadvantaged students who are especially disadvantaged by programs that do not address these issues.
Making genre knowledge explicit, then, can provide learners with the resources they need to participate in the genres that are important for them that will, hopefully, enable them to participate better, not only in their day to day lives, but also in their imagined futures in the worlds of work, study and everyday life Belcher Askehave, I. Genre identification and communicative purpose: A problem and possible solution, Applied Linguistics , 22 , Belcher, D.
English for specific purposes: Teaching to perceived needs and imagined futures in worlds of work, study, and everyday life. What ESP is and can be: An introduction. Belcher ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. The future of ESP research: Resources for access and choice. Paltridge and S. Starfield eds. The handbook of English for specific purposes. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell. Bhatia, V. Analysing genre: Language use in professional settings. London: Longman Bhatia, V.
Worlds of written discourse: A genre-based view. London: Continuum. Biber, D. Variation across speech and writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. On the complexity of discourse complexity: A multidimensional analysis. Discourse Processes , 15, Register, genre, and style. Title: Lexical bundles in our ESP classes: extracting and teaching bu Abstract: This webinar guides participants through the simple steps needed to build a small-scale, specialised corpus using SketchEngine, a user-friendly, online corpus programme, in order to identify and extract 4-word lexical bundles.
Once extracted, this webinar will present approaches to the categorisation of the bundles and some of the ways we can work with lexical bundles in our ESP and EAP classes. Our speaker is Dr Catherine Richards Golini who has worked as a teacher of English since and is currently a teacher and teacher trainer of English for medical purposes, a language consultant and assessment specialist for medical English. Her interests and expertise lie in the field of vocabulary, particularly general and lay-technical vocabulary in medicine, and its under-appreciated role in successful communication and patient-practitioner encounters.
What do you do when you have two or more things possessing something? The basic rule of thumb for Example: Jack and Jill's house was in the forest. We have to put BOTH possessors in the possessive form or we end up with something silly.
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For example, if we followed the general rule above only the second one possessive while trying to describe the car belonging to me and to Edgar, we'd get, "Edgar and my car is blue," but that is odd and incorrect. In other words, because we have a personal pronoun me involved in this particular joint possession, BOTH need to be in the possessive form. Since one is a pronoun, BOTH have to be in a possessive form for clarity. This construction may sound awkward to you, but it is correct. Punctuating compound possessives can be tricky, so take your time to check your words or rewrite the sentence for clarity and ease of reading.
When we think about teaching the four language skills - reading, writing, speaking and listening, we are really thinking about developing a whole range of different abilities in our learners, many of which are not related to language, but to other types of cognitive processing. The webinars will explore Kath Bilsborough's "five wishes" for the future of ELT materials, which she presented at IATEFL , and provide ideas, inspiration and practical tips on the various areas of materials creation.
The webinars will explore Kath Bilsb Nik Peachey : "Close Test Tutorial How to quickly create simple interactive closetests toefl tesol fce ielts tesol tefl elt eal ela ". On this course, you will learn about British life and culture, and improve your English language skills and knowledge. Through short videos, you will learn about different popular culture topics as well as ways of life in the UK, including English as a global language, the countryside, music, and literature.
Bhatia, Vijay K. London: Continuum. Developments in English for Specific Purposes. A Multi-Disciplinary Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hutchinson, Tom and Alan Waters. English for Specific Purposes. Kachru, Braj B. In Quirk, R. Widdowson eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Hofstede, Geert. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Isani, Shaeda. In Petit, M. Isani eds. Munby, John.
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