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Psychology includes many sub-fields of study and application concerned with such areas as human development, sports, health, industry, law, and spirituality. Empirical psychology is primarily devoted to describing human experience and behavior as it actually occurs. Since the s, psychology has begun to examine the relationship between consciousness and the brain or nervous system. It is still not clear how these interact: does consciousness determine brain states or do brain states determine consciousness - or are both going on in various ways?
Comparative psychology refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings.
Teaching the Animal: Human-Animal Studies across the Disciplines
Although the field of psychology is primarily concerned with humans, the behavior and mental processes of animals is also an important part of psychological research, either as a subject in its own right e. Personality psychology studies enduring psychological patterns of behavior, thought and emotion, commonly called an individual's personality.
Mainly focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. Quantitative psychology involves the application of mathematical and statistical modeling in psychological research, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing and explaining behavioral data.
Psychometrics is the field of psychology concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. Reference Terms. Psychology describes and attempts to explain consciousness, behavior, and social interaction. There are several branches of psychology. It is related to disciplines outside of psychology that study animal behavior, such as ethology.
This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Related Stories. Citing the extensive experience of coaches in working with many For example, a discussion of the introduction of the first animal protection legislation in the UK in to prevent bull-baiting at fairs and wakes was contested by those unwilling to lose a tradition stretching back some six hundred years.
Critical awareness of the historical context stimulates student interest when discussing these historical connections.
This approach to studying Animal Law encourages students to ask the following questions: How has the law arrived at its current position? What scientific evidence e. How does this impact on the philosophical and ethical discussions in the area? And, what are implications for reform? This has influenced curriculum design elsewhere as shown by a survey of learning objectives on Animal Law courses in Australia.
The discussion above attempts to add academic and methodological rigor to Animal Law and clarity to the curriculum.
For example, it is easy to appreciate the value of doctrinal research regarding the ability of the Common Agricultural Policy to deliver on aspects of animal welfare, 49 or the use of the precautionary principle of EU Law to protect animals used in experimentation. The use of external disciplines to develop a new subject area need not be a one-way street—legal scholars have much to contribute to research in this area. Nicole Graham notes a reluctance of legal scholars to engage with knowledge beyond the confines of law in relation to the environment and sustainability.
It seems that legal education sometimes struggles to look beyond its own boundaries, particularly in the areas associated with the green agenda.
- Satyendranath Bose.
- Human-Animal Studies Across the Disciplines.
- Download Teaching The Animal Human Animal Studies Across The Disciplines.
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Jamie Murray notes that ecological approaches to law emerged in the s, but the central call for the need to link law and ecology has yet to fully materialise despite gathering momentum more recently. For Animal Law this means few contributions by legal scholars in vital areas such as the disappearance of species or exploring the relationship boundaries between science and law in light of new knowledge about animal sentience.
The LETR embraces discussion amongst professionals and educators as to the form and function of legal education provision in England and Wales. A significant component is the role of undergraduate education and its fitness to provide students with skills to enter the legal professions. It is conjectured here that that these discussions have severely curtailed the development of socio-legal approaches to legal education, including Animal Law.
The legal academy has been caught up in defence of its relevance to the future of legal training—notions of skills, job-readiness, employability and academic survival are not the natural precursors to discussion of the relevance of legal education to sustainability, animal welfare, wild law or the loss of species. Students will therefore be robbed of the opportunity to engage with rich socio-legal writing on a wide variety of topics and will not be pushed to explore the variety of angles and stories which are influenced by law and indeed influence law.
This would be a shame for the future of socio-legal studies but would be a disaster for liberal law degrees. Despite apparent uncertainties in the direction of legal education, you may be one of those in the UK legal education academy who recognises the value of Animal Law. The moral and philosophical elements of studying such an emotive subject make this an attractive area for many students and it is odd that the country of animal lovers has failed to match student demand which is satisfied in other countries.
The reason why you might decide to design an Animal Law course is unlikely to be an overwhelming doctrinal case for its inclusion. It piques the interest of many students, joins contemporary public debate, addresses key questions about what it is to be human and brings the study of law closer to issues of sustainability and the future preservation of species, including homo sapiens. How many law subjects touch on human cruelty or the future of the planet?
Animal Law brings the possibilities of original research and connections with politics and environmental awareness. As legal academics, we often look beyond the needs of business to seek the wider context and impact of law. Law is in fact both product and producer of a particular worldview.
Animal Law stimulates discussions around the connections between human activities and their effect on animals and the environment. In addition, the introduction of Animal Law courses in UK universities could give rise to the potential of more direct involvement of the academy and law students in developing an advocacy link along the lines of the example set by the Animal Legal Defense Fund in the US. This aligns with calls for legal scholarship to be guided by the objective of moving and developing the direction of law as it is applied in practice. Animal Law is in the early stages of its development in the UK despite being part of the curriculum in some universities since the early s.
It lacks the critical mass of academic involvement in the United States or Australia having moved through perceptions of ridicule, misunderstanding, begrudged acceptance and then recognition from other UK law academics.
Teaching The Animal: Human Animal Studies Across The Disciplines by Margo Demello
Animal Law is a subject fit for the future of legal education as it asks for members of the academy to develop students ready for the real world and its interdisciplinary nature brings with it exposure to new methodologies and approaches to law. However, we are probably some way off the position suggested by de Ameida Silva in Brazil that Animal Law is so important that it should be compulsory for all law students.
The development of Animal Law would be very much in line with recent cross-disciplinary developments in the humanities that focus on the environmental or ethical dilemmas of our interaction with the natural world. Rose et al. It would enable the UK legal academy to take its place at the table and discuss how best to protect all species on the planet.
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It has the potential to do the same for legal education in the UK as has happened in the humanities and legal education in the US, by helping to open our eyes to the ecological imperatives of the twenty-first century. Rogers Brambell. Accessed 12th April Brooman and D. Legge, supra n. Animals Scientific Procedures Act See Brooman and Legge, supra, n. DeMeo and G. Senatori and P. James and R. Accessed 14 April McEldowney and S. Armstrong and R. Brooman and D Legge, supra n. Accessed 26th January Douglas and K. Accessed 8th March Alder and J. Arthurs and A. Carline, H. Guth and C.
Hagstrom and O. Fisher, B. Lange, E. Fisher et al. Tranfield, D Denyer and P. London: Palgrave MacMillan, p. See S. Fisher et al , supra n. McEldowney, supra n. Baron and L. Accessed 26th February Ashford, supra n.
Accessed 1st March Christie, K. Miller, R. Cooke and J. Dernbach, supra , n. Hricik and V. Rose, T. Chrulew, S.
Cooke, M. Kearnes and E. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Open Access.