Guide Computers and Computer Applications in Developing Countries

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We are working with these local communities and would appreciate support to build and maintain libraries and ICT centre for the grassroot youth, and to achieve this we need computers and books support. I can provide pictures and videos of our advocacy works here.

Your are here: fundsforngos. For a limited time only, this discount offer gives you exclusive access to all the Premium Standard features for NGO grant success. Join Today. Searching for the fastest way to write proposals? We have an extensive database of sample proposals from successful grantee organizations from around the world offering project ideas, proposal writing techniques and planned strategies. Join Premium to view Sample Proposals. Comments I am Ongwech Victor, the Chairperson Nebbi Youths Waste Management and Horticultural Green Project, we are currently implementing the above activities in Nebbi District but we are lacking many things like stationaries, computer amongs and we would love to partner with you and see how you can help us.

So interesting to hear this. I need the questionnaire that I may apply. Opportunities in Your Country. Jenster Palvia et-al. Anandarajan et al. Moreover, within the organisation there are political conflicts between the developers and users in information system development due to IT organisation immaturity. These are significant factors and considered by several studies as if not addressed properly may hamper the computerization process and results into failure of computerization process.

Following studies considered it a key success factor in computerization in developing countries Markus, ; Jenster, ; Ewusi-Mensah and Przasnyski, ; Korpela ; McGrath, ; Warne, , Flowers, ; Palvia et al. Based upon these pervious studies, we propose the following hypotheses:. H 4: Public sector is of the view that political environment is stable and playing a key role in the development of IT in the country than the views of the private sector. H 5: Political stability of the government itself reflects in either reinforcing or threatening IT in Pakistan.

H 6: Management perceives a gap between users and developers due to organisational IT immaturity than IT Professionals.

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Educational Issues. Education is considered as the backbone of modern economies which plays a significant role in IT diffusion Cohen and Lavinthal, In Pakistan less attention has been paid to the education sector while higher education is the most neglected one. Province-wise, as well, increased GER were recorded for all the four provinces with the maximum increase being recorded in Punjab and then Sindh.

Overall, both the sexes have recorded a 10 percentage point increase in compared to The computer and information literacy play a meaninful role in the diffusion and acceptance of IT in the organisational structures. Several failure stories in developed and developing countries unearth the basic fact that the lack of IT education by the government officials' causes' unplanned and unorganized computerization besides miscommunication and misperceptions among the different parties involved in the development, implementation and use of the IT projects.

Moreover, sometimes IT is considered as a threat to social and economic positions of the employees thereby resistance appears in the form complaints against IT by the organizational stakeholders who slow down and often impede the computerization. Likewise, quality of IT professionals is also a significant factor as used by the Mumford, ; Dudeja, ; Kundi, Base upon the above we propose the following hypothesis:. H 8: Lack of uniformity in courses, out-dated curricula and poor faculty are barriers to computerization in the country. H 9: Health sector is of the view that quality of the IT professionals is poor and are incompetent to the meet the national IT requirements.

Social factors, beliefs and expectations are considered by Lyytinen and Keil as important factors for successful computerization, while Morrison and Wise , Navareete and Pick and Hageenaars argue that social factors are the most significant success determinants or otherwise failure as belief, expectations, culture and value vary from setting to setting, so detailed analysis of the social and cultural factors help the management how to successfully undertake IT projects. Moreover, Turban et al , Kundi share the same views.

Based on the previous studies we propose the following hypotheses:. H Employees resist as it is perceived by employees as threat to their economic and social status in the organizations. Design of Instrument. From the review of the literature, an instrument was developed with the aim of covering the basic research objectives. A questionnaire with 50 questions after operationalization was developed based on nominal and Likert scale.

Part 1 captured data about the demographic profile covering organizational characteristics such as, name, nature, type, sector, IT experience, users, developers and size of the organizations, while part 2 consists of the questions measuring the major variables on Likert scale. Instrument Reliability and Validity. Several techniques were used to assess the Cronbach's coefficient reliability face construct and convergent validity. In order to assert face validity, an initial questionnaire was passed through routine editing, then, it was handed over to the experts panel academicians, practitioners and business managers.

They were asked to respond to the questionnaire and, based upon their comments the questionnaire was reordered to enhance clarity, thereafter, a pilot study was undertaken to further test the instrument. Table 4 shows the reliability coefficients and convergent validity for the various constructs. The closer the reliability coefficients get to 1. Nunally suggested that the score for each construct should be greater than 0. Hence, a score of 0. In general, validity refers to the degree to which an instrument truly measures the constructs that are intended to be measured.

There are several types of validity however; Campbell and Fiske propose two types of validity: convergent and discriminating validity.

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The convergent validity is measured by average extracted for each construct during the reliability analysis that should be 0. Table 6 shows that all the constructs do have a considerable validity support. To further analyze for discriminating validity of these five constructs, the principal component method with varimax rotation was used to assess the variance explained. Testing discriminant validity required checking the cross loading of items on multiple factors.

Table 5 shows all items loaded highly on their associated constructs but not other thus showing sufficient discriminant validity. Sample Population. The sample population of this study includes educational and health institutions from public and private sector in DIKhan and Peshawar. Sampling Procedure.

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Simple random and stratified sampling procedures were used to determine overall sample size and its area-wise and sector-wise samples. Table 7 gives the details of these applications. The literature survey and questionnaire were used for secondary and primary data collection. A pilot study as conducted, which helped in optimizing the 'constructs' used to measure the variables.

It also assisted to develop a structured questionnaire as the main instrument for collecting primary data. Data Analysis Tools. Given the nature of data for this study, both descriptive and inferential statistical tools were applied for data analysis, exploration of the findings and hypothesis testing etc. In particular, correlation and regression analysis and tests of significance t-test.

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Theoretical framework and hypotheses were developed from four independent variables, 'bureaucratic', political', 'educational', 'social', and the dependent 'digital Pakistan' variable emerged from the literature review. A questionnaire based on nominal and continuous scale was constructed after operationalization. The inter-item consistency Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the 5 independent and dependent variables was above. As the Cronbach's Alpha for all the 5 items used in this study is about. Descriptive statistics for the computed variables were calculated and shown in table 8.

Results of Hypothesis Testing. Based on the problem statement, literature survey and theoretical framework, 10 hypotheses were developed and tested. To test the significance of mean differences, t-test was applied. The regression analyses were used to carve-out relations between the research variables. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 H 0 were accepted while in remaining tests, Null hypotheses were rejected. Theoretical framework based on literature was used to get readings from the real-world situation. Primary data collected through questionnaire provided enough material about the problem-situation in the background of ideal theoretical framework extracted from the documented knowledge.

The analysis and logical reasoning of the primary and secondary data provides good base for the following findings of the study:. Similarly Furthermore, respondents in these organizations include Moreover, all independent variables i. The results of the regression reveals that computerization depends, for its promotion, on the administrative machinery while political stability in the country is threatening computerization, similarly lack of uniformity of courses, outdated curricula and poor faculty are the barriers to IT education in Pakistan.

The Beta score,. It is inconsistent and bureaucracy in the country misuses its powers and abuses the authority. Their attitude is negative and non cooperative. The procedures are cumbersome and unfriendly, policy implementation is weak and ineffective, while government functionaries lack IT know-how. Bureaucracy is not playing a promoting role for IT and imposing attitude of government officials resulted in a gap between the expectations and the outcomes among the stakeholders as government's policies neither accommodates the needs nor reflects the aspirations of the IT beneficiaries.

The 2 nd finding of the study is that in Pakistan, the political environment is weak and instable, law and order is poor and turbulent, which is discouraging the investors to invest aggressively in the IT sector.

Moreover, IT policy has failed to achieve development goals of sound physical and legal infrastructure because high bandwidth cost, slow and poor Internet speed, frequent disconnections due to faulty cables and inconsistency of electric power, besides insecurity in eTransactions are barriers to computerization in Pakistan. The country lacks good quality IT institutes along with modern curricula; that is why quality of IT and management graduates do not match the organizational requirements. This study further reveals that the faculty hired in the IT institutions is poor and supervision on the part of government is weak.

Several organizations in the public and private sectors are now reaping the benefits of IT and many more are still infusing IT in their structures and work environment, however, due to low literacy and especially computer and information literacy, people are still hesitant to welcome IT. They consider it a major economic and social threat, so IT organization alignment is one of the serious issues for computerization in Pakistan. Yet, one of the significant aspects of the study is that it finds that the environmental conditions in Pakistan are improving gradually, and the IT sector has more opportunities to grow due to government incentives and concessions on IT related equipment and software besides the growing interest of the private sector which, instead of poor political environment, is investing in computerizing their organizations.

Similarly, the move towards eGovernment is a promising sign for the future of IT in the country. Jamil and Ashraf has identified low literacy of the bureaucracy with respect to the level of awareness about IT, lack of reliable and cost effective telecommunication service, lack of the required expertise due to insufficient training, poor updating skills and over emphasis on the highly formalized and centralized structures as major issues for computerization in Pakistan. Ahmad notes that highly inadequate IT education, lack of needed IT know-how regarding users and developers and lack of a broader understanding of the IT use due to lack of proper training and education causes failure of IT utilization efforts in the country.

Bureaucracy is the most efficient instrument upon which success of computerization depends Argyris and Schon, ; IT policy ; Hussain, ; Aslam, ; Higgo, ; Khan, yet the results in table 9 points that in Pakistan the role of bureaucracy is negative and non cooperative. The inconsistency of IT policy remained a distinct problem because of the political upheavals and instability where government IT policies determines the national pattern of IT growths and success of computerization Checchi et al , ; Kundi, ; Kundi and Nawaz, ; Kundi et al. In Pakistan due to inconsistent policies and high uncertainty, the pace of IT is slow, as shown in tables 9 and 10, this validates the expert's views.

Likewise,a significant aspect of IT-policy should be the development of basic infrastructure because the IT growth depends on sound infrastructure Joseph, ; Kundi, Moreover, due to insufficient technical and legal infrastructure, eTransactions are insecure. This supports Rana who claimed 80, to 1, 00, daily attacks on PCs in Pakistan. The development of human resources is the prerequisite of IT and it should be the main focus of the IT policy Dudeja, ; Kundi, b , while Pakistan lack qualified IT professionals due to lack of coordination between government, IT institutes and IT industry.

Researchers suggest computer and information literacy both for the developers and users which determine their IT-maturity, attitude of system users and success of computerization Lyytinen, ; Keil, ; Morrison and Wise, ; Turban et al, ; Kundi Yet in Pakistan, the lack of uniformity in courses, out-dated curricula, poor faculty and lack of check on the part of government in regulating and governing the IT education institutions are impeding the IT efforts in the country.

The results in table 10 strengthen this view which set guidelines and priority list to the decision makers of the country. Likewise, scores in table 10 unearthed that currently the quality of IT graduates is poor and they are unable to keep on updating their systems. Similarly, IT education helps in IT organizational maturity which is a prerequisite for the successful computerization Mumford, ; however, results in table 10 reveal that due to poor IT education the organizations are still immature in exploring the potentials of IT for strategic use, while, results in table 10 show that employees in organizations consider IT as an economic and status threat.

With this background, despite the challenges, the potential for coping with the demanding situation is not uncommon for the Pakistani community. Since its independence, the nation is taking major developmental leaps the title of 'atomic power,' is one of the examples , in the face of many challenges like internal political breakdowns, political and bureaucratic corruption, and external wars with the neighbouring country during the fifty-four years' history.

Furthermore, environmental conditions for in Pakistan are becoming promising and organizations can reap the benefits of IT as government is giving tax relief and concessions on the import of computer hardware, software and telecommunication equipment. Glass b , after analysing several cases of IT-projects failure, concludes that, "at last I have found the secret that guarantees success; to err, and err, and err again, but less, and less, and less.

There is a need to follow a broad-based policy for the computerisation of public and private life because, "the life-sustaining capacity of the IT lies in its non-IT sectors such as formal and informal education natural sciences, humanities, creative arts, technical skills, etc , better health services, developing marketing access of the rural produce while improving quality of products, participatory governance and services etc.

Abbasi and Zubair, The objectives of this programme are:. To provide immediate benefits to the citizens. To bring fundamental changes in the working of the government. To spur the local IT industry in Pakistan. The most of the case studies of software failure find that poor management technique, not poor technology, is the cause of the problem Sauer, ; Drummond, The differences in the environmental conditions of developed and developing countries, and from organization to organization, suggests that the frameworks formulated for the understanding of IT management issues in developed counties should not be blindly applied to developing countries.

The integration of technology with local conditions requires an integrated framework in conformity with the local conditions. Achieving the objectives of computerization in Pakistan needs 'cooperation on key issues between public and private sectors, on principles to guide the development and implementation of IT policies and on basic policy approaches to major issues, this call for close coordination between government and the industry.

Keeping in view the major issues and scope of IT in Pakistan, an integrated framework for the development and promotion of IT is suggested. This framework identifies the integrated role of government and private sector i. Government Functionaries: This model suggest that as government is the major player of any activity, success of the policies depends on government and its administration which is responsible for creating a healthy environment for success of computerization.

Moreover, close coordination and cooperation can develop better understanding between the government and the IT community while it is a an admitted fact that the private sector is the primary engine of the information age, however the role of government machinery is extremely important as a catalyst for change, as facilitator, as regulator and as a governor of a level playing field.

IT Integrated Policies: Government functionaries can a play significant role in developing the IT integrated policies through the partnership of the IT community. Besides consistency of IT policy, fundamental requirement of computerization is to develop well coordinated and integrated policies to guarantee the success of computerization.

In Pakistan, there is 'mismatch between policies and the ground realities'. This requires IT integrated policies i. Through effective IT integrated policies; government can develop the physical and legal infrastructure which builds the IT users Confidence. Giving Credence to Public Interest: This study points out that IT-policy in Pakistan has not been harnessed in accordance with the public interest, rather, secondary factors are placed on the top, such as, gaining the title of computerization at national level by purchasing hardware and software without properly analyzing the orgware and peopleware, where bureaucrats tend to decide on their own without any adequate arrangement of technical consultancy.

It is suggested that government must give credence to public interest in policies. IT policy may be framed keeping in view the concerns and interests of the organizations and users who use IT services. Partnership with the Private Sector: Government and private sectors are the two pillars of national development; none of them can function nor contribute alone to the national development, rather, combining the resources of the two, i.

After then, one can expect the solution of socio-cultural and legal barriers to IT diffusion and Internet in the country. As IT is the new and highly innovative technology and that is why any meaningful IT initiatives for computerization in Pakistan will necessarily have the coordination between the government and its agencies on one hand and partnership with private sector on the other. Participative Management: Most organizations follow the hard approaches, where the will of management prevail ignoring the physical and psychological aspects.

While modern schools of thought suggest humanistic and participative approach in ISD for computerization Checkland, ; Mumford, '. Participation of the IS managers and end-users is useful in bridging the gap between users and developers and minimizing the end-users resistance.

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Therefore, several studies have suggested that, within the organization, management should abstain from the feudal mindset to the more liberal and humanistic one in order to successfully launch computerization. Turban, McLean, et-al, ; Sawhney, asserts that several organizations, across the world, continuously conduct programs as an attempt to improve the IT projects by 1 monitoring and analyzing the performance and productivity and 2 to gather, share, and better use organizational resources for their success e.

Information system failure and information system success research have never been sufficiently separable, however, when one is failing, the other is forced to be creative, to dig deep and think hard, night and day. Governments and private enterprises are taking preventive measures to reduce the problems involved in the development and use of IT projects. The strongest theme, running across both the in-progress remedies and the long-term remedies, is better project management.

The IS development problems differ from setting to setting; therefore, it is important to carefully analyze, during system development and use the extent, impact and nature of IS problems in concrete terms. This implies that for each stakeholder-group, the list of possible difficulties in IS should be derived.

This could be used as a basis to analyze the risks associated with the IS. Here, an IS problem list can be used as a fruitful starting point. In Pakistan we need to develop a community-based platform where an appropriate order of things can help actualise the promises of ICT for reducing poverty of income and opportunity in a sustainable and equitable fashion.

For example, the government needs to ensure that students and their parents are not being fleeced as they are now. This study suggests that future researchers concentrate on the humanization of IT in order to give the computer a human face, minimize the resistance and build confidence.

This area of research needs further exploration where particular contributions may be made by the management and IT researchers as IT is a multidisciplinary. The empirical demands of such research, however, need to be recognized. Abbasi and Zubair eSecurity issues in Pakistan. March, pp. Ahmad Z. Working Paper No. Ara, J. August, pp. Argyris, C. A theory of action perspective. Addison-Wesley; pp.

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