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Original story reprinted with permission from Quanta Magazine , an editorially independent publication of the Simons Foundation whose mission is to enhance public understanding of science by covering research developments and trends in mathematics and the physical and life sciences. Ilvy Njiokiktjien for Quanta Magazine. View Comments. Sponsored Stories Powered By Outbrain.

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Author: Rhett Allain Rhett Allain. In the GM, the electron consists entirely of antirishons, i. This assumption is a consequence of the conservation of p in all interactions in the GM. This implies that the original antimatter created in the Big Bang is now contained within the stable composite leptons, i. The hydrogen, helium and heavier atoms all consist of electrons, protons and neutrons. This explains where all the antiparticles have gone. Thus there is no matter-antimatter asymmetry in the present universe. However, the above does not explain why the present universe consists primarily of hydrogen atoms and not antihydrogen atoms.

In the SM this is considered to be the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem, since each of the elementary particles, the electron and both the up and down quarks are defined to be matter particles. Indeed an antihydrogen atom consists of the same rishons and antirishons as does a hydrogen atom, although the rishons and antirishons are differently arranged in the two systems. A hydrogen atom consists of a proton six rishons and three antirishons and an electron three antirishons , while an antihydrogen atom consists of an antiproton three rishons and six antirishons and a positron three rishons.

This implies that both hydrogen atoms and antihydrogen atoms should be formed during the aftermath of the Big Bang with about the same probability. In fact, estimates from the cosmic microwave background data suggest [ 11 ] that for every billion hydrogen-antihydrogen pairs there was just one extra hydrogen atom. It is suggested that this extremely small difference, one extra hydrogen atom in 10 9 hydrogen-antihydrogen pairs, may arise from statistical fluctuations associated with the complex many-body processes involved in the formation of either a hydrogen atom or an antihydrogen atom.

Let us now consider the nature of gravity within the framework of the GM.

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It is considered that the rishons of each colorless lepton, e. It is expected that the product wave function describing the distribution of the constituent rishons is significant for only an extremely small volume of space so that the color fields almost cancel. It should be noted that the color fields would only cancel completely if each of the rishons occupied the same position, but quantum mechanics prevents this.

This raises a question: What is the residual interaction arising from the incomplete cancellation of the strong interactions? Between any two colorless leptons e. There will be a similar residual interaction between any two colorless hadrons such as neutrons and protons, each containing three differently colored quarks. The mass of a body of ordinary matter is essentially the total mass of its constituent colorless electrons, neutrons and protons.

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Each of these three composite particles is in a three-color antisymmetric state so that its behavior with respect to the color interactions is basically the same. This suggests [ 13 ] that the residual color interactions between electrons, neutrons and protons have several properties associated with the usual gravitational interaction: universality, very weak strength and attraction. In the GM gravity essentially arises from the residual color forces between all electrons, neutrons and protons. The new gravitational interaction of the GM is based upon the residual color interactions acting between electrons, neutrons and protons.

The GM assumes that the color interactions acting between rishons have the same characteristics as the color interactions acting between quarks in the SM. These color interactions have two important properties that differ from the Newtonian interaction: i asymptotic freedom [ 9 , 10 ] and ii color confinement [ 11 ]. These determine the nature of the function H r. For galaxies there is a major gravitational problem [ 12 ], which has been around for about 40 years. The rotation curve for a galaxy is the dependence of the orbital velocity of the visible matter in the galaxy on its radial distance from the center of the galaxy.

Two solutions, which have been very successful, are first the dark matter hypothesis , which proposes that a galaxy is embedded within a giant halo of dark matter. This matter is considered to be nonatomic but otherwise its nature is unknown and so far has not been detected. This was an empirical hypothesis without physical understanding.


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It was found that the new law of universal gravitation given by Eq. The continuing success [ 36 , 37 ] of the MOND hypothesis is a strong argument against the existence of undetected dark matter haloes, consisting of unknown matter embedding galaxies. Asymptotic freedom is rather a misnomer. The flat galactic rotation curves are described by the property of antiscreening provided by the self-interactions of the hypergluons mediating the residual color interactions. These antiscreening effects lead to an increase in the strength of the residual color interactions so that H r becomes an increasing function of r.

The flat rotation curves observed for galaxies indicate that:. Color confinement is the phenomenon that color charged particles e. This implies that gravity ceases to exist for sufficiently large cosmological distances. This result agrees well with observations [ 38 , 39 ] of distant Type Ia supernovae, which indicate the onset of an accelerating expansion of the universe at about six billion light years. Thus the new law of gravity suggests that dark energy like dark matter may be understood as an effect arising from the nature of the gravitational interaction. The nature of the photon within the framework of the GM is worthy of consideration.

The photon has several properties that may be accommodated in the GM: i massless; ii neutral; iii colorless; iv spin-1; v U 1 symmetry and vi interacts with matter gravitationally. It is proposed that the photon may be the singlet state of the corresponding QCD color octet binding together the rishons and antirishons of the leptons and quarks. In the GM the singlet state is a hypergluon, which is massless, electrically neutral, colorless and has spin-1 and U 1 symmetry.

Furthermore, in the GM it interacts with matter via the new gravitational interaction based upon the residual color interactions. In particular the GM predicts that it leads to twice the deflection of Newton's universal theory of gravity in agreement with Einstein's theory of general relativity but without any warping of spacetime. The GM considers that the elementary particles of the SM, the leptons, quarks and weak bosons are all composite particles.

This substructure leads to new paradigms for both mass and gravity, which in turn lead to an understanding of several cosmological problems: the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. The GM provides a unified origin of mass and the composite nature of the leptons and quarks leads to a solution of the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry problem. The GM also provides a new universal quantum theory of gravity. In the GM, gravity is a very weak residual interaction of a strong color-like interaction, which possesses two important properties: antiscreening and finite range that provide an understanding of dark matter and dark energy, respectively, in terms of gravitational effects.

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Entangled States and the Gravitational Quantum Well

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