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The Selected Works of Arne Naess: Volumes 1-10

He learned from empirical studies and by knowing many formal and vernacular languages living and dead , that it is difficult to give precise universal definitions. There are many ways to feel, see, say and write things. He used a descriptive approach to study linguistic communication. He remarked in The SWAN see the Appendix below for excerpts that his view contrasted with analytic philosophers in England and elsewhere, who used a prescriptive approach, suggesting there is one right meaning and that a single language reflects reality more precisely than others.

Ecophilosophy, Ecosophy and the Deep Ecology Movement: An Overview

Their views were more insular; they did not study dialects and the cross-cultural, natural context of language families such as Indo-European that we study in communication ecology. Communication ecology enabled Naess to reach a mature, whole understanding of human life in the evolving, changing Earth.


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The culture that he grew up in accepted multiple dialects, perhaps because there was no Norse king as authority for proper Norsk. For several centuries the rulers were not Norwegians but foreigners.

Drengson, Alan

Read all of this article: Communication Ecology of Arne Naess The article posted here is a revised, expanded version of the Introduction to Ecology of Wisdom. We are grateful to Alan Drengson and to Counterpoint Press for permission to post this article. He was critical of environmentalists who did not seek to address the institutional causes of environmental degradation, or seek to change them. In satyagraha Naess found the answer to his quest for a strategy to address the ecological crisis: Gandhian nonviolent active resistance could be synthesized with deep ecology.

Three elements of the book make it stand apa Modern environmentalism owes a great debt to philosopher, professor, and writer Arne Naess, cofounder of the Deep Ecology movement. Here, editors Alan Drengson and Bill Devall provide a comprehensive yet accessible volume of Naess's most groundbreaking and seminal essays, which have remained influential among environmentalists to this day. Drawing from influences as diverse as Eastern religious practices, Gandhian nonviolent direct action, and Spinozan unity systems, Naess's writing calls for cooperative action to protect the earth on which we dwell, encouraging individuals and communities Here, editors Alan Cobb Jr.

This work is about physical, ecological and political designs for sharing the global resources and services of the planet to meet the needs of all living beings and their community patterns. It uses ecological design to create a simple method to implement and manage the sharing.

Ecosophy from T to X

First, we assess what the planet needs to develop in a stable flow, then we set aside a satisfactory area of the planet to ensure the continuing operation of evolution in wild systems. Next, we measure the ranges of productivities of wild ecosystems as well as agricultural and urban systems, and use those results to This work is about physical, ecological and political designs for sharing the global resources and services of the planet to meet the needs of all liv Arne Naess Originally published in Naess ; Arne Nss Arne Naess is considered one of the most important philosophers of the twentieth century.

Arne Naess ; Roland Huntford Now available in English for the first time, Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess's meditation on the art of living is an exhortation to preserve the environment and biodiversity. Arne Naess ; David Rothenberg ; Arne Nss Ecology, Community and Lifestyle is a revised and expanded translation of Naess' book Okologi, Samfunn og Livsstil, which sets out the author's thinking on the relevance of philosophy to the problems of environmental degradation and the rethinking of the relationship between mankind and nature.

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Oyvind Gron ; Arne Naess Universitetet i Oslo This book provides an introduction to the theory of relativity and the mathematics used in its processes. It sounds grandiose when phrased that way, but there is a simpler, more personal way of putting it. Only in the last few decades has ecosophy begun to assume its rightful place alongside ecology and economy, with ever greater numbers recognizing the folly in pursuing either of the latter without plenty of the former.

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Let me give you an example of my own ecosophy. Preferring a missed opportunity to a breakfast dripping with fossil fuels, I pass on the offer.

Cycling through economy, ecology, and ecosophy in turn, I decide that my type of household wisdom—at least in this moment—will privilege planetary economy above personal economy. Or, perhaps, in a moment of weakness, I purchase the blueberries anyway, prioritizing my own good over the good of the world beyond me. Having done so, blue in the tongue and red in the face, I must own myself to be both a mindless and selfish consumer.

Environmental Philosophy: Biocentricity vs. Deep Ecology

Recognizing that such behavior is not sustainable at a planetary level, my choices are: a to remain mindless, selfish, and guilty of capitalizing on a deal redounding to my personal benefit, but at the cost of planetary desecration; b to sever my relations with Chilean blueberries, eating plain granola until local berries come into season; or c to turn to ecology in search of knowledge that might lead to a justification for eating fresh blueberries on a spring day in Virginia.

But even if I manage to get right with blueberries, I must own that my ecosophy can never be complete. As a fallible individual with limited resources, I will always be implicated in planetary desecration to some degree, and as such I am obligated to seek, study, evaluate and enact an endless stream of correctives to an endless string of missteps. Now, my blueberry problem may not match your blueberry problem precisely, but we all have blueberry problems of one sort or another, and plenty of other problems to boot.

In this respect, it is incumbent upon each one of us to develop an individual ecosophy. The younger generation may revere him, but despite—or perhaps because of—his personal connections, the over-thirty set trusts him too. Some have hailed him as one of the most important political thinkers of the 20th century, in large part for his role in advancing the concerns of the deep ecology movement.

Critics across the political spectrum ranging from left-wing social justice activists to liberal environmentalists to conservative wise-use advocates have dismissed the ecocentrism of deep ecology as betraying a misanthropic turn of mind. Deep ecologists counter by insisting that to focus upon humanity at the expense of the planetary is to throw out the bathwater and to discard all of the babies along with it.


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The crucial project of deep ecology is to redefine the very notion of self as a subject emplaced within and predicated upon its surroundings: local, global, and at every stage in between. While the distinction between philosopher and ecosopher might seem a difference of degree, it is actually a difference of kind: whereas the philosopher loves wisdom in the abstract and for its own sake, the ecosopher values wisdom that has a particular household valence, in both the personal and the planetary senses. This move, away from an epistemology predicated on the odd pairing of nominalism and universalism, and toward an ontology predicated on the equally odd pairing of realism and relativism, presaged the shift from analytic philosophy to ecophilosophy.

The transition itself was wholly logical, for just as each word needed situating, so too did each speaker.