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In , Karl Ferdinand Braun introduced the cathode ray tube as part of an oscilloscope , a crucial enabling technology for electronic television. Two years later, Robert von Lieben and Lee De Forest independently developed the amplifier tube, called the triode. In , Albert Hull developed the magnetron which would eventually lead to the development of the microwave oven in by Percy Spencer. In , Konrad Zuse presented the Z3 , the world's first fully functional and programmable computer using electromechanical parts. In , Tommy Flowers designed and built the Colossus , the world's first fully functional, electronic, digital and programmable computer.

The arithmetic performance of these machines allowed engineers to develop completely new technologies and achieve new objectives, including the Apollo program which culminated in landing astronauts on the Moon. The invention of the transistor in late by William Shockley , John Bardeen , and Walter Brattain of the Bell Telephone Laboratories opened the door for more compact devices and led to the development of the integrated circuit in by Jack Kilby and independently in by Robert Noyce.

The microprocessor was introduced with the Intel Electrical engineering has many subdisciplines, the most common of which are listed below. Although there are electrical engineers who focus exclusively on one of these subdisciplines, many deal with a combination of them.

Sometimes certain fields, such as electronic engineering and computer engineering , are considered separate disciplines in their own right. Power engineering deals with the generation , transmission , and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices. In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network called a power grid that connects a variety of generators together with users of their energy. Users purchase electrical energy from the grid, avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own.

Power engineers may work on the design and maintenance of the power grid as well as the power systems that connect to it.


Power engineers may also work on systems that do not connect to the grid, called off-grid power systems, which in some cases are preferable to on-grid systems. The future includes Satellite controlled power systems, with feedback in real time to prevent power surges and prevent blackouts.

Control engineering focuses on the modeling of a diverse range of dynamic systems and the design of controllers that will cause these systems to behave in the desired manner. Control engineering has a wide range of applications from the flight and propulsion systems of commercial airliners to the cruise control present in many modern automobiles. Control engineers often utilize feedback when designing control systems. For example, in an automobile with cruise control the vehicle's speed is continuously monitored and fed back to the system which adjusts the motor's power output accordingly.

Where there is regular feedback, control theory can be used to determine how the system responds to such feedback. Electronic engineering involves the design and testing of electronic circuits that use the properties of components such as resistors , capacitors , inductors , diodes , and transistors to achieve a particular functionality. Another example to research is a pneumatic signal conditioner.

Prior to the Second World War, the subject was commonly known as radio engineering and basically was restricted to aspects of communications and radar , commercial radio , and early television. In the mid-to-late s, the term radio engineering gradually gave way to the name electronic engineering. Before the invention of the integrated circuit in , [38] electronic circuits were constructed from discrete components that could be manipulated by humans. These discrete circuits consumed much space and power and were limited in speed, although they are still common in some applications.

By contrast, integrated circuits packed a large number—often millions—of tiny electrical components, mainly transistors , [39] into a small chip around the size of a coin. This allowed for the powerful computers and other electronic devices we see today. Microelectronics engineering deals with the design and microfabrication of very small electronic circuit components for use in an integrated circuit or sometimes for use on their own as a general electronic component. Nanoelectronics is the further scaling of devices down to nanometer levels. Microelectronic components are created by chemically fabricating wafers of semiconductors such as silicon at higher frequencies, compound semiconductors like gallium arsenide and indium phosphide to obtain the desired transport of electronic charge and control of current.

The field of microelectronics involves a significant amount of chemistry and material science and requires the electronic engineer working in the field to have a very good working knowledge of the effects of quantum mechanics. Signal processing deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. For analog signals, signal processing may involve the amplification and filtering of audio signals for audio equipment or the modulation and demodulation of signals for telecommunications. For digital signals, signal processing may involve the compression , error detection and error correction of digitally sampled signals.

Signal Processing is a very mathematically oriented and intensive area forming the core of digital signal processing and it is rapidly expanding with new applications in every field of electrical engineering such as communications, control, radar, audio engineering , broadcast engineering , power electronics, and biomedical engineering as many already existing analog systems are replaced with their digital counterparts. Analog signal processing is still important in the design of many control systems.

DSP processor ICs are found in many types of modern electronic devices, such as digital television sets , [45] radios, Hi-Fi audio equipment, mobile phones, multimedia players , camcorders and digital cameras, automobile control systems, noise cancelling headphones, digital spectrum analyzers , missile guidance systems, radar systems, and telematics systems.

In such products, DSP may be responsible for noise reduction , speech recognition or synthesis , encoding or decoding digital media, wirelessly transmitting or receiving data, triangulating position using GPS , and other kinds of image processing , video processing , audio processing , and speech processing.

Telecommunications engineering focuses on the transmission of information across a communication channel such as a coax cable , optical fiber or free space. Popular analog modulation techniques include amplitude modulation and frequency modulation. Once the transmission characteristics of a system are determined, telecommunication engineers design the transmitters and receivers needed for such systems. These two are sometimes combined to form a two-way communication device known as a transceiver. A key consideration in the design of transmitters is their power consumption as this is closely related to their signal strength.

Instrumentation engineering deals with the design of devices to measure physical quantities such as pressure , flow , and temperature. For example, flight instruments measure variables such as wind speed and altitude to enable pilots the control of aircraft analytically. Similarly, thermocouples use the Peltier-Seebeck effect to measure the temperature difference between two points. Often instrumentation is not used by itself, but instead as the sensors of larger electrical systems.

For example, a thermocouple might be used to help ensure a furnace's temperature remains constant. Computer engineering deals with the design of computers and computer systems. This may involve the design of new hardware , the design of PDAs , tablets, and supercomputers , or the use of computers to control an industrial plant. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering , which is usually considered a separate discipline.

Mechatronics is an engineering discipline which deals with the convergence of electrical and mechanical systems. Such combined systems are known as electromechanical systems and have widespread adoption. Examples include automated manufacturing systems , [56] heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems , [57] and various subsystems of aircraft and automobiles.

The term mechatronics is typically used to refer to macroscopic systems but futurists have predicted the emergence of very small electromechanical devices. Already, such small devices, known as Microelectromechanical systems MEMS , are used in automobiles to tell airbags when to deploy, [60] in digital projectors to create sharper images, and in inkjet printers to create nozzles for high definition printing. In the future it is hoped the devices will help build tiny implantable medical devices and improve optical communication. Biomedical engineering is another related discipline, concerned with the design of medical equipment.

This includes fixed equipment such as ventilators , MRI scanners , [62] and electrocardiograph monitors as well as mobile equipment such as cochlear implants , artificial pacemakers , and artificial hearts. Aerospace engineering and robotics an example is the most recent electric propulsion and ion propulsion. Electrical engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in electrical engineering, electronics engineering , electrical engineering technology , [63] or electrical and electronic engineering.

The bachelor's degree generally includes units covering physics , mathematics , computer science , project management , and a variety of topics in electrical engineering. At some schools, the students can then choose to emphasize one or more subdisciplines towards the end of their courses of study. At many schools, electronic engineering is included as part of an electrical award, sometimes explicitly, such as a Bachelor of Engineering Electrical and Electronic , but in others electrical and electronic engineering are both considered to be sufficiently broad and complex that separate degrees are offered.

The master's and engineer's degrees may consist of either research , coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy and Engineering Doctorate degrees consist of a significant research component and are often viewed as the entry point to academia. In the United Kingdom and some other European countries, Master of Engineering is often considered to be an undergraduate degree of slightly longer duration than the Bachelor of Engineering rather than postgraduate. In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards professional certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body.

The advantages of licensure vary depending upon location. For example, in the United States and Canada "only a licensed engineer may seal engineering work for public and private clients". Practically all certifying bodies maintain a code of ethics that they expect all members to abide by or risk expulsion. Even in jurisdictions where certification has little or no legal bearing on work, engineers are subject to contract law. In cases where an engineer's work fails he or she may be subject to the tort of negligence and, in extreme cases, the charge of criminal negligence.

You will elaborate project plans, estimate project timescales and costs, manage the work of technicians and craftspeople, test installations, analyse data and ensure that health and safety regulations are met. A lot of electrical engineering undergraduate degrees will include elements of electronics engineering too. Overall, you will develop analytical, technical and engineering design skills. First year courses usually overlap across all engineering degrees usually including mathematics, communications engineering and signals, engineering principles, systems and communications and laboratory and presentation skills.

There will also be modules specific to electrical engineering such as circuits and fields, computer engineering, real-time systems, analog electronics, embedded systems projects, and engineering programming. During second year, you are likely to study data analysis, probabilistic and numerical techniques, signal processing and control engineering, telecommunications, analog system engineering, digital system design and implementation, power supply electronics, software engineering design, electrical engineering design, industrial management and robotic systems among others.

Typical final year modules may include system modelling and control, electromagnetism, power engineering, electrical machines, energy conversion for motor and generator drives, field waves and antennas, electronic design, digital design, web-based computing, digital video communications system and analog microelectronics. Mathematics is essential to do electrical engineering at university. Many universities will also ask candidates to have done further mathematics.

In addition, universities will want you to have done physics or chemistry or a technology subject. You can also stand out if you express your interest in the subject by having participated and obtained good results in mathematics and physics challenges. Extra-curricular engineering courses or activities may also help you in the application process. Beyond sciences, taking a humanities subject or a social science will teach you communication skills which are crucial in most jobs. What can you do with a chemical engineering degree?

What can you do with an aerospace engineering degree? What can you do with a physics degree? What can you do with a mathematics degree? What can you do with a geology degree? What can you do with a computer science degree? What can you do with an economics degree? Typical employers for electrical engineers are consultancies, the Civil Service, telecommunication, engineering, computing, construction, energy, manufacturing, transport and utilities companies and the armed forces.

As computer and mobile technology is developing, they become the main areas where more electrical engineers are wanted. But you can also choose to work on a freelance basis. As they advance in their careers, electrical engineers take on management responsibilities. They sometimes have to take on extra working hours especially by the end period of their projects. Being an electrical engineer may involve both domestic and international travel. For course descriptions not found in the UC San Diego General Catalog —20 , please contact the department for more information.

The department will endeavor to offer the courses as outlined below; however, unforeseen circumstances sometimes require a change of scheduled offerings.

Electrical engineering

Students are strongly advised to check the Schedule of Classes or the department before relying on the schedule below. For the names of the instructors who will teach the course, please refer to the quarterly Schedule of Classes. An introduction to electrical and computer engineering. Topics include circuit theory, assembly, and testing, embedded systems programming and debugging, transducer mechanisms and interfacing transducers, signals and systems theory, digital signal processing, and modular design techniques.

Students learn the C programming language with an emphasis on high-performance numerical computation. Techniques for using Matlab to graph the results of C computations are developed. Prerequisites: a familiarity with basic mathematics such as trigonometry functions and graphing is expected but this course assumes no prior programming knowledge. ECE Students are introduced to embedded systems concepts with structured development of a computer controller based on electromyogram EMG signals through four lab assignments through the quarter.

Key concepts include: sampling, signal processing, communication, and real-time control. Students will apply their prior knowledge in C from ECE15 to program microcontrollers and will engage in data analysis using the Python programming language. This course emphasizes digital electronics. Principles introduced in lectures are used in laboratory assignments, which also serve to introduce experimental and design methods. Topics include Boolean algebra, combination and sequential logic, gates and their implementation in digital circuits. Prerequisites: none.

The fundamentals of both the hardware and software in a computer system. Topics include: representation of information, computer organization and design, assembly and microprogramming, current technology in logic design. Prerequisites: ECE 15 and 25 with grades of C— or better.

Program or materials fees may apply. Steady-state circuit analysis, first and second order systems, Fourier Series and Transforms, time domain analysis, convolution, transient response, Laplace Transform, and filter design. Prerequisites: ECE Introduction to linear and nonlinear components and circuits. Topics will include: two terminal devices, bipolar and field-effect transistors, and large and small signal analysis of diode and transistor circuits. Topics include how devices such as iPods and iPhones generate, transmit, receive and process information music, images, video, etc.

The Freshman Seminar program is designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman Seminars are offered in all campus departments and undergraduate colleges, and topics vary from quarter to quarter. Enrollment is limited to fifteen to twenty students, with preference given to entering freshmen.

This seminar class will provide a broad review of current research topics in both electrical engineering and computer engineering. Typical subject areas are signal processing, VLSI design, electronic materials and devices, radio astronomy, communications, and optical computing.

Linear active circuit and system design. Topics include frequency response; use of Laplace transforms; design and stability of filters using operational amplifiers. Integrated lab and lecture involves analysis, design, simulation, and testing of circuits and systems. ECE 65 may be taken concurrently. Complex variables. Singularities and residues. Signal and system analysis in continuous and discrete time. Fourier series and transforms. Laplace and z-transforms. Linear Time Invariant Systems. Impulse response, frequency response, and transfer functions.

Poles and zeros. Prerequisites: ECE 45 with grade of C— or better. Nonlinear active circuits design. Nonlinear device models for diodes, bipolar and field-effect transistors. Linearization of device models and small-signal equivalent circuits. Circuit designs will be simulated by computer and tested in the laboratory.

ECE can be taken concurrently. Introduction to semiconductor materials and devices. Semiconductor crystal structure, energy bands, doping, carrier statistics, drift and diffusion, p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor junctions. Bipolar junction transistors: current flow, amplification, switching, nonideal behavior.

Electromagnetics of transmission lines: reflection and transmission at discontinuities, Smith chart, pulse propagation, dispersion. Rectangular waveguides. Dielectric and magnetic properties of materials. Electromagnetics of circuits. A transistor-level view of digital integrated circuits. CMOS combinational logic, ratioed logic, noise margins, rise and fall delays, power dissipation, transmission gates.

Short channel MOS model, effects on scaling. Sequential circuits, memory and array logic circuits. Three hours of lecture, one hour of discussion, three hours of laboratory. Axioms of probability, conditional probability, theorem of total probability, random variables, densities, expected values, characteristic functions, transformation of random variables, central limit theorem. Random number generation, engineering reliability, elements of estimation, random sampling, sampling distributions, tests for hypothesis. Advanced topics in digital circuits and systems.

Use of computers and design automation tools. Problem sets and design exercises. A large-scale design project. Lab-based course. Students will learn how to prototype a mechatronic solution. Labs will culminate toward a fully functional robot prototype for demonstration. Prerequisites: ECE 16 or consent of instructor. Students design and construct an interfacing project.

General introduction to planetary bodies, the overall structure of the solar system, and space plasma physics. Course emphasis will be on the solar atmosphere, how the solar wind is produced, and its interaction with both magnetized and unmagnetized planets and comets. This course introduces concepts of large-scale power system analysis: electric power generation, distribution, steady-state analysis and economic operation.

It provides the fundamentals for advanced courses and engineering practice on electric power systems, smart grid, and electricity economics. The course requires implementing some of the computational techniques in simulation software. Principles of electro-mechanical energy conversion, balanced three-phase systems, fundamental concepts of magnetic circuits, single-phase transformers, and the steady-state performance of DC and induction machines.

Prerequisites: ECE A. The electromagnetic and systems engineering of radio antennas for terrestrial wireless and satellite communications. Antenna impedance, beam pattern, gain, and polarization. Dipoles, monopoles, paraboloids, phased arrays. Power and noise budgets for communication links. Atmospheric propagation and multipath. Prerequisites: ECE with a grade of C— or better.

Topics include the operation of DC motor and induction machine drives in steady state and speed control of DC and induction motor drives in an energy efficient manner using power electronics. Control techniques such as vector control and direct torque control DTC of induction machines. Design torque, speed, and position controller of DC motor drive. Power generation, system, and electronics. Design and control of DC-DC converters, PWM rectifiers, single-phase and three-phase inverters, power management, and power electronics applications in renewable energy systems, motion control, and lighting.

Provides practical insights into the operation of the power grid.


Uses actual case histories, and real examples of best in-class approaches from across the nation and the globe. Presents the problems encountered by operators and the enabling solutions to remedy them. Prerequisites: upper-division standing. In-depth coverage of the future power grids. Covers the practical aspects of the technologies, their design and system implementation. Topics include the changing nature of the grid with renewable resources, smart meters, synchrophasors PMU , microgrids, distributed energy resources, and the associated information and communications infrastructures.

Presents actual examples and best practices. Students will be provided with various tools. Detailed explanations of the impacts of extreme weather and applicable industry standards and initiatives. Proven practices for successful restoration of the power grid, increased system resiliency, and ride-through after extreme weather providing real examples from around the globe.

Prerequisites: ECE B. Electronic materials science with emphasis on topics pertinent to microelectronics and VLSI technology. Concept of the course is to use components in integrated circuits to discuss structure, thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, and electrical properties of materials. Crystal structure and quantum theory of solids; electronic band structure; review of carrier statistics, drift and diffusion, p-n junctions; nonequilibrium carriers, imrefs, traps, recombination, etc; metal-semiconductor junctions and heterojunctions.

Structure and operation of bipolar junction transistors, junction field-effect transistors, metal-oxide-semiconductor diodes and transistors. Analysis of dc and ac characteristics. Charge control model of dynamic behavior. Laboratory fabrication of diodes and field-effect transistors covering photolithography, oxidation, diffusion, thin film deposition, etching and evaluation of devices. A laboratory course covering the concept and practice of microstructuring science and technology in fabricating devices relevant to sensors, lab-chips and related devices.

Prerequisites: upper-division standing for science and engineering students. Building on a solid foundation of electrical and computer engineer skills, this course strives to broaden student skills in software, full-stack engineering, and concrete understanding of methods related to the realistic development of a commercial product. Students will research, design, and develop an IOT device to serve an emerging market. Software analysis, design, and development. Students will gain broad experience using object-oriented methods and design patterns.

Through increasingly difficult challenges, students will gain valuable real-world experience building, testing, and debugging software, and develop a robust mental model of modern software design and architecture.

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Topics include: STL, design patterns, parsing, searching and sorting, algorithmic thinking, and design partitioning. The course will continue to explore best practices in software development, debugging, and testing. This course covers the fundamentals of using the Python language effectively for data analysis. Students learn the underlying mechanics and implementation specifics of Python and how to effectively utilize the many built-in data structures and algorithms.

The course introduces key modules for data analysis such as Numpy, Pandas, and Matplotlib. Participants learn to leverage and navigate the vast Python ecosystem to find codes and communities of individual interest. Groups of students will build an elevator system from laser-cut and 3-D printed parts; integrate sensors, motors, and servos; and program using state-machine architecture in LabVIEW. Software controlled data collection and analysis. Vibrations and waves in strings and bars of electromechanical systems and transducers. Transmissions, reflection, and scattering of sound waves in air and water.

Aural and visual detection. Prerequisites: ECE with a grade of C— or better or consent of instructor. Fundamentals of autonomous vehicles. Working in small teams, students will develop scale autonomous cars that must perform on a simulated city track. Topics include: robotics system integration, computer vision, algorithms for navigation, on-vehicle vs.

Cross-listed with MAE A foundation course teaching the basics of starting and running a successful new business. Students learn how to think like entrepreneurs, pivot their ideas to match customer needs, and assess financial, market, and timeline feasibility. The end goal is an investor pitch and a business plan. Counts toward one professional elective only. Prerequisites: students must apply to enroll in order to gauge their past experience with and interest in entrepreneurship.

Consent of instructor is required. Random processes. Stationary processes: correlation, power spectral density.

Electromagnetics Course Catalogue

Gaussian processes and linear transformation of Gaussian processes. Point processes. Random noise in linear systems. Performance analysis of both coherent and noncoherent receivers, including threshold effects in FM. Prerequisites: ECE and with a grade of C— or better. Introduction to effects of intersymbol interference and fading. Detection and estimation theory, including optimal receiver design and maximum-likelihood parameter estimation.

Renumbered from ECE B. Characteristics of chemical, biological, seismic, and other physical sensors; signal processing techniques supporting distributed detection of salient events; wireless communication and networking protocols supporting formation of robust sensor fabrics; current experience with low power, low cost sensor deployments. Undergraduate students must take a final exam; graduate students must write a term paper or complete a final project.

Prerequisites: upper-division standing and consent of instructor, or graduate student in science and engineering. Experiments in the modulation and demodulation of baseband and passband signals. Statistical characterization of signals and impairments. Advanced projects in communication systems. Layered network architectures, data link control protocols and multiple-access systems, performance analysis.

Flow control; prevention of deadlock and throughput degradation. Routing, centralized and decentralized schemes, static dynamic algorithms. Shortest path and minimum average delay algorithms. Introduction to information theory and coding, including entropy, average mutual information, channel capacity, block codes, and convolutional codes. Renumbered from ECE C. Sampling of bandpass signals, undersampling downconversion, and Hilbert transforms. Coefficient quantization, roundoff noise, limit cycles and overflow oscillations. Insensitive filter structures, lattice and wave digital filters.

Systems will be designed and tested with Matlab, implemented with DSP processors and tested in the laboratory. This course discusses several applications of DSP. Topics covered will include: speech analysis and coding; image and video compression and processing. A class project is required, algorithms simulated by Matlab. Analysis and design of analog circuits and systems.

Feedback systems with applications to operational amplifier circuits.

Computer Engineering in Applied Electromagnetism - Google Libros

Stability, sensitivity, bandwidth, compensation. Design of active filters. Switched capacitor circuits.