In both the low and moderate phonological phonological similarity literally thought of the exact verb similarity groups, there was no significant difference in with that meaning and with an equivalent sound to the test ratings between the low versus moderate semantic similarity item, and simply analogized the known verb to the test item. Among Level of Similarity the items ending in —ing or —ink e. This confirms that high Low Phonological Similarity phonological and semantic similarity to a known verb will lead subjects to analogize a novel item to that word; without Moderate Phonological Similarity this combination, semantic similarity has little or no effect.
This was confirmed with individual regressions on each 0 variable, which revealed large differences in the variance Low Moderate High explained. Known word significantly explained However, This difference suggests that items we had classified as meaning accounted for a very small 1. Both theories can account for the monotonic. Bybee, J. Morphological classes These two theories make different predictions, however, as natural categories.
Language, 59, In contrast, Lakoff, G. Connectionist explanations in models positing lexical entries containing grammatical as linguistics: Some thoughts on recent anti-connectionist well as semantic and phonological information can papers. Unpublished electronic manuscript, ARPAnet, distinguish words that have distinct grammatical properties University of California, Berkeley. Implementations differences to track gradations in semantic features. Cognition, 40, However, we found that Pinker, S. German inflection: The exception that this extension was limited to cases where the new verb was proves the rule.
Cognitive Psychology, 29, The past and future of it both in sound and in meaning , which leads people to treat the past tense. Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, Mere semantic Pinker, S. Words and rules. New York: Basic similarity, unless it was both extreme in magnitude and Books. On language and enough to evoke the stored irregular patterns.
Cognition, 28, influence of phonological similarity in irregular past tense Generalization of regular semantic similarity Kim et al. The role of meaning in inflection: representations across families of verbs, semantic Why the past tense does not require a rule. Cognitive information is encapsulated at the lexical level when it Psychology, 45, As a result, semantic Rumelhart, D.
On learning similarity has an impact on irregular past tense formation past tenses of English verbs. Vol 2: believe that a novel verb is in fact a variant of a known psychological and biological models. Aspects , as Comrie defines are the different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of a situation while focus , as defined by Motus is the grammatical relationship between a verb with its affixes.
This paper will deal basically with familiar irregularities in some common Tagalog verbal affixes. Like any other language, Tagalog uses various affixes in order to show the focus and aspects of verbs which later on leads to the formation of the verbal conjugations. However, an irregularity that can be seen in Tagalog is the use of more than one affix to indicate the actor focus of the verb.
These affixes may either be the prefix mag- or the affix —um- , which may function as prefix for verbs beginning with vowels e. Another complexity is noticeable with the examples given for the affix um-, the same form of the verb is used to show the infinitive, imperative and completed aspects. Moreover, there is a difference with the way of writing the verbs with the prefix mag-; for verbs beginning with consonants, the prefix is simply connected with the root e. And in connection with the aspects of the verbs, mag- denotes the infinitive, imperative as well as to indicate the proposed aspect of verbs with the initial CV reduplication for the third.
Surprisingly, both of these actor focus affixes may be used interchangeably with some verbs without altering their meanings and aspects, e. Nevertheless, there are cases wherein some semantic changes happen when both of the affixes are used with certain verbs, e. These examples show the completed aspects of verbs but if the infinitive, imperative and proposed aspects are to be formed, -in becomes a suffix, e. Furthermore, there are irregular verbs in Tagalog, those beginning with l and y wherein this affix is metathesized when used as prefix, e.
A new rule B can act on the outputs of rule A see, e. Remnants of the phase A, untouched by the phase B, become irregular exceptions. Irregularity and analogical change, which is typically local. Is analogy predictable? Anttila, Raimo. Winter ed.
State-of-the-arts reports. Bailey, C-J N. Bynon, Theodora. I: — Oxford etc, Pergamon Press. Prinzipien der Irregularisierung. Eine kontrastive Analyse von zehn Verben in zehn germanischen Sprachen. Seiler, Hansjakob. Universality in language beyond grammar: Selected writings — Bochum, Brockmeyer. Yang, Charles Y. Minett and W. Wang eds , Language acquisition, change and emergence.
Essays in evolutionary linguistics. In Latin epigraphic sources, a morpheme - e i s can occur as the plural nominative of some masculine - o stems: the forms Valerieis , Turpilieis , fabres , vireis ,etc. Such a development is supported by diachronic evidence. Similar constraints have been recognized by Lazzeroni as governing the distribution of a morpheme - us , which can sometimes replace - is as the singular genitive of third declension nouns Venerus , Capitonus , nominus , etc … instead of Veneris , Capitonis , nominis , etc ….
Significantly, neither plural nominatives in - e i s , nor singular genitives in - us are predictable according to any productive Latin morphological rule: the former are in fact unexpected innovations probably borrowed from Oscan , the latter archaic relics. As noticed above, plural nominative in - e i s became in fact a partially productive morphological class, despite its short life and before its complete disappearance.
These diachronic data add significant evidence for a scalar representation of morphological ir regularity Ramat : between fully lexicalized information and fully productive rules, there appear to be other ways to organize linguistic items for a more efficient accessing. Bybee, J. Lazzeroni, R. Ramat, P. Rosch, E. Rovai, F. This study presents data on the acquisition of French and Spanish structures: past tense and adjectives. Spontaneous speech samples for French pre-school children reveal few linguistic errors in these structures Thordardottir, Two experiments probe the influence of frequency token and morphological pattern and regularity on acquisition patterns.
A first experiment explores the processing of French verbs. These fall into three conjugation groups 1. The regular pattern is the most frequent in types and tokens Nicoladis et al. We probe production of group 1 and 3 verbs in French children aged 2;11 — 4;6. Production abilities varied according to regularity and frequency. Regular verbs surpassed irregular ones. High token frequency verbs showed better production than low ones. In addition, these factors interacted, as low token frequency irregulars were often regularized into regular and sub-regular patterns, but not irregular patterns also seen in Nicoladis et al.
A second experiment probes the question of regularity in adjectives. French and Spanish adjectives agree in gender with the noun they modify e. Experiments elicited the production of these adjectives in children aged to in both languages. French variable feminine adjectives were harder to master than other forms and gender errors occurred on feminine structures in elicited data and spontaneous speech.
Comparable data from Spanish shows equal performance on feminine and masculine targets. These data show that the acquisition of morphosyntax is strongly mediated by two factors. On the one hand, pattern regularity is a salient factor. In particular, the default status of a pattern can modulate its use by children. However, low type-frequency patterns can emerge, if they are regular e. Finally, even though a pattern is frequent, it might not be useful for acquisition: French third conjugation verbs and feminine variable adjectives do not seem to be integrated into any relevant morphological system, even though they are common corpus types or tokens.
These data are discussed adapting Bertram et al. Royle, P. Variable effects of morphology and frequency on inflection patterns of French preschoolers. The Mental Lexicon Journal, 2 1 , Elicitation of the perfect past in French pre-schoolers with and without SLI. Applied Psycholinguistics, 29 , Acquisition of adjectives in Quebec French as revealed by elicitation data, 52p. Bertram, R. The balance of storage and computation in morphological processing: the role of Word Formation Type, Affixal Homonymy and Productivity.
On Language and Connectionism
Elin Thordardottir Early lexical and syntactic development in Quebec French and English: Implications for cross-linguistic and bilingual assessment. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 40 3 , On the acquisition of functional categories: A general commentary. Meisel Ed. Netherlands: Kluwer Academics.
Nicoladis, E. The role of type and token frequency in using past tense morphemes correctly. Developmental Science, 10 2 , Tamil has a bimoraic minimality requirement. Besides this, verbs are also subject to what I term the regularity criterion that calls for all verbs to be minimally disyllabic. A monosyllabic verb, by definition, does not meet this requirement, and is invariably irregular. Unlike English, irregularity in monosyllabic verbs is not always seen in any one fixed stem. Semantically very different stems are built from the same underlying stem Aronoff These stem dependencies hold within each of the three inflectional classes consonant-final, vowel-final and approximant-final and are also evident in irregular lexemes, which do not randomly project unpredictable inflectional realizations, but surface with conjugations associated with another inflectional class.
The stem dependency tree, which gives the dependency relationships between the different tense and aspectual stems, is part of the grammar. For regular verbs, only the lexemic stem needs to be stated; all the other cells in the lexemic paradigm are filled in by the tree. For irregular lexemes like [vej], the lexemic stem and the specific conjugation class that it illegally copies need to be stated. Once the inflectional class is known, the tree predicts the other verbal stems.
Thus seemingly random conjugations of irregular verbs are also predictable if we assume that irregular lexemes merely express solidarity with an inflectional class other than the one it is expected to be assigned to. Aronoff, M. Morphology by Itself. Linguistic Inquiry Monograph no. Bonami, O. Despite the traditional conception of Old Armenian nominal inflection as a perfect stage in the evolution of the language for a challenge of this topic, see Djahoukian , this language displays a great amount of irregularity in nominal morphology: in modern descriptions are illustrated ten declensions, with many sub-classes and lexical exceptions see for ex.
Jensen ; Schmitt ; for a different approach Matzinger ; moreover many nouns follow more than one declension in their inflection see Olsen ; Belardi This study concerns one of the main causes of morphological opacity in Old Armenian: stems alternation in nominal inflection. Our aim is to investigate partition classes of paradigm as concrete objects organizing the distribution of morphomes on this point of view, see Stump ; Pirrelli — Battista ; Thornton Armenian nominal inflection is traditionally divided in two main sections: variable vs.
The latter includes nouns with stems ending in consonants: nasals, laterals or rhotics; the variation concerns the vowels preceding the ending consonants, and is not predictable on the basis of synchronic phonology. We are going to verify the following hypothesis concerning the variable group: paradigms involving alternation of two or three stems are derived from the more complex one, in which there are four different stems ex.
Less complex patterns are derived from more complex ones by deletion of boundaries among partition classes of the paradigm, and without introduce new partitions in it. For example, the different paradigms with three stems are derived from the four-stems-paradigm, with different combination of the four partition classes of it; the same phenomenon is observable in the derivation of the paradigms with two inflection stems from the three-stems-paradigms.
Using elmo embeddings
Such morphological motivation of stem variation can explain its historical spreading beyond its original range. Belardi, W. Djahoukian, G. Marr, N. Petersburg: Tipografija Imperatorskoj Akademija Nauk". Matzinger, J. Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doctor philosophiae, Regensburg. Olsen, B. Pirrelli, V. Schmitt, R. Stump, G. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. A large number of intransitive and transitive verbs in Hopi exhibit root suppletion conditioned by the number of the subject or object. In this paper, I address the morphological operations underlying suppletion in Hopi.
I propose a novel, phase-theoretic analysis of verbal root suppletion within the framework of Localist Theory of contextual allomorphy Embick My approach correctly predicts that when linear adjacency and cyclic spell-out are disrupted, suppletion cannot occur. I propose a unified analysis of transitive 1a-b and intransitive 2a-b verbal root suppletion.
My main assumption is that cyclic and non-cyclic nodes can interact for allomorphic purposes as long as they are spelled-out in the same PF cycle. I present novel data which show that when linear adjacency and cyclic spell-out are violated, suppletion is blocked by default morphology. In this paper, I have provided a more constrained account of Hopi verbal root suppletion constrained by the architecture of grammar with local constituent relations and cyclic derivation.
Embick, David. Geerts and H. Jacobs, eds. It is argued that frequency plays a major part in accounting for the observed absence of the genitive in these diminutives, if it is related to the different strength of types within the paradigm Thomadaki The notion of relative vs. Corbett, G. Hippisley, D. Hopper eds. Benjamins, — Sims, A. Minding the gaps: Inflectional defectiveness in paradigmatic morphology. Thomadaki, E. Elleiptika klitika paradeigmata ke syxnotita: I periptosi ton ypokoristikon Defective inflection paradigms and frequency: the case of diminutives.
Babiniotis , Athina: Ellinika Grammata, — Triandafyllidis, M. Triandafyllidis-Foundation, — In the canonical approach to morphological description Corbett , a, b , a canonical paradigm is expected to exhibit completeness, i. Deviations from this canonical situation are represented by cases in which a cell is filled by two synonymous forms which realize the same set of morphosyntactic properties.
With respect to the properties of canonical inflection Corbett a: 9 , double forms can represent deviations, i. Table I shows cases of deviations from uniqueness of realization of cells, exemplifying from Italian verb morphology. As the examples in Table I show, double forms can be claimed to represent deviations from canonicity in all areas, but doubling due to the employment of two different stems seems prevalent in Italian.
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Corbett, Greville G. Under negation, the existential subject and direct object in Finnish are usually in the partitive case. In affirmative sentences 1 , the direct object case involves aspect and it is thus variable to a certain extent, but under negation the partitive is called for 2 :. However, in certain word orders, the presence of pragmatic particles changes the speech act from negation to an affirmation.
In these instances, even in the presence of the negative verb, the typical partitive co-occurring with the negative verb disappears, and the case of the affirmative sentences surfaces 5 and 6. I will argue that the choice of these case suffixes under negation is a syntactic choice only by default. Ultimately the decision depends on the illocutionary force of the speaker. There is thus an apparent irregularity in the case marking in the presence of clitic particles, but when we take into account the speech act, everything is perfectly regular after all.
This paper deals with a rather problematic issue and status of lexical inflections. The problem of lexical plurals has been studied by Acquaviava However, for the topic of this paper I choose to discuss —ed adjectives among others studied by Hirtle, ; Hudson, ; Beard, and gerunds Borer, ; Blevins, ; Vujic, in English. In order to study the status of -ing and —ed affixes in English WF, as a starting point I use the concept advocated in modern morphological studies that gerunds. It is a well-known fact that, occasionally, administering a certain inflectional suffix may lead to a change in a part of speech category class of the base or Head Yoon, I argue that such forms are the products of word-formation processes which incorporate both inflectional and derivational morphologic and semantic features.
Furthermore, I advocate the point that modern WF in English is, to a great extent, semantically governed. Speakers when lacking an appropriate lexical item in their lexicon or the lexicon of one particular language as a whole use the available existing elements with which they are familiar.
In this process they are governed primarily by the meaning or semantic component of the particular element in question Aronoff and Anshen, I suggest that in cases of lexical inflections the limited and regulated scope of inflection is used to complement the imperfections and deficiencies of WF processes. Following the works of Lakeoff, Anshen and Aronoff I suggest that it is the semantic component that primarily governs contemporary WF, and that inflectional affixes are stored in our mental lexicon carrying multiple meanings and serving multiple functions.
One of them is to form new words. If it is so, can such formations be considered dual lexical categories since they bear inflectional marks? What is certain is that they tend to show dual nature in their internal and external properties; more precisely they have external distribution of one POS and internal syntax of another POS Laponte, Abstracts Aliffi, M. We obtained the following data: I f , m 48 II m , f 16, n IV m 94, f 2 V 6: f 6 We do not consider here the nouns, about 10, that give rise to interpretative doubts: they shall be examined afterwards.
Marantz, A. In certain cases we can even find minimal pairs within types, like in : Despite its high productivity, the periphrastic superlative is considered to be the exception in the few studies that describe it Gehlen, ; Booij, Skousen, R. The standard assumptions about inflectional morphemes are that: They can be added to specific classes of lexical categories They carry a specific semantic function or a set of semantically related functions Our aim in the present study is to demonstrate that there exists a class of morphemes that: can be added to any free lexical or grammatical morphemes and that does not carry any specific semantic function.
The affix appended on the last conjunct has scope over all the preceding conjuncts: Although very prominent in Turkish, this phenomenon has only recently brought up to light in the generative framework Kornfilt , Orgun , Kabak , Hankamer Introduction: Based on original fieldwork, this study examines unexpected double person agreement in Thompson Salish clefts.
Clefts: Thompson Salish is a severely endangered language in southwestern Canada; only a few hundred elderly speakers remain. Problem: When the focus is 1st or 2nd person, person agreement is optionally marked twice. Episodic and lexical contributions to the repetition effect in word identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , , — Fowler, C.
Relations among regular and irregular morphologically related words in the lexicon as revealed by repetition priming. Gross, M. Human brain potentials to violations in morphologically complex Italian words. Neuroscience Letters , , 83— Hanson, V. Morphophonology and lexical organization in deaf readers. Hare, M. Learning and morphological change. Cognition , 56 , 61— Jaeger, J.
A positron emission tomographic study of regular and irregular verb morphology in English. Language , 72 , — Jasper, H. The ten twenty electrode system of the International Federation. Joanisse, M. Impairments in verb morphology after brain injury: A connectionist model.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 96 , — Imaging the past: Neural activation in frontal and temporal regions during regular and irregular past-tense processing. Joordens, S. The long and short of semantic priming effects in lexical decision. Kempley, S. The effects of priming with regularly and irregularly related words in auditory word recognition. British Journal of Psychology , 73 , — PubMed Google Scholar.
Khader, P. Differences between noun and verb processing in a minimal phrase context: A semantic priming study using event-related brain potentials. Cognitive Brain Research , 17 , — Kim, J. Why no mere mortal has ever flown out to center field. Cognitive Science , 15 , — Kuczaj, S. The acquisition of regular and irregular past tense forms.
Kutas, M. Electrophysiology reveals semantic memory use in language comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 4 , — Reading senseless sentences: Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science , , — Lambon Ralph, M. What underlies the neuropsychological pattern of irregular. Longworth, C. The basal ganglia and rule-governed language use: Evidence from vascular and degenerative conditions.
Getting to the meaning of the regular past tense: Evidence from neuropsychology. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , 17 , — Marcus, G. The algebraic mind: Integrating connectionism and cognitive science. Marslen-Wilson, W. Dissociating types of mental computation. Nature , , — McClelland, J. Rules or connections in past-tense inflections: What does the evidence rule out?
Trends in Cognitive Sciences , 6 , — Miller, K. Orthography influences the perception of speech in alexic patients. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , 15 , — Miozzo, M. On the processing of regular and irregular forms of verbs and nouns: Evidence from neuropsychology. Cognition , 87 , — Facts, events, and inflection: When language and memory dissociate.