Juni , ed. Ehlers et al. Walde, in collaboration with B. Egger, Leiden, , pp. Copeland, Oxford, , pp. Minnis, York, , pp. The translation explicitly compares the addressee of the English translation, Richard Duke of York, to Stilicho.
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Cameron, Claudian , pp. Sejanus I. Bevington, M. Butler and I. Donaldson, II, Cambridge, Garrison, Dryden and the Tradition of Panegyric , pp. Peterson, Imitation and Praise, rev.
Craigie, I, Edinburgh and London, , p. Miracula Christi is no longer considered to be by Claudian. It was included, however, in early modern editions. At fol. The poem is in iambic trimeters, and is presumably intended to recall the appearance of a ghost or deity in a Latin play, whom the speaker then addresses. Most Latin drama of the period is in this metre. Although Westminster may not have been typical, such a creative use of Claudian suggests that the political verse, as well as De raptu Proserpinae , could also be read at school.
Of these, three are, in fact, not by Claudian quotations from Juvenal, Propertius and Lucan , and the remaining five comprise two from Panegyricus de quarto consulatu Honorii Augusti. This balance between panegyric and satiric poems is roughly typical. English translations in manuscript include MSS Bod. MS Bod. MS BL, Add , fols Though see Garrison, Dryden and the Tradition of Panegyric n. Despite these experiments, both formal panegyric and Pindaric odes remained largely Neo-Latin genres until mid-century. See, e. Smith, rev. Miller, Roman Triumphs , p. The difficulty in identifying Claudianic poems in an English literary context has been exacerbated by the fact that most Anglophone classicists do not read Claudian or other late antique Latin poets.
As a result, even many readers with a classical training do not recognize either Claudianic style or more generally the form he made his own. Carolo regi London, Examples of short Claudianic panegyric poems included within mixed collections of verse are found, e. The anonymous single-sheet, In illustrissimi comitis Leicestrensis Oxoniensis Academiae cancellarij … carmen gratulatorium Oxford, , on the Earl of Leicester, is only 36 lines long but draws upon stock scenes of panegyric compare the opening with Panegyricus de tertio consulatu Honorii Augusti ; similarly the poem at fol.
Fisher and Claudian
Formal epithalamia are also frequently indebted to Claudian in particular e. This is by no means a complete list. The London edition also includes a panegyric Latin poem by Edward Benlowes, who later paid for the publication of Marston Moor. Allusion of this type could reach back in time as well as between countries.
It is a mixed collection of verse, but includes two long poems in the Claudianic panegyric tradition at pp. It is discussed in Miller, Roman Triumphs n. Arcadius was Easter Roman Emperor from , and eldest son of Theodosius. Probinus and Olybrius were brothers and consuls together in Several further scenes of In Rufinum have similar settings: In Rufinum I ends with a debate between the fury Megaera and Iustitia and In Rufinum II ends with Minos, the judge of the underworld, consigning Rufinus to the deepest part of Tartarus for ever Elizabeth Goldring et al.
See O. Neither Haan nor Hale mentions Claudian as a model. On Clemens, see H. Germania Latina , ed. Kessler and H. Kuhn, Munich, , pp. Birkhead was a fellow of All Souls, and the volume was probably published in Oxford. Gale, Swansea, , pp. Cameron, Claudian n. One of the commendatory poems printed in Marston Moor is signed by Sictor sig.
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Fisher had himself fought at Marston Moor, on the losing royalist side. MS BL, Add fol. Text and translations are from Statius, Thebaid: Books , ed. Shackleton Bailey, Cambridge MA, Text and translations from Claudian: Volume I , ed. Platnauer, Cambridge, ma , , with some modernizing alterations. The full range of reference is very wide: I have identified allusions in the poem also to Lucan 3 , Silius Italicus 4 , Valerius Flaccus 1 and Prudentius 2 , and this is certainly not a complete list.
Modern sources include the Latin poetry of Milton discussed below and George Buchanan. Fisher noticeably avoids direct allusion to Virgil, though many of the passages he borrows from later authors are themselves indebted to Virgil. As there is no modern edition of the poem, and neither the nor editions are lineated, I have given the page numbers, and lineated longer quoted passages. Page numbers refer to the edition unless otherwise noted. Cowley has a similar description at Davideis I. Fisher was perhaps exploiting here the irony of the general Protestant appropriation of Claudianic panegyric: whereas in Claudian it is Rome that is threatened, in many Protestant versions of the form, Rome becomes the source of the threat.
The most famous version of this type of scene in English, in Books I and II of Paradise Lost , must have had a markedly political connotation to its early readers. For versions of this motif in Fisher, see n. Though there is not space to explore it fully here, there is an interesting transitional period, noticeable especially in the Irenodia gratulatoria of , in which stock tropes of Claudianic panegyric of especially Stilicho, such as preventing disaster by holding up the world, or steering the ship of state between obstacles or through a storm, are applied to Bradshaw as President of the Council of State as well as Cromwell: in that poem, for instance, both the Council sig.
B1 v and Cromwell sig. B4 r are represented as protecting and preserving England. The quotation is in fact from Panegyricus dictus Manlio Theodoro consuli See also In Rufinum I. In earlier poetry, versions of the same image are applied first to a royalist, Sir Thomas Glemham, attempting to defend York against its besiegers Marston Moor , , and then Bradshaw, President of the Council of State IG , Cromwell as star: Inauguratio Olivariana , sig.
Its first publication is in Miscellania quaedam, a volume with its own title page dated , but only now extant as the final part of the volume Marston Moor. The poem was also published in the same year by Richard Lowndes. That less polished edition has no epigraph from Claudian, and prints the poem divided into four line stanzas. Both features make its generic identity less obvious. Many are included in the two university collections published that year, Britannia Rediviva Oxford and Academiae Cantabrigiensis Sostra Cambridge.
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Knowles, Binghamton NY, , p. Discussed in relation to Claudian and some sixteenth century Latin panegyric by Garrison, Dryden and the Tradition of Panegyric n. On which see Christiansen, Use of Images n. Research on this scale would be impossible without external funding, and I am very grateful to the Leverhulme Trust for supporting this project. Thanks are also due to Alcina Saleem who helped with the compilation of some relevant data. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. International Journal of the Classical Tradition pp 1—28 Cite as.
Open Access. First Online: 13 May Claudian in English Literary Culture, Although almost completely absent from the modern classical syllabus, Claudian was a classic of the medieval classroom, both because of the extensive presence of extracts of his work in influential florilegia and also because the De raptu Proserpinae was for several centuries a standard text in the so-called Liber Catonis, a popular school reader.
Similar examples can be found from manuscripts dating from throughout the seventeenth century. Caspar Barlaeus, from the Professor of Philosophy and Rhetoric at the Amsterdam Athenaeum, was a leading intellectual of the age and his Britannia Triumphans , first published in but frequently reprinted, is a particularly clear example of self-conscious Claudianic style. Egyptian] Muses are inspired by Stilico, And the peak of Latium is the subject of song, or the temples of the Tiber Rise for a future Lord: if Mallius begins the year As consul, or Honorius, honoured by the capture of Getic weapons, Is vaunted by a boastful herald; or heaven looks gladly Upon Arcadius, or the fate of great Probinus, And wonders at the consulate of Olybrius, the subject of lengthy song.
Alabaster and Fisher share an allegorical opening motif of the poet as an intrepid sailor, potentially overwhelmed by the scale of his subject Alabaster, Elisaeis, pp. Though the Latin style of these poets, and therefore of the two passages, is markedly different, they are both probably recalling the enigmatic allegorical preface to De raptu Proserpinae , which has traditionally been taken to refer to the poet himself, launching upon a new poetic project. Claudian and the Demonization of Cromwell This is the cultural setting in which Fisher began to write Latin verse in imitation of Claudian in the mid-late s: a milieu in which the specifically Claudianic Latin verse genres of panegyric, political invective and formal epithalamia were well established and frequently composed by authors both in England and elsewhere in Europe.
Hinc ferro stipata acies, longo ordine Belli Constitit, Aduersis et se ostentauerat armis. Lines are indebted to Thebaid II. Credas simulacra moveri Ferrea, cognatoque viros spirare metallo. Par vestitus equis. The description of the beauty of the imperial army drawn up outside Constantinople in In Rufinum 2 immediately precedes the moment when Rufinus is torn apart by those same soldiers. The allusive atmosphere conveys, above all, the overwhelming sensory experience of a great war, by turns beautiful and horrific. Marston Moor makes extensive allusive use of Claudian, whose works are drawn upon more than any other poet.
Mars summons personifications of evil p. His grim face, and his Old age made him fearful to approach: His crests were terrible with horror, and the torches Glittered on the Flashing peak of his helmet; and the adamantine Row Of his teeth clashed, like the Crash of Armour, like spear struck upon spear. Typically for Fisher, the Claudianic structure of the scene is spliced with a further borrowing, this time from the early Christian poet Prudentius, whose allegorical Psychomachia was a popular poem in the early modern period, and one to which Fisher alludes on several occasions.
Indeed, the only extended straightforwardly panegyric or celebratory adaptation of Claudian in Marston Moor describes not the eventual Parliamentarian victory but rather a moment of although short-lived hope and celebration for the Royalists. Marston Moor , p. Thus in order to be pleasing to Your eyes, most worthy P rince The city [of York] glitters, and the Walls take upon themselves a happy expression.
Oh how her fortune was transformed by your return! As colour and living warmth returns to the sickened citadels, And the happy roofs rise up with their half-destroyed Columns! This equivalence is worked out both allusively, and explicitly.
Anglo-Spanish War (1654–1660)
In his Anniversarium, extant only in the Piscatoris poemata , but presumably written for the anniversary of the Protectorate in December , Fisher makes the relationship between Cromwell and Stilicho and himself and Claudian quite plain: Tunc faciles in coepta novem fluxere sorores, Et Musis patuere adytus, cum Carmine Praeco Grandilo quus, Stylico vestras super aethera laudes Tollebat. Fisher, Anniversarium, in Piscatoris Poemata, sigs B1 v -B2 r [Then the nine sisters flowed readily into new topics, And the shrines were laid open to the Muses, when a herald, boastful in song, Was raising your praises, Stilicho, above the heavens.
When Consul Honorius, with captured Getic weapons, Or when Mallius were adorning the year on its return with solemn processions; Who entered the gleaming stage with more renown Than a Poet? But our Thalia [Muse] Is embarking upon a greater and a better work: she is singing About another man who is the hinge of the World [i.
The most striking instance of this equivalence is the engraving printed in the Irenodia gratulatoria of Fig. Open image in new window. From time to time, Fisher makes use of other examples in Claudian of non-royal addressees. One passage in Inauguratio Olivariana , sig. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search within my subject: Select Politics Urban Studies U. History Law Linguistics Literature. Music Neuroscience Philosophy Physical Sciences.
England’s Stilicho: Claudian’s Political Poetry in Early Modern England
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