With the increased use of technology and the potentially of the internet reducing the importance of physical proximity, social ties may falter leading to ill health. There is actually a scale that determines ones symptoms of addictions related to mobile phones. Problematic mobile phone usage was defined as continued mobile phone use in spite of negative outcomes and societal restrictions.
In a study performed researchers found that younger people, extroverts and people with lower self-esteem were more likely to engage in problematic phone use, which leads to unhealthy behavioral problems, such as not sleeping well Walsh, White, et al.
Has Technology Killed Face-To-Face Communication?
This research about people with lower self-esteem using technology more often, in some ways, showed that users may be using the mobile phones as a form of self-esteem enhancement. Another study was performed which found that people with this addiction were also more likely to have symptoms of other pathological behaviors, such as substance abuse, dependency, and gambling Kraut, Patterson, et al. Self-identity has also been found to predict level of mobile use. These findings suggest it would be worthwhile to study whether self-identity is related to the level of involvement that people have with their mobile phone.
Research has consistently shown that many young people believe mobile phone use enhances social inclusion by allowing them to remain in contact with friends at all times. Some users even express feelings of being valued and loved when they receive contact on their mobile phones. The opposite is just as significant. The participants of this study were selected from the undergraduate population of Huntington University.
With the availability and accessibility to the undergraduate peers around me the graduate and doctoral students present at Huntington University were excluded. Huntington University students would be a very good representation of what I want to study due to their diverse backgrounds and their similar social economic status. This sample represents the millennial generation and their knowledge of mobile technologies. This sample is a good representation of how mobile technologies have affected face-to-face communication and social interaction since this generation is the first generation that has been, since a young age, saturated with technology exposure.
From that population students were extracted by eliminating factors of the survey, due to them having an Android phone, were field studied and questioned further. Participates had to have an Android to participate in the field study because the application used to track mobile data usage was only programed for Android devices.
This may have limited the possible population of participants due to the fact participants have many different types of phones. At the beginning of the study a survey was released to the Huntington student body asking respondents to answer questions trying to understand their position and attitudes on phone usage. How often they use their phone? As well as how they feel about when others use their phones around them?
This survey was released to the undergraduate population of Huntington by email. The survey included questions about usage as well as situations where they would be interacting with people who may possibly be on their phone. Respondents had to rate on a scale Highly Disagree to Highly Agree on how they feel about these situations. One of the demographic questions of the survey asked the respondents if they have an Android phone.
If they did they were asked to leave their email I then contacted them with the instructions for Phase 2. This app running in the background of their mobile device tracked how much one uses their phone automatically. It tracked how many times one picks up their phone each day, and it breaks down each day to see when users are on your device most often. This app also tracked what applications the user used most often throughout the day. The most common categories was communication and scheduling, reference and learning, social networking, entertainment, and uncategorized.
This is an invisible app. Once the participant sets it up and as long as the app is running in the background, they never have to open it again. After I received participants weekly summary I had them fill out a relationship satisfaction survey Appendix A. Participants were asked to think of a relationship in their life and take the survey thinking of that specific relationship. The survey developed by David Burns was initially developed to assess ones most intimate relationship.
The Importance of Face-to-Face Communication
It did not have to be a romantic relationship, but it had to be one of significance. The test is designed to asses ones most intimate relationships, that being a partner, friend, or family member. The participants filled out each box and the results were calculated. The results of the survey told me how satisfied that person was with their relationships.
After the allotted time came to a close the results of the responses from the survey, the data from the app and the additional survey, relationship satisfaction, was analyzed. The survey provided very good insight into the mobile phone habits of the respondents. I found that almost 60 percent of people felt disconnected from others when they were on their phone Appendix B.
To assess peoples habits I asked how often one thought they spend on their phone each day. I also asked how many times they checked their phone during a standard 50 minute class period and after waking up how much time passes before they check their phone. I found that 70 percent of people check their phone within the first five minutes of the day Appendix C. A surprising 88 percent of people felt disconnected at dinner because of people they were eating with using their phone Appendix D. When measuring my findings with a Pearson r correlation I found that phone use is negatively correlated with discomfort in approaching others on their phone at a measure of -.
It was also negatively correlated with sharing space with friends who are on their own phones at a significance level of -. Also, I found that higher phone usage brings acceptance of others high usage. This causes intimate environments to be perceived similarly to more public environments in terms of phone usage.
Those who are heavy phone users are more likely to find acceptable the use of said technology in both spaces, either intimate like dinner or chapel or public, standing in line, or walking down the sidewalk. With the lowest phone usage of one participant at 4 hours and 49 minutes to a drastic increase of another user of 16 hours and 50 minutes. When averaged this between the seven people studied I found that on average a person spends 10 hours a week on their phone. The majority of participants spent their majority of time in the category of communication and scheduling, entertainment, social networking, and uncategorized.
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The entertainment category consisted of music, Android gallery, YouTube, and camera. Uncategorized included Snapchat, various websites, Facebook messenger, and Android systems. Utilities included calculator, Task manager, alarm, Android settings, and Android systems. There were also categories or Business, Shopping, and News categories. There was no significant relationship between how much time they spend on their phone and relationship satisfaction.
All seven participants were between slightly satisfied to moderately satisfied in their relationships despite how much time spent on their mobile device. Findings were not what I anticipated; there was a negative correlation between phone usage and approachability, initiation, and proximity in context of communication, which did not support my hypothesis of, when phone usage increases relationship satisfaction will decrease. This study did support some of the other research I found.
In Kraut, Patterson, et. My research found that many people felt disconnected from others when they were on their phones. This may cause weaker social ties. It seemed in my study that there seems to be more of a graying of space. There was no black and white areas of when, where, and how often one should use their phone. Most situations were acceptable. It was found to be okay to use ones phone in intimate environments like dinner, it was also found to be acceptable to use them at university chapels.
The intimates environments were treated the same as the public environments such as standing in line or walking down the sidewalk. This can be due to the fact that people spend a lot of time on their devices. High usage brings high acceptability. Amichai-Hamburger, Y. Loneliness and internet use: Computers in Human Behavior, 19, Retrieved from www.
Chan, T. Coleman, J. People on the autism spectrum may use speech in unusual ways. They may speak only single words or repeatedly voice the same phrase. Some go through a stage where they repeat back what others say echolalia. Some children speak fluently but have difficulty sustaining a conversation. They may speak in monologues on a favourite subject, without giving others much chance to comment. Some children on the spectrum with superior language skills tend to speak more like adults than like other children of the same age.
Other common difficulties can be in understanding body language, tone of voice or the meaning of expressions such as idioms and slang.
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People on the spectrum tend to be very literal in their understanding of language. Conversely, some people may not exhibit typical body language.
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Facial expressions, movements and gestures may not match what they are saying. Their tone of voice may not appear to reflect their feelings and in some people may be high pitched or flat-toned. It is important to understand the individual well, so that their specific individual needs can be successfully met. Common repetitive behaviours include hand-flapping, rocking, jumping and twirling, arranging and rearranging objects, and repeating sounds, words, or phrases. Sometimes the repetitive behaviour is self-stimulating, such as wiggling fingers in front of the eyes.
The tendency to engage in a restricted range of activities can be seen in the way that many children on the autism spectrum play with toys. Some spend hours lining up toys in a specific way rather than using them for pretend play. Similarly, some adults strongly prefer to have household or other objects in a fixed order or place.
It can prove extremely upsetting if someone or something disrupts the order. It can be very important to provide children and adults with consistency in their environment to help them cope and enjoy daily routines. Repetitive behaviours can take the form of intense interests, or passions. These extreme interests may seem unusual to others e. Older children and autistic adults may develop tremendous interest in numbers, symbols, dates or any other topics.
Aspect has been active in researching the everyday life experiences and needs of people on the autism spectrum.
This research helps to raise awareness, promote discussion and pave the way for improving the services and supports that are essential for a good quality of life. Aspect conducted the first We Belong study in to profile the experiences, needs and aspirations of a sample of autistic adults across a broad range of life domains.
The Power of the Human Face
Visit the We Belong microsite for more information. In a first for Australian research, adolescents on the spectrum, along with parents, were directly surveyed to create a statistically sound profile of the life experiences, aspirations and future support needs of this growing group of young Australians. Find out more here. In a unique collaboration between Aspect researchers and adults on the autism spectrum, the book illustrates the original data with personal stories and case studies written by adults on the autism spectrum to present their experiences, aspirations and needs in their own words.
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- Face, Communication and Social Interaction!
- Learning outcomes.
As the next step in this series of studies, in Aspect commenced work on a new research project, Ageing on the autism spectrum. The aim of this project is to identify the service needs of older adults on the autism spectrum. Phase 1 of the project will gather the opinions of older adults on the autism spectrum about their expectations for their future needs, as they age. Send us a message and we'll get back to you.
About autism What is autism? What is autism? The word spectrum reflects the wide range of difference that people on the spectrum experience and the extent to which they may be affected. No two people on the autism spectrum are alike, and all have unique strengths and interests.