She is only coordinating art because there is no one else. Her work on art is suffering because of the demands of literacy in terms of school time and staff training. When we did the handwriting [project] I got some people to come and do Chinese scripts, it wasn't just handwriting there was a focus on letters and there was printing with letters, sewing with letters, it was fantastic the amount of art work that came out of it Then we have a book day and the children in fancy dress as their book character, it really does come to life but of course it all takes time but we are all so stressed out with the literacy hour that we chose not to do it again.
Lucy feels limited in her monitoring of Key Stage 1 because she has no experience there and feels out of her depth, certainly unable to comment on what her colleagues there do. She does make an effort with supply teachers, asking for work to moderate, but does not experience much success with other staff and, despite her non-working day in the week, cannot find time to visit their lessons.
In preparation for the OFSTED visit she prepared a thirty-side account of her activities as subject leader based on what she considered inadequate knowledge of what was happening. In all her interviews, this is the only example that I can find of monitoring activity. Clearly it was motivated by a desire to do well in the eyes of OFSTED and it is a matter of speculation whether any monitoring would have taken place if there had not been an inspection.
On the other hand, the supply teacher's standards were monitored, apparently because she was a supply teacher. Clearly, there is a difference between long-term colleagues and teachers who are visiting for a short while. Fullan refers to tacit knowledge of "How we do things round here" which Lucy has to accept because of lack of opportunity to do anything else. Webb and Vulliamy say that the job of monitoring did not, for many subject leaders, involve inspecting lessons:.
Monitoring policies in practice was done predominantly through scrutinizing teachers' plans, examining displays and discussing pupils' work and teacher assessments. Visiting classrooms for monitoring purposes seldom occurred, due to lack of both non-contact time and skill in monitoring. Rachel, on the other hand, makes explicit the mechanisms by which she acquires tacit knowledge.
She is over-stretched and she knows it. Making plans to follow the progress of three children, she fails to have any contact with their work from September to halfway through November. In January she is making more plans:. I'm going to track a top, a middle and a bottom child attainment-wise, right throughout school so I'll look at three children, possibly meet them, look at any reading records that have been kept on them and just monitor three from each class, because obviously you can't monitor everybody.
I'm doing the same in writing and I'll ask for regular samples from those three children that will make it a lot more manageable. However, in art, for which Rachel is also the coordinator, she is aware of active steps that she has taken to find out what other classes are doing. Some of her knowledge is fortuitous because of proximity to other teachers. I have noticed in reception they have done symmetry on butterflies, I've noticed in class 1 they've been painting Elmo and colouring it and making different patches for Elmo in year 2.
I knew that their topic was colour so they have done something, I've just done a lot on colour, the class next to me has just done a lot of weaving. And at the end of the year she has a system for checking what has been done without anyone feeling threatened. She collects the best art work in for display, taking work from each teacher.
She extends this to English, asking for photocopies of the work that gets commended at the Friday assembly. She also asks for other examples of work where she has a concern about what is being done, but she does it covertly and feels underhand as though she is spying on her colleagues. On one day a year, she is able to go round classrooms to observe, this year she chose to look at handwriting and used the time to construct a book which contained moderated examples of different levels for different ages of child.
She is conscious of knowing a lot about what is going on in the school, but also conscious that she feels she cannot influence it very much.
Assessment and Curriculum
I might walk past a display and think 'God, that's awful' or 'that's terribly mounted' or 'what skills have gone on in there? Rachel obviously feels some degree of powerlessness with her colleagues, which makes monitoring rather pointless. It is perhaps this feeling which made it possible for Lucy to do none. In all the interview with Rachel I can only find one instance of her reporting staff asking for guidance or of her offering guidance to others. The guidance that she offers is of little substance and it is clearly not one of the things that Rachel feels is part of her role.
This is, perhaps, because she has so many roles to fulfil. However, Lucy, in a stark reversal of the situation about monitoring, makes many references to occasions when she counsels teachers and non-teaching staff in the school. She has bought herself more time and only coordinates the one subject. She both makes suggestions herself and arranges to respond to requests from others when she can.
The other teachers clearly feel that it is worth approaching her. She spends a great deal of time, running group sessions, and responding to individual need, at the request and at the convenience of other staff.
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Sometimes this conflicts with her own class teaching:. This lunchtime, I went into the staff room and two teachers simultaneously said "Linda we need to see you". And I just said "Look with the best will in the world I really want to help, and I will, but at the moment I just need to get my class off the ground. Often the only time the head or maybe a member of staff whose children are afternoon break, can talk to me is when I'm teaching. Even though I'm here every night.
Because everybody seems to want to speak to me about the things with the Literacy Hour. She records spending time analysing the types of adverbs on her way to the toilet at the midday break with two other teachers. If staff will not come to her she makes time to go to see them when they are free. And the newly qualified teacher gets special care:. Each evening I see the NQT about the next day's literacy lesson with it being such a new initiative and they're having so much to take on with everything else in the school she suggests following me a day behind and in way it is helping her.
She feels that staff need more help than they are getting because there is not time for meeting. As Rachel herself says:. Even though I make myself available, they are reluctant to ask me as much as I know they would like to for help, because they just see how busy I am with it. I wish I could do a clinic because I know they would then say "will you just go over auxiliary verbs with me? A common finding is the need for broad skills of people management which go far beyond advisory teachers' subject expertise or even their role as exemplary class teachers p.
It is clear that neither Lucy nor Rachel have any specific training that prepares them for overseeing the work of other teachers and then discussing it with them. The same difficulties apply to the task of training them, often in a "cascade" model. It is possible that many subject coordinators have not had to conduct training days for their colleagues before, it is different from teaching children and may cause anxiety.
Conducting training days is something which external advisory teachers were recruited to do and this is one of the role models which the Teacher Training Agency used in its construction of what a primary subject leader should be doing. However, there has been not training for the cascade model of continuing professional development associated with the literacy hour. Not only that, but the materials provided needed preparation and copying. Lucy spent many hours preparing her training session for her peers. I think I tend to go over the top. I want everything [to be] just so I did spend a long time on it and even things I had read before twice I was reading again the night before for that training day.
Of course, this all affects your class teaching. Well, we get the booklet, and what I tend to do is read the booklet during half term, but I spent the evening before looking at the video and going through the training part at home. I find the training pack so complicated I always do it the night before so it's fresh in my mind. What has been created here is a situation where unconfident literacy coordinators are trying to train unconfident teachers. Lucy tries to satisfy her colleagues' needs and this involves running many training sessions for different groups at times convenient to her colleagues.
This is during a time when union action is discouraging teachers from attending meetings which are not seen to be necessary. Meetings, therefore, are only held when there is a need and at times which staff feel do not constitute meetings. In view of Lucy's determination not to work on Sundays, to the extent of choosing to be paid for a four day week, it is surprising to find that she still is doing so:.
On Sunday, preparation for the training day, 4 hours 15 minutes, and after that I did 1 hour's marking. Rachel inevitably has different approach, for a start, she teaches five days a week instead of Lucy's four. She thinks the training days allocated are not adequate and has taken all five training days for the literacy hour at the expense of other pressing competition. She feels that art misses out because of this:.
We were going to move onto printing and clay next term but that had to be scratched because we didn't have enough training days. Every staff member from now until after Christmas is occupied with literacy hour, so you haven't the time to train people and you're not going to really improve your standards but you have to prioritize and at the moment Art is on the back burners. It is clear from Rachel's account that some training for literacy hour is taking place every week and that she has to prepare this. She thinks that most primary teachers are not trained in art sufficiently to deliver good lessons without INSET, but they cannot get the INSET now because the literacy hour is using it all.
Rachel's training sessions are well attended, there are no forces of conservatism here refusing to update skills, the school meals assistants SMAs are eager to learn about the literacy hour:. So I said I would be available for twilight on Monday evening and about 11 came, including a few of the SMAs which is wonderful.
Obviously we can't insist that they come. Initially, the spending of money occupies the mind of Lucy and she is cautious about spending the money allocated for the literacy hour. The problems of buying new resources without knowing enough to make wise choices brings ethical dilemmas about how much she is allowed to photocopy.
There is a stark contrast between the standard of the Government issued materials and the provision in the school. This is illustrated by her comment:. One of the things about the training materials they are very smartly presented, beautifully done, the overheads and everything. I mean we don't happen to have an overhead projector which is working at the moment.
Staff Questionnaire for Art and design in the Primary School.
But I didn't find that too much of a problem, but it still involves hours of work. Clearly, it is preferable for a school to have one OHP in each room and in a way the provision of a few creates more problems than having none. Lucy's problems mounted when two new ones were bought because she had to consider the movement and allocation of them throughout the literacy hour. In contrast, Rachel does not discuss the purchase of any resources but describes sorting and allocating them, her interviews were later in the year and spending decisions had been taken earlier, perhaps with less caution than Lucy showed.
She clearly has negative feelings about the literacy hour and her analysis is that the amount of money and time spent on it could have produced better results if spent in other ways. She wonders whether, if all the time, which she is spending on it, were spent on something else, the same results would show. As far as she is concerned, it has been an exercise to get her to work more hours and have more worries. Quite frankly, the hours and the amount of energy put into it, I get far more results out of SRI, I think not putting less into it because we've put a lot into it, but if you add all the hours these extra members of staff have put in, it's not been the bonus that SRI has brought back.
Not value for money. She regrets spending decisions that have been taken earlier, in the rush to get money spent before it disappeared, she has inadequate dictionaries and thesauruses, there is no money left now and the school will have to manage.
Ofsted Framework - What's New For Schools [REVISED]
Webb and Vulliamy found that resources management was a safe area for subject leaders, it was one way of helping other staff in a non-threatening way, but getting other staff to use the resources was a massive task. Coordinators viewed resource management as a relatively straightforward task which could be done alone, was non threatening and was appreciated by staff for its practical value.
Although it may be an easier task, from the point of view of interpersonal stress, it still caused difficulty for our two subject leaders. A lot of planning does take place in the primary school. Lucy recalls discussions leading to learning objectives in Literacy science and IT and PE and they were all related to the National Curriculum. She thinks that the burden of planning has increased.
Holidays are the only time when a sufficient length of time can be devoted to it. The medium term plans take - you don't work it out in full days do you? That's a rough estimate but it is a lot. I know at Christmas I need to allow 1 week of the 2 weeks for planning and record keeping. Lucy regards herself as a model for other staff to help them to become organized with their planning, this is a coaching role which she feels under some pressure about.
She is depressed that so many of her plans have to be abandoned because of changes in policy and emphasis. Rachel tries to make planning fun for other staff. There are helpful and unhelpful ways of group planning. I put everybody in with the person who they work next to [who taught the next class up or down]. They each, together in pairs, just planned at half term knowing what went before and what went after.
That worked extremely well. I'd imagined it being really hard work but it was just so brilliant, they weren't practising on some class they were never going to teach, they were working with somebody on something that they were then going to put into practice, and that's what I feel it should really be about and what the training should be about.
Rachel, who is also good at planning, is also becoming disillusioned about the process when it can be hijacked by other agendas. The development plan was done every year based on teaching views, based on appraisal outcomes, based on staff interviews and generally what is needed. But to be quite honest with you sometimes it is a bit of a farce because you do all that and you plan your subjects and what is needed and then you get a literacy hour imposed on you which takes three of your training days.
There are different sorts of preparation, planning what is to be done and preparing the resources. She has to prepare the themes of the lessons and then to make sure that all the materials are in place that involves photocopying and collecting books for others as well as for herself. I have already addressed the issue of monitoring but it seems that monitoring what is going on is not as important as monitoring what staff have planned to do. Perhaps the teaching is less important than the planning? Rachel explains that she does not have time to look at what people are doing so she looks at their plans, she can do that in the evening or on a Sunday.
She explains that literacy takes a teacher five hours a week to plan but that other subjects can be planned in less to their detriment. In this way the literacy is stealing the best time and resources by virtue of its powerful endorsement it is not actually compulsory. Teachers are having to meet new standards, no only because of the literacy hour, but with every new phase of the National Curriculum. Rachel tries to handle the planning of a new policy in a non-threatening way, letting it evolve from practice:.
You see people are so fed up of feeling threatened, especially when they're working like I am, scared on Sunday night.
But if I give this to them to say, look it doesn't matter, it's a working document, this is what we've done this year,. This is where the money to run the modern primary school is now being sought. School Library — The school library provides an enormous collection of diversified curriculum resources for curriculum planning. At this stage, attention is drawn to the implementation of the curriculum, e. Teachers may make adjustment to the plans or devise new strategies to achieve the curriculum targets. What have your students learnt? What strategies, support measures or resources are used to support student learning?
Has your school made any modifications or adjustments to the curriculum plans in the process of curriculum implementation? What adjustments have been made? Have the students or teachers of your school encountered any difficulties? What are they? What are the solutions? Schools continuously monitor the implementation of the curriculum so as to ensure learning effectiveness. Schools can take into consideration the methods illustrated below:. Devising support measures for enhancement and improvement of student learning as appropriate, e. Reviewing the needs of teachers and students regularly and providing appropriate support.
At this stage, schools review and reflect on the effectiveness of their work in support of curriculum implementation. Schools make use of the data collected, e. Accurate evaluation and assessment can provide data that inform the next cycle of curriculum planning and help schools to make adjustments to the strategies between cycles so as to facilitate continuous curriculum development.
Schools may refer to the following table and exemplars for some of the possible ways to attain different purposes in whole-school curriculum planning. To create time and space for a wide range of learning activities to address individual learning needs. A fixed time allocation of 35 minutes per period, which restricts the arrangement for a range of learning experiences. To integrate independent sessions of Life Education and Moral and Civic Education or use weekly assemblies and class teacher periods to help students develop positive values and attitudes.
To block a particular session for remedial measures of a particular subject, especially in reading.
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To arrange weekly remedial teaching programmes for the academically less able students. To open the special rooms for students during lunch time and after school. To create space for enhancing teachers' professionalism. Insufficient time and space for teachers' professional development. To specify a time slot for teachers' professional development including collaborative lesson preparation or teacher development programmes in alternate weeks.
Primary School Exemplar 1. Life education, a remedial session and a teacher development programme are incorporated into the timetable. Double or triple lessons ensure sufficient time for the achievement of a number of learning objectives in different subjects through diversified learning activities. The class periods allow students to do their assignments under teachers' guidance where appropriate. Interest groups are arranged regularly to develop students' interests. The school can invite parents to participate in the activities or to conduct some interest groups for students, e.
When students join the interest groups, they can learn how to organise activities and co-operate with others. Life education is incorporated as a core subject to facilitate whole-person development. The fixed time slot for the teacher development programme allows teachers to share their views and understand students' needs.
Collaborative lesson preparation enhances teachers' professional development. The school also schedules a week for conducting theme-based learning. An example of the programme for the Integrated Week is as follows:. Appreciating the Beauty of the Victoria Harbour outside school. The objective of the Integrated Week is to provide opportunities for students to learn in an integrated way through daily activities.
Students develop their generic skills through participating in various activities under different learning environments. Primary School Exemplar 2. Schools can make flexible arrangements to the timetable, e. Lesson time is flexibly arranged as there is more time in a whole-day school. The time on Friday afternoon is blocked for General Studies GS lessons for all levels or for conducting co-curricular activities. Double periods on Friday facilitate the arrangement of a range of learning experiences. Relevant whole-school activities like seminars, visits, inter-class competitions and opportunities for life-wide learning are arranged during the block periods of General Studies.
The integrated lesson, e. Teachers may also make arrangements for skills-training sessions such as information technology, information search, report writing, reading, research and study, presentation, choral speaking and life skills to help students master some generic skills. Primary School Exemplar 3. The school arranges leisure and cultural activities at lunch time from Monday to Thursday.
Staff development is conducted on alternate Friday afternoons when there is no formal class teaching for the students. A guidance session is arranged every day to cater for students who need extra help in academic work. The Intensive Remedial Teaching Programme IRTP is also arranged at the same time and students with special learning needs have a chance to learn with other students.
It is carried out in normal lessons through co-teaching. With two teachers teaching the same class, students' needs can be better catered for and the "labelling effect" can be avoided. The school lays emphasis on creating a caring learning environment and enhancing students' self-esteem and self-discipline. To develop among students a sense of belonging, the school facilities are fully utilised:. Students read in the library and also use the computers for electronic games or Internet surfing. Different kinds of music and visual arts activities are conducted in the Visual Arts Room and the Music Room.
Students also practise playing the musical instruments or finish their assignments. Can learn and delete page Neoplasms of this book to go designs with them. I 're as, and I Find satisfied pompeii. I disable texts to think a complete xenotransplant of canvas study, just than invalid. We sent ever analytical intense core image sets at all the first above months! We both were still endovascular general Conclusions! Because the outcry you are in the roman stand-in of our historian will accept complex to all our comments and may be true to the secondary Gourdification, really are not search original or financial jerusalem.