Coon does not, I think, mention chance as even a real alternative to selection including pleiotropic adaptation. However, human populations have often been small, and realistic models now indicate that random elements may have been moderately important in human evolution for monogenic or even oligogenic traits.
The general importance of these random elements is still unsettled. I noticed fewer factual errors and omission of information in this book than in The Origin ofRaces. However, they are still moderately prevalent in the sections that I am competent to judge. This and less egregious bloops do not seriously damage the book. On the other hand, evidence and interpretations contrary to those advocated are seldom to be found. Blum's  excellent paper denying an adaptive significance to skin color is ignored, although I suspect Coon has the better case, and there are other examples.
Garn's discussion ofadaptation  is to some degree complementary, and both should be consulted. As a whole, however, I think that Coon has produced about as good a book on recent human races as could be written mainly by one person, and for the entire subject it has no close rivals.
The origin of races. New York: Knopf, Coon, S. Garn, and J. Springfield, IU. Human Races, 2d ed. Springfield, By Audrey M. New York: Social Science Press, This book should be read by all individuals interested in the causes ofthe problems of the Negro.
It is a challenge to the dogma that the genetic bases ofintelligence ofthe average Negro are identical or similar to those ofthe average white. For this reason the book is likely to be ignored or denounced as was the first edition. The studies include preschool children, children in elementary and secondary schools, college students, members ofthe armed services, veterans, homeless men, the gifted, the mentally deficient, delinquents, and criminals.
In almost all studies, Negroes regularly score significantly below whites on the average. The cornerstone ofthe scientific method is the controlled study in which all variables are kept constant or randomized except for the factor under study. Obviously, not all factors that may affect test performance can be controlled or randomized.
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But from this what can we conclude? That discussion will be saved for a later post. Sample 1 gives the d based on military intelligence test scores of WWI enlistees for the largest sample reported by Shuey which contained standard deviations. Typically, the d for this sample is incorrectly reported as 1. The correct d is 1. Samples 8 and 21 give the ds based on the General Ability Battery Test for adults in industry between the and and between and Sample 9 gives the d based on military intelligence testing for WWII.
Sample 10 gives the ds based on the early NAEP tests conducted during the 50s and 60s. Samples 11 and 18 give the ds for AFQT based on nearly all male 18 year olds — who were required under selective service to take the test — for the years and These ds were estimated based on fail rates.
Sample 12 gives the d for IQ based on a large national study conducted in Sample 17 reports the d for mothers in the CCP study. Sample 26 gives the d for the age 7 children of the mother. Sample 19 gives the ds reported by Roth et al.
Samples 20, 33, and 52 gives the ds for Wonderlic, a test used for selection in industry. For elementary and high school students the author of this review decomposed scores by decade from the 60s through the 90s. The number of sub samples e. These averages were then used along with averaged math scores to compute composite scores.
Samples 23, 39, and 53 gives the WISC standardization ds for , , and Sample 25 gives the ds based on the SAT national reports. Sample 27 gives the d based on the first national GRE report which decomposed scores by race.
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Samples 28, 36, and 47 gives the ds for the , , and Woodcock-Johnson standardizations. Samples 29, 45, and 56 give the ds for the , , WIAS standardizations. Sample 31 gives the ds broken down by decade based on Woods et al. Samples 34 and 51 give the ds for the and SB standardizations.
Sample 35 gives the d of latent g based on a battery of tests given to veterans. Sample 37 gives the d based on the DAS standardization. Sample 40 gives the d based on the KIAT standardization. Sample 41 gives the d based on WISC found in a national study conducted around Sample 48 give the ds based on math and reading scores in the Early Childhood Longitudinal study.
Sample 50 gives the ds based on the WRIT standardization. Sample 55 gives the present authors meta-analysis based on 32 samples which individuals tested between and More details are provided for studies if noted. Athanasiou, Michelle Schicke. Avolio, B. Variations in cognitive, perceptual and psychomotor abilities across the working life span: examining the effects of race, sex, experience, education and occupational type. Psychology and Aging, 9, Coleman, J.
Full text of "The Testing of Negro Intelligence: Volume One"
Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, D.
Office of Education. Chuck b. Meta-analysis of the Black-White difference in education and elsewhere between and Black Americans reduce the racial IQ gap: Evidence from standardization samples. Psychological Science, 17, — Dunn, L. Bilingual Hispanic Children on the U. Honolulu: Dunn Educational Services.
Gottfredson, Linda S. Herrnstein, R. New York: Free Press. Kramer, R. American Journal of Public Health, 85, Lakin, Joni M. Lynn, Richard. Race differences in intelligence: An evolutionary analysis. Washington Summit Publishers, Osborne, R.