The separated sister chromatids are now referred to as daughter chromosomes. It is the alignment and separation in metaphase and anaphase that is important in ensuring that each daughter cell receives a copy of every chromosome. The final stage of mitosis, and a reversal of many of the processes observed during prophase.
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The nuclear membrane reforms around the chromosomes grouped at either pole of the cell, the chromosomes uncoil and become diffuse, and the spindle fibres disappear. The final cellular division to form two new cells. In plants a cell plate forms along the line of the metaphase plate; in animals there is a constriction of the cytoplasm.
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The cell then enters interphase - the interval between mitotic divisions. Meiosis is the form of eukaryotic cell division that produces haploid sex cells or gametes which contain a single copy of each chromosome from diploid cells which contain two copies of each chromosome. As in mitosis, meiosis is preceded by a process of DNA replication that converts each chromosome into two sister chromatids. The homologous chromosomes pair and exchange DNA to form recombinant chromosomes.
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Prophase I is divided into five phases:. Homologous pairs of chromosomes bivalents arranged as a double row along the metaphase plate. The arrangement of the paired chromosomes with respect to the poles of the spindle apparatus is random along the metaphase plate. This is a source of genetic variation through random assortment, as the paternal and maternal chromosomes in a homologous pair are similar but not identical.
The number of possible arrangements is 2 n , where n is the number of chromosomes in a haploid set. Human beings have 23 different chromosomes, so the number of possible combinations is 2 23 , which is over 8 million. The homologous chromosomes in each bivalent are separated and move to the opposite poles of the cell. The final cellular division to form two new cells, followed by Meiosis II. Meiosis I is a reduction division: the original diploid cell had two copies of each chromosome; the newly formed haploid cells have one copy of each chromosome.
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The events of Meiosis II are analogous to those of a mitotic division, although the number of chromosomes involved has been halved. ICC 0. Cell Cycle Cellular Structure 4. Cell Metabolism 4. Chromatin Remodeling 4. Polyclonal Monoclonal Unconjugated Biotin FITC HRP ATTO 0. Rabbit Mouse Goat 0.
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