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Figure reproduced with permission from ref. Figure 11 , which was created to analyze the IEC of the different nanocomposite IEMs, enables a comparison between the effects of the different NMs on the IEMs, and also the provision of directions for further research. The effective weight content for the GO-based NMs appears to be from 0. The silica content seems to be of more importance than its functionalization with regards to improving the IEC of IEMs.

Majority of the improved cases involve the incorporation of functionalized GO. From the analysis of the chart, the effective content of GO-based NMs is from 0. Some good results are obtained when silica is functionalized, but it appears the content of the silica impacts the results significantly. For silica contents from 0. From this chart, the effective silica NPs content is from 0. It has also been discovered that other considerations, such as particle size, aspect ratio, etc. For instance: 1 better distribution of ionic clusters and optimum IEMs performance was observed with incorporation of graphene oxide GO particles with smaller particle size see Fig.

This was due to the higher degree of oxidation and high-carboxyl content of this GO, which caused stronger electrostatic attractions between the GO and SPI polymer matrix. The stronger interactions encouraged shrinkage of the sulfonic groups of the SPI and consequently prevented aggregation into bigger ionic clusters.

In order to identify the most suitable NMs for IEMs, more comparative information of the NMs and their effects in IEMs are needed, which can be provided by conducting well designed comparative studies under standardized conditions. We believe that the parametric experiments with some selected NMs and IEMs combinations can certainly provide a glimpse of insights of such attempts.

However, given the large number of possible combinations of the variables, computational modeling and simulation would also need to be used in tandem with laboratory experimental research to arrive at important findings within a reasonable time frame. It is also expected that factors, such as availability, cost, and ease of preparation, could have a deciding influence on the choices of employing NMs to develop nanocomposite IEMs for electromembrane desalination. This article, in which some of the developments in nanocomposite IEMs are reviewed, strongly indicates that NMs-incorporated IEMs can be considered as beneficial candidates for enhancing electromembrane desalination.

Key recent achievements in nanocomposite IEMs research have focused on utilizing carbon nanotubes, graphene-based NMs, silica, titanium dioxide, silver, etc. In addition, the few desalination tests performed have demonstrated improved performances in comparison to the unmodified IEMs.

In terms of application, 42 were assessed for fuel cells, 23 were analyzed for electromembrane desalination 22 ascribed to ED and 1 to membrane capacitive deionization , and 2 were tested for diffusion dialysis. Since IEMs are an integral part of the electromembrane desalination unit, the assessment of nanocomposite IEMs under operational electromembrane desalination conditions is essential.

Membrane Processes - Recent Developments

In addition, investigations of nanocomposite AEMs should also be encouraged in order to ensure the simultaneous availability of both superior AEMs and CEMs for advancements in electromembrane desalination technologies. Given the varieties of polymers, NMs, and preparation routes for IEMs nanocomposites, the prospects for research in the nanocomposite IEMs field is quite open. Numerous routes to achieve functionalization of the NMs are also reported in literature.

It is therefore imperative to have a good understanding of the characteristics of the candidate NMs. Experimental decisions should be made based on utilizing the advantageous properties that can be offered by the NMs, as well as looking for the synergistic effects arising from the interactions between the incorporated NMs with the polymeric matrix. The ultimate outcome of incorporating NMs in IEMs is to achieve not only isolated benefits, but also to derive synergistic positive effects on the overall performance and other aspects such as cost.

In addition, numeric modeling and simulation would also be used in tandem with laboratory experimental research to arrive at significant findings. We however note that the ease of mass production of the NMs will influence the consideration of any of the NMs. Two mechanisms by which NMs improve the electrochemical properties of IEMs have been proposed: 1 the incremental increase in ionic group concentration; and 2 the ionic cluster dispersion mechanism ICDM which promotes the creation of ion conducting routes.

Between these two mechanisms, the latter appears to offer the more convincing explanation for the improvements. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which any of the NMs augments the IEMs performance remains largely unknown. As such, procedures for forecasting the effects that a NM would have on an IEM a priori are yet to be well established. Furthermore, any direct comparison between the nanocomposite IEMs synthesized in the different research works needs to be done with care because the test conditions varied greatly for each of the studies.

Hence, there is the need for more standardized experimental conditions such as test solutions, testing equipment and methods, so that the performance of the different NMs in nanocomposite IEMs can be accurately assessed and the hypotheses of the mechanisms can be verified. As the IEMs nanocomposite studies are still in the research stage, no pilot scale assessments have been conducted yet. For a fast assimilation of this technology, the research in this technology will have to go beyond the lab scale.

So far, there has been little focus on membrane fouling studies in IEMs nanocomposites. This is also an aspect that cannot be neglected if the research of IEMs nanocomposites is to result in breakthroughs in water desalination and purification technologies. Furthermore, there is the need to assess the separation efficacy of the nanocomposite IEMs with regards to different kind of ions e. The life span of the membranes also needs to be ascertained. Efforts must also be made to investigate more eco-friendly routes for synthesizing IEMs nanocomposites.

As of now, most of the solvents used in the laboratory are harmful or toxic. This toxicity can be addressed by making use of green solvents. Research into more environmentally friendly solvents for synthesizing IEMs nanocomposites should be encouraged. In addition, the environmental impact of utilizing NMs requires thorough studies before NMs can be widely adopted for any mainstream application. By highlighting some of the challenges and opportunities in nanocomposite IEMs for electromembrane desalination, the intention of this article is to foster interest in this research topic and get closer to effectively addressing global water security challenges.

Strathmann, H. Electromembrane processes, efficient and versatile tools in a sustainable industrial development. Desalination , 1—3 Baker, R. Membrane Technology and Applications. Mulder, M. Basic Principles of Membrane Technology. Ion-Exchange Membrane Separation Processes. Sata, T. The Royal Society of chemistry, Nagarale, R. Preparation and electrochemical characterizations of cation-exchange membranes with different functional groups. Colloids Surf. A , — Kosmala, B. Cui, W. Development and characterization of ion-exchange polymer blend membranes. Robertson, N.

Tunable high performance cross-linked alkaline anion exchange membranes for fuel cell applications. Vyas, P. Studies of the effect of variation of blend ratio on permselectivity and heterogeneity of ion-exchange membranes. Colloid Interface Sci. Won, J. Structural characterization and surface modification of sulfonated polystyrene— ethylene—butylene —styrene triblock proton exchange membranes. Kim, D. A review of polymer—nanocomposite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell application.

Mishra, A. Silicate-based polymer-nanocomposite membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Hosseini, S. Preparation and characterization of ion-selective polyvinyl chloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane modified by magnetic iron—nickel oxide nanoparticles. Desalination , — Zendehnam, A. Fabrication and modification of polyvinyl chloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membranes by simultaneously using Fe-Ni oxide nanoparticles and Ag nanolayer: physico-chemical and antibacterial characteristics.

Korean J. Xu, T. Ion exchange membranes: state of their development and perspective. Merle, G. Anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells: a review. Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes. Yee, R. Cost effective cation exchange membranes: a review. Tripathi, B.

Organic—inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications. Vogel, C. Preparation of ion-exchange materials and membranes.

Ion-exchange membranes in the chemical process industry. Bernardes, A. Electrodialysis and Water Reuse. First edn, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Introduction to membrane science and technology. Wiley-VCH Weinheim, Electrodialysis, a mature technology with a multitude of new applications. Salam, H. Banerjee, S. Vatanpour, V. Novel antibifouling nanofiltration polyethersulfone membrane fabricated from embedding TiO 2 coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

Moghadassi, A. Surface modification of heterogeneous cation exchange membrane through simultaneous using polymerization of PAA and multi walled carbon nano tubes.

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Thomassin, J. Beneficial effect of carbon nanotubes on the performances of Nafion membranes in fuel cell applications. Amjadi, M. Energy 35 , — Bai, H. Anhydrous proton exchange membranes comprising of chitosan and phosphorylated graphene oxide for elevated temperature fuel cells. Klaysom, C. Synthesis of composite ion-exchange membranes and their electrochemical properties for desalination applications.

Sharma, P. An environmentally friendly process for the synthesis of an fGO modified anion exchange membrane for electro-membrane applications. RSC Adv. Zuo, X. Effect of some parameters on the performance of eletrodialysis using new type of PVDF—SiO 2 ion-exchange membranes with single salt solution. Desalination , 83—88 Preparation of organic—inorganic hybrid cation-exchange membranes via blending method and their electrochemical characterization.

Liu, L. Enhanced properties of quaternized graphenes reinforced polysulfone based composite anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell. Lee, D. Tseng, C. Sulfonated polyimide proton exchange membranes with graphene oxide show improved proton conductivity, methanol crossover impedance, and mechanical properties.

Energy Mater. Choi, B. Innovative polymer nanocomposite electrolytes: nanoscale manipulation of ion channels by functionalized graphenes. ACS nano 5 , — He, Y. Enhanced performance of the sulfonated polyimide proton exchange membranes by graphene oxide: Size effect of graphene oxide. Li, N. Dispersions of carbon nanotubes in sulfonated poly[bis benzimidazobenzisoquinolinones ] and their proton-conducting composite membranes.

Polymer 50 , — Hamada, N. New one-dimensional conductors: graphitic microtubules. Iijima, S. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter. Nature , — Ebbesen, T. Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Bethune, D. Cobalt-catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls. Carbon nanotubes: past, present, and future.

B , 1—5 Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature , 56—58 Wei, B. Reliability and current carrying capacity of carbon nanotubes. Tans, S. Room-temperature transistor based on a single carbon nanotube. Nature , 49—52 Charlier, J. Electronic and transport properties of nanotubes. Treacy, M. Wong, E. Nanobeam mechanics: elasticity, strength, and toughness of nanorods and nanotubes. Science , — Yu, M. Strength and breaking mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under tensile load. Falvo, M. Bending and buckling of carbon nanotubes under large strain. Poncharal, P. Electrostatic deflections and electromechanical resonances of carbon nanotubes.

Salvetat, J. Elastic modulus of ordered and disordered multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Baughman, R. Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications. Ajayan, P. Endo, M. Dresselhaus Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Spitalsky, Z. Carbon nanotube—polymer composites: chemistry, processing, mechanical and electrical properties. Coleman, J. Small but strong: a review of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube—polymer composites. Carbon N. Yun, S. Ma, C. Alignment and dispersion of functionalized carbon nanotubes in polymer composites induced by an electric field.

Ion chromatography

Sharma, A. Energy 34 , — Lin, Y. Polymeric carbon nanocomposites from carbon nanotubes functionalized with matrix polymer. Macromolecules 36 , — Chang, C. Asgari, M. Energy 38 , — Fabrication of mixed matrix heterogeneous ion exchange membrane by multiwalled carbon nanotubes: electrochemical characterization and transport properties of mono and bivalent cations. Desalination , 62—67 Fabrication of novel heterogeneous cation exchange membrane by use of synthesized carbon nanotubes-co-copper nanolayer composite nanoparticles: Characterization, performance in desalination. Desalination , 86—93 Robin, J.

Pan, W. Geim, A. The rise of graphene. Novoselov, K. A roadmap for graphene. Frank, I. Mechanical properties of suspended graphene sheets. B 25 , — Lee, C. Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Ohta, T. Controlling the electronic structure of bilayer graphene. Castro Neto, A. The electronic properties of graphene. Electronic transport properties of individual chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets.

Nano Lett. Balandin, A. Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials. Ferrari, A. Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene. Chae, H. A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals. Stankovich, S. Graphene-based composite materials. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide.

Chung, C. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide. Huang, Y. An overview of the applications of graphene-based materials in supercapacitors. Small 8 , — Perreault, F. Environmental applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. Brownson, D. An overview of graphene in energy production and storage applications. Power Sources , — Dreyer, D. The chemistry of graphene oxide. Sreeprasad, T. How do the electrical properties of graphene change with its functionalization?

Duplicate citations

Small 9 , — Suk, J. Mechanical properties of monolayer graphene oxide. ACS Nano 4 , — Compton, O. Graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene: versatile building blocks for carbon-based materials. Small 6 , — Hegab, H. Graphene oxide-assisted membranes: fabrication and potential applications in desalination and water purification.

Gahlot, S. Preparation of graphene oxide nano-composite ion-exchange membranes for desalination application. Ye, Y. Lin, C. Highly ordered graphene oxide paper laminated with a Nafion membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. Sha Wang, L. Dramatic improvement in ionic conductivity and water desalination efficiency of SGO composite membranes.

Heo, Y. The effect of sulfonated graphene oxide on Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. Jiang, Z. Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membranes with sulfonated graphene oxide fillers for direct methanol fuel cells. Chua, C. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide: a synthetic chemistry viewpoint. Pei, S. The reduction of graphene oxide. Atomic structure of reduced graphene oxide. Bagri, A. Structural evolution during the reduction of chemically derived graphene oxide. Zhang, Y.

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Acta , — Yang, J. Trewyn, B. Synthesis and functionalization of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle based on the sol—gel process and applications in controlled release. Kickelbick, G. KGaA, Chang, H. Flame synthesis of silica nanoparticles by adopting two-fluid nozzle spray. A — , — Rahman, I. Synthesis of silica nanoparticles by sol-gel: size-dependent properties, surface modification, and applications in silica-polymer nanocomposites—a review. Slowing, I. The Royal Society of chemistry, Nagarale, R.

Preparation and electrochemical characterizations of cation-exchange membranes with different functional groups. Colloids Surf. A , — Kosmala, B.

Ion-exchange method

Cui, W. Development and characterization of ion-exchange polymer blend membranes. Robertson, N. Tunable high performance cross-linked alkaline anion exchange membranes for fuel cell applications. Vyas, P. Studies of the effect of variation of blend ratio on permselectivity and heterogeneity of ion-exchange membranes. Colloid Interface Sci.

Won, J. Structural characterization and surface modification of sulfonated polystyrene— ethylene—butylene —styrene triblock proton exchange membranes. Kim, D. A review of polymer—nanocomposite electrolyte membranes for fuel cell application. Mishra, A. Silicate-based polymer-nanocomposite membranes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

Hosseini, S. Preparation and characterization of ion-selective polyvinyl chloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane modified by magnetic iron—nickel oxide nanoparticles. Desalination , — Zendehnam, A. Fabrication and modification of polyvinyl chloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membranes by simultaneously using Fe-Ni oxide nanoparticles and Ag nanolayer: physico-chemical and antibacterial characteristics.

Korean J. Xu, T. Ion exchange membranes: state of their development and perspective. Merle, G. Anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells: a review. Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes. Yee, R. Cost effective cation exchange membranes: a review. Tripathi, B. Organic—inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications. Vogel, C. Preparation of ion-exchange materials and membranes.

Ion-exchange membranes in the chemical process industry. Bernardes, A. Electrodialysis and Water Reuse. First edn, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Introduction to membrane science and technology. Wiley-VCH Weinheim, Electrodialysis, a mature technology with a multitude of new applications. Salam, H. Banerjee, S. Vatanpour, V. Novel antibifouling nanofiltration polyethersulfone membrane fabricated from embedding TiO 2 coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

Moghadassi, A. Surface modification of heterogeneous cation exchange membrane through simultaneous using polymerization of PAA and multi walled carbon nano tubes. Thomassin, J. Beneficial effect of carbon nanotubes on the performances of Nafion membranes in fuel cell applications.

Amjadi, M. Energy 35 , — Bai, H. Anhydrous proton exchange membranes comprising of chitosan and phosphorylated graphene oxide for elevated temperature fuel cells. Klaysom, C. Synthesis of composite ion-exchange membranes and their electrochemical properties for desalination applications. Sharma, P. An environmentally friendly process for the synthesis of an fGO modified anion exchange membrane for electro-membrane applications. RSC Adv. Zuo, X. Effect of some parameters on the performance of eletrodialysis using new type of PVDF—SiO 2 ion-exchange membranes with single salt solution.

Desalination , 83—88 Preparation of organic—inorganic hybrid cation-exchange membranes via blending method and their electrochemical characterization. Liu, L. Enhanced properties of quaternized graphenes reinforced polysulfone based composite anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cell. Lee, D. Tseng, C. Sulfonated polyimide proton exchange membranes with graphene oxide show improved proton conductivity, methanol crossover impedance, and mechanical properties. Energy Mater. Choi, B. Innovative polymer nanocomposite electrolytes: nanoscale manipulation of ion channels by functionalized graphenes.

ACS nano 5 , — He, Y. Enhanced performance of the sulfonated polyimide proton exchange membranes by graphene oxide: Size effect of graphene oxide. Li, N. Dispersions of carbon nanotubes in sulfonated poly[bis benzimidazobenzisoquinolinones ] and their proton-conducting composite membranes. Polymer 50 , — Hamada, N. New one-dimensional conductors: graphitic microtubules. Iijima, S. Single-shell carbon nanotubes of 1-nm diameter. Nature , — Ebbesen, T.

Large-scale synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Bethune, D. Cobalt-catalysed growth of carbon nanotubes with single-atomic-layer walls. Carbon nanotubes: past, present, and future. B , 1—5 Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature , 56—58 Wei, B. Reliability and current carrying capacity of carbon nanotubes. Tans, S. Room-temperature transistor based on a single carbon nanotube. Nature , 49—52 Charlier, J. Electronic and transport properties of nanotubes. Treacy, M. Wong, E. Nanobeam mechanics: elasticity, strength, and toughness of nanorods and nanotubes.

Science , — Yu, M. Strength and breaking mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under tensile load. Falvo, M. Bending and buckling of carbon nanotubes under large strain. Poncharal, P. Electrostatic deflections and electromechanical resonances of carbon nanotubes. Salvetat, J. Elastic modulus of ordered and disordered multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Baughman, R. Carbon nanotubes--the route toward applications. Ajayan, P. Endo, M.

Dresselhaus Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Spitalsky, Z. Carbon nanotube—polymer composites: chemistry, processing, mechanical and electrical properties. Coleman, J. Small but strong: a review of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube—polymer composites. Carbon N. Yun, S. Ma, C. Alignment and dispersion of functionalized carbon nanotubes in polymer composites induced by an electric field. Sharma, A. Energy 34 , — Lin, Y. Polymeric carbon nanocomposites from carbon nanotubes functionalized with matrix polymer.

Macromolecules 36 , — Chang, C. Asgari, M. Energy 38 , — Fabrication of mixed matrix heterogeneous ion exchange membrane by multiwalled carbon nanotubes: electrochemical characterization and transport properties of mono and bivalent cations. Desalination , 62—67 Fabrication of novel heterogeneous cation exchange membrane by use of synthesized carbon nanotubes-co-copper nanolayer composite nanoparticles: Characterization, performance in desalination.

Desalination , 86—93 Robin, J. Pan, W. Geim, A. The rise of graphene. Novoselov, K. A roadmap for graphene. Frank, I. Mechanical properties of suspended graphene sheets. B 25 , — Lee, C. Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Ohta, T. Controlling the electronic structure of bilayer graphene. Castro Neto, A. The electronic properties of graphene. Electronic transport properties of individual chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets.

Nano Lett. Balandin, A. Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials. Ferrari, A. Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene. Chae, H. A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals. Stankovich, S. Graphene-based composite materials. Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Chung, C. Biomedical applications of graphene and graphene oxide.

Huang, Y. An overview of the applications of graphene-based materials in supercapacitors. Small 8 , — Perreault, F. Environmental applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. Brownson, D. An overview of graphene in energy production and storage applications. Power Sources , — Dreyer, D. The chemistry of graphene oxide. Sreeprasad, T. How do the electrical properties of graphene change with its functionalization? Small 9 , — Suk, J. Mechanical properties of monolayer graphene oxide. ACS Nano 4 , — Compton, O.

Graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene: versatile building blocks for carbon-based materials.

Ion Exchange (IX)

Small 6 , — Hegab, H. Graphene oxide-assisted membranes: fabrication and potential applications in desalination and water purification. Gahlot, S. Preparation of graphene oxide nano-composite ion-exchange membranes for desalination application. Ye, Y. Lin, C. Highly ordered graphene oxide paper laminated with a Nafion membrane for direct methanol fuel cells.

Sha Wang, L. Dramatic improvement in ionic conductivity and water desalination efficiency of SGO composite membranes. Heo, Y. The effect of sulfonated graphene oxide on Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. Jiang, Z.

Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membranes with sulfonated graphene oxide fillers for direct methanol fuel cells. Chua, C. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide: a synthetic chemistry viewpoint. Pei, S. The reduction of graphene oxide. Atomic structure of reduced graphene oxide. Bagri, A. Structural evolution during the reduction of chemically derived graphene oxide. Zhang, Y. Acta , — Yang, J.

Trewyn, B. Synthesis and functionalization of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle based on the sol—gel process and applications in controlled release. Kickelbick, G. KGaA, Chang, H. Flame synthesis of silica nanoparticles by adopting two-fluid nozzle spray. A — , — Rahman, I.

Synthesis of silica nanoparticles by sol-gel: size-dependent properties, surface modification, and applications in silica-polymer nanocomposites—a review. Slowing, I. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for drug delivery and biosensing applications. Li, Z. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in biomedical applications. Chen, J. Preparation and characterization of porous hollow silica nanoparticles for drug delivery application. Biomaterials 25 , — Mihalcik, D. ChemCatChem 1 , — A green one-pot multicomponent synthesis of 4H-pyrans and polysubstituted aniline derivatives of biological, pharmacological, and optical applications using silica nanoparticles as reusable catalyst.

Tetrahedron Lett. Zou, H. New PVDF organic—inorganic membranes: the effect of SiO 2 nanoparticles content on the transport performance of anion-exchange membranes. Miao, J. Mulmi, S. Surfactant-assisted polymer electrolyte nanocomposite membranes for fuel cells. Su, Y.


  1. Ion Exchange (IX) | DuPont.
  2. Recent Developments in Ion Exchange - P A Williams, M J Hudson - Häftad () | Bokus!
  3. Recent Developments in Ion Exchange - 2 | Peter A. Williams | Springer?
  4. Recent Developments in Ion Exchange: v. 2!

Increases in the proton conductivity and selectivity of proton exchange membranes for direct methanol fuel cells by formation of nanocomposites having proton conducting channels. Proton exchange membranes modified with sulfonated silica nanoparticles for direct methanol fuel cells. Preparation of porous composite ion-exchange membranes for desalination application.

Suryani, Chang, Y.


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  • Polybenzimidazole PBI -functionalized silica nanoparticles modified PBI nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membranes fuel cells. Madaeni, S. Kim, J. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles. Nanomedicine 3 , 95— Rai, M. Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Sawada, I. Development of a hydrophilic polymer membrane containing silver nanoparticles with both organic antifouling and antibacterial properties.

    The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment. Lee, S. Silver nanoparticles immobilized on thin film composite polyamide membrane: characterization, nanofiltration, antifouling properties.

    Ng, L. Desalination , 15—33 Liu, X. Synthesis and characterization of novel antibacterial silver nanocomposite nanofiltration and forward osmosis membranes based on layer-by-layer assembly. Water Res. Taiwan Inst. Palmisano, G. Photocatalysis: a promising route for 21st century organic chemistry. Power Sources , 16—21 Zhengbang, W. Nonjola, P. Chemical modification of polysulfone: composite anionic exchange membrane with TiO 2 nanoparticles. Jun, Y. Functionalized titania nanotube composite membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Energy 36 , — Ghaemi, N.

    Polyethersulfone membrane enhanced with iron oxide nanoparticles for copper removal from water: application of new functionalized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Xu, P. Use of iron oxide nanomaterials in wastewater treatment: a review. Total Environ. Fabrication and electrochemical characterization of PVC based electrodialysis heterogeneous ion exchange membranes filled with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Ma, N. Zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite membranes: towards enhanced performance for forward osmosis. Dahe, G. The role of zeolite nanoparticles additive on morphology, mechanical properties and performance of polysulfone hollow fiber membranes.