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Manual Bibliography of Twentieth- and Twenty-First Century Works for Voice, Horn, and Piano

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Wallach seemed to be freely transforming and reshaping the themes across temporal and cultural boundaries, referencing classical counterpoint, folkish traditions, and sacred music of the west and Middle East to come to a kind of personal, if uneasy, peace.

It was complex, but eloquent music that spoke to the appreciative crowd. The piece, which received its world premiere last night, was commissioned by AFCM. The group brought a radiant yet courageous heart to its pening movement, capturing its dramatic accents and taut Bohemian syncopations to perfection. These topics are designed to facilitate conversation with her and will make for fascinating interviews:. All press inquiries should be directed to Jeffrey James Arts Consulting at or jamesarts att. Manhattan School of Music.

Chamber Music

Commissioned and premiered by The New York Philharmonic Ensembles, opening subscription concert Sweet Briar Elegies for soprano saxophone and cello ensemble. Schirmer C. Tel: e-mail: joelle joellewallach. Search for: Download High-resolution Photos. Short Biography Download Short Bio Visionary composer Joelle Wallach writes music for orchestra, chamber ensembles, solo voices and choruses.

Wallach grew up in Morocco, but makes her home in New York City, where she was born. Her early training in piano, voice, theory, bassoon and violin included study at the Juilliard Preparatory Division, and she earned bachelors and masters degrees at Sarah Lawrence College and Columbia University respectively. In the Manhattan School of Music, where she studied with John Corigliano, granted her its first doctorate in composition.

A pre-concert lecturer for the New York Philharmonic for several subscription series, Ms Wallach speaks on a broad range of musical subjects, bringing fresh insights to familiar works and opening doors to modern ones and to those less frequently heard. Download Long Bio Visionary composer Joelle Wallach writes music for orchestra, chamber ensembles, solo voices and chorus. Frequently her music is the fruit of connections with colleagues and disciplines beyond music. Download Press Questions The following questions are intended for print and broadcast journalists in connection with interviews with Joelle Wallach.

These topics are designed to facilitate conversation with her and will make for fascinating interviews: Tell me about your compositional process. Do you prefer to start from an outside inspiration, or do you like to start with a purely musical idea?

In This Entry

But once launched, many of Carmichael's songs took on lives of their own, finding favor and permanent homes in the repertories of singers and instrumentalists from various corners of American music. When, for example, Ray Charles made a huge hit and earned a Grammy Award for his moving rendition of Georgia , it helped the song find new audiences and live on in cultural memory.


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Already an evergreen, Stardust grew taller and stouter during the late s and the s, and RCA Victor even issued an LP, The Stardust Road , with nothing but different versions of the song. In , his second book of memoirs, Sometimes I Wonder , was issued. Carmichael became something of a fixture on television of the s, even playing a straight dramatic role on the TV Western, Laramie , in He became an avid golfer and coin collector, and still wrote songs-though hardly any of them were to be recorded.

He maintained an interest in children and in published Hoagy Carmichael's Music Shop , a collection of songs he composed for children. In , Carmichael married the actress Wanda McKay after what was termed "a long courtship. He returned a number of times to his native Indiana, and, as his years grew, was increasingly honored. In , Indiana University awarded him an honorary doctorate and in , the university's rare book archive, the Lilly Library, curated an exhibition in his honor.

In , Carnegie Hall held a tribute concert.

After suffering a heart attack, Carmichael died at his home in Rancho Mirage, California, on December 27, His body was returned to his native Bloomington for burial. In the years after his death, his place in the cultural firmament has slowly risen. His family donated his archives and memorabilia to Indiana University, which in opened the Hoagy Carmichael Room in his honor.

In , the United States Postal Service, acting on a recommendation from this author, issued a commemorative postage stamp in his honor. During his centennial year of , there were radio broadcasts, concert programs, and songbook publications. Then came word of a forthcoming biography by the cornetist and author Richard M. With rare exceptions, until Carmichael came along, songwriters were a separate group from singers. Something of a modern minstrel, Carmichael was one of the first singer-songwriters in the age of mass media.

His down-home Hoosier accent and singing style he described as "flatsy through the nose" made him seem like one of the people. In fact, more so than many songwriters for example, fellow Hoosier Cole Porter , Carmichael's songs appealed to all sections of American society-from the Wall Street broker to the sharecropper farmer. He was a musical democrat. If Carmichael's singing voice was as unmistakable as his nickname "Hoagy," similarly no one would mistake his songs for those of Gershwin or Porter or any other songwriter.

While there is no single Carmichael "sound," his songs nonetheless sound like him. His melodies are so strong and distinctive that they usually dominate the other elements of his songs. Many of these melodies move to unusual intervals, cover a wide range, and display the instrumental influence of jazz.

Most have few repeated notes, and most travel an unpredictable path-they are fresh. And that's one reason why so many of them have remained with us for decades. His two greatest songs- Stardust and Skylark -reveal deep jazz influences: eloquent, lyrical, striking melodies that seem like Beiderbeckian solos captured for all time. The composer himself said, "The Bix influence was there. And the improvisations are already written. The instruments currently used in most classical music were largely invented before the midth century often much earlier and systematized in the 18th and 19th centuries.

They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra or in a concert band , together with several other solo instruments such as the piano , harpsichord , and organ. The symphony orchestra includes members of the string , woodwind , brass , and percussion families of instruments. The concert band consists of members of the woodwind, brass, and percussion families.

It generally has a larger variety and number of woodwind and brass instruments than the orchestra but does not have a string section. However, many concert bands use a double bass. The vocal practices changed over the classical period, from the single line monophonic Gregorian chant done by monks in the Medieval period to the complex, polyphonic choral works of the Renaissance and subsequent periods, which used multiple independent vocal melodies at the same time.

The major time divisions of classical music up to are the Early music period, which includes Medieval — and Renaissance — eras, and the Common practice period , which includes the Baroque — , Classical — and Romantic — eras. The current period encompasses the 20th century — and includes most of the Early modern musical era — , the entire High modern mid 20th-century , and the first part of the Contemporary or —current or Postmodern musical era —current. The dates are generalizations , since the periods and eras overlap and the categories are somewhat arbitrary, to the point that some authorities reverse terminologies and refer to a common practice "era" comprising baroque, classical, and romantic "periods".

Beethoven , who is often described as a founder of the Romantic era, and Brahms , who is classified as Romantic, also used counterpoint and fugue, but the romantic and sometimes yearning qualities of their music define their era. The prefix neo- is used to describe a 19th-, 20th-, or 21st-century composition written in the style of an earlier era, such as Classical or Romantic. Stravinsky's Pulcinella , for example, is a neoclassical composition because it is stylistically similar to works of the Baroque era.

Burgh , suggests that the roots of Western classical music ultimately lie in ancient Egyptian art music via cheironomy and the ancient Egyptian orchestra, which dates to BC. Ancient Greek instruments such as the aulos a reed instrument and the lyre a stringed instrument similar to a small harp eventually led to several modern-day instruments of a classical orchestra.

The Medieval era includes music from after the fall of Rome to about Monophonic chant, also called plainsong or Gregorian chant , was the dominant form until about A number of European classical musical instruments have roots in Eastern instruments that were adopted from the medieval Islamic world.

Many of the instruments used to perform medieval music still exist, but in different forms. Medieval instruments included the flute , the recorder and plucked string instruments like the lute. As well, early versions of the organ and fiddle or vielle existed. Medieval instruments in Europe had most commonly been used singly, often self accompanied with a drone note, or occasionally in parts. From at least as early as the 13th century through the 15th century there was a division of instruments into haut loud, shrill, outdoor instruments and bas quieter, more intimate instruments.

The Renaissance era was from to It was characterized by greater use of instrumentation , multiple interweaving melodic lines, and the use of the first bass instruments. Social dancing became more widespread, so musical forms appropriate to accompanying dance began to standardize. It is in this time that the notation of music on a staff and other elements of musical notation began to take shape. With a musical score , a work of music could be performed without the composer's presence.

Many instruments originated during the Renaissance; others were variations of, or improvements upon, instruments that had existed previously. Some have survived to the present day; others have disappeared, only to be re-created in order to perform music on period instruments. As in the modern day, instruments may be classified as brass, strings, percussion, and woodwind.

Brass instruments in the Renaissance were traditionally played by professionals who were members of Guilds and they included the slide trumpet , the wooden cornet , the valveless trumpet and the sackbut. Stringed instruments included the viol , the rebec , the harp-like lyre , the hurdy-gurdy , the lute , the guitar , the cittern , the bandora , and the orpharion.

Percussion instruments include the triangle , the Jew's harp , the tambourine , the bells, the rumble-pot, and various kinds of drums. Woodwind instruments included the double-reed shawm an early member of the oboe family , the reed pipe , the bagpipe , the transverse flute , the recorder , the dulcian , and the crumhorn.

Simple pipe organs existed, but were largely confined to churches, although there were portable varieties. Vocal music in the Renaissance is noted for the flourishing of an increasingly elaborate polyphonic style. The principal liturgical forms which endured throughout the entire Renaissance period were masses and motets, with some other developments towards the end, especially as composers of sacred music began to adopt secular forms such as the madrigal for their own designs.

Towards the end of the period, the early dramatic precursors of opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy , and the intermedio are seen. Around , Italian composer Jacopo Peri wrote Dafne , the first work to be called an opera today. He also composed Euridice , the first opera to have survived to the present day. The common practice period is typically defined as the era between the formation and the dissolution of common-practice tonality. The term usually spans roughly two-and-a-half centuries, encompassing the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods.

Baroque music is characterized by the use of complex tonal counterpoint and the use of a basso continuo , a continuous bass line. Music became more complex in comparison with the simple songs of all previous periods. The tonalities of major and minor as means for managing dissonance and chromaticism in music took full shape. During the Baroque era, keyboard music played on the harpsichord and pipe organ became increasingly popular, and the violin family of stringed instruments took the form generally seen today.

Opera as a staged musical drama began to differentiate itself from earlier musical and dramatic forms, and vocal forms like the cantata and oratorio became more common. The theories surrounding equal temperament began to be put in wider practice, especially as it enabled a wider range of chromatic possibilities in hard-to-tune keyboard instruments. Although Bach did not use equal temperament, as a modern piano is generally tuned, changes in the temperaments from the meantone system , common at the time, to various temperaments that made modulation between all keys musically acceptable, made possible Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier.

Baroque instruments included some instruments from the earlier periods e. Some instruments from previous eras fell into disuse, such as the shawm, cittern , rackett ,and the wooden cornet. The key Baroque instruments for strings included the violin , viol , viola , viola d'amore , cello , contrabass , lute , theorbo which often played the basso continuo parts , mandolin , Baroque guitar , harp and hurdy-gurdy. Woodwinds included the Baroque flute , Baroque oboe , recorder and the bassoon. Brass instruments included the cornett , natural horn , Baroque trumpet , serpent and the trombone.

Keyboard instruments included the clavichord , the tangent piano , the harpsichord , the pipe organ , and, later in the period, the fortepiano an early version of the piano. Percussion instruments included the timpani , snare drum , tambourine and the castanets. One major difference between Baroque music and the classical era that followed it is that the types of instruments used in Baroque ensembles were much less standardized.


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A Baroque ensemble could include one of several different types of keyboard instruments e. The term "classical music" has two meanings; the broader meaning includes all Western art music from the Medieval era to the s, and the specific meaning refers to the art music from the s to the early s—the era of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Joseph Haydn , and Ludwig van Beethoven. This section is about the specific meaning. The Classical era established many of the norms of composition, presentation, and style, and was also when the piano became the predominant keyboard instrument.

The basic forces required for an orchestra became somewhat standardized although they would grow as the potential of a wider array of instruments was developed in the following centuries.

Memory Set to Music

Chamber music grew to include ensembles with as many as 8 to 10 performers for serenades. Opera continued to develop, with regional styles in Italy, France, and German-speaking lands. The opera buffa , a form of comic opera, rose in popularity. The symphony came into its own as a musical form, and the concerto was developed as a vehicle for displays of virtuoso playing skill. Orchestras no longer required a harpsichord which had been part of the traditional continuo in the Baroque style , and were often led by the lead violinist now called the concertmaster.

Classical era musicians continued to use many of instruments from the Baroque era, such as the cello, contrabass, recorder, trombone, timpani, fortepiano the precursor to the modern piano and organ.

Bibliography of Twentieth- and Twenty-first Century Works for Voice, Horn and Piano

While some Baroque instruments fell into disuse e. During the Classical era, the stringed instruments used in orchestra and chamber music such as string quartets were standardized as the four instruments which form the string section of the orchestra : the violin, viola, cello, and double bass. Baroque-era stringed instruments such as fretted, bowed viols were phased out. Woodwinds included the basset clarinet , basset horn , clarinette d'amour , the Classical clarinet , the chalumeau , the flute, oboe and bassoon.

Keyboard instruments included the clavichord and the fortepiano. While the harpsichord was still used in basso continuo accompaniment in the s and s, it fell out of use at the end of the century. Brass instruments included the buccin , the ophicleide a replacement for the bass serpent , which was the precursor of the tuba and the natural horn. Wind instruments became more refined in the Classical era. While double-reed instruments like the oboe and bassoon became somewhat standardized in the Baroque, the clarinet family of single reeds was not widely used until Mozart expanded its role in orchestral, chamber, and concerto settings.

The music of the Romantic era, from roughly the first decade of the 19th century to the early 20th century, was characterized by increased attention to an extended melodic line, as well as expressive and emotional elements, paralleling romanticism in other art forms.

Musical forms began to break from the Classical era forms even as those were being codified , with free-form pieces like nocturnes , fantasias , and preludes being written where accepted ideas about the exposition and development of themes were ignored or minimized. In the 19th century, musical institutions emerged from the control of wealthy patrons, as composers and musicians could construct lives independent of the nobility. Increasing interest in music by the growing middle classes throughout western Europe spurred the creation of organizations for the teaching, performance, and preservation of music.

The piano, which achieved its modern construction in this era in part due to industrial advances in metallurgy became widely popular with the middle class, whose demands for the instrument spurred a large number of piano builders. Many symphony orchestras date their founding to this era. European cultural ideas and institutions began to follow colonial expansion into other parts of the world. In the Romantic era, the modern piano , with a more powerful, sustained tone and a wider range took over from the more delicate-sounding fortepiano.

In the orchestra, the existing Classical instruments and sections were retained string section , woodwinds, brass, and percussion , but these sections were typically expanded to make a fuller, bigger sound. For example, while a Baroque orchestra may have had two double bass players, a Romantic orchestra could have as many as ten. The family of instruments used, especially in orchestras, grew. A wider array of percussion instruments began to appear.

Brass instruments took on larger roles, as the introduction of rotary valves made it possible for them to play a wider range of notes. The size of the orchestra typically around 40 in the Classical era grew to be over Saxophones appear in some scores from the late 19th century onwards. While appearing only as featured solo instruments in some works, for example Maurice Ravel 's orchestration of Modest Mussorgsky 's Pictures at an Exhibition and Sergei Rachmaninoff 's Symphonic Dances , the saxophone is included in other works such as Sergei Prokofiev 's Romeo and Juliet Suites 1 and 2 and many other works as a member of the orchestral ensemble.

The euphonium is featured in a few late Romantic and 20th-century works, usually playing parts marked "tenor tuba", including Gustav Holst 's The Planets , and Richard Strauss 's Ein Heldenleben. Encompassing a wide variety of post-Romantic styles, modernist classical music includes late romantic, impressionist, expressionist, and neoclassical, styles of composition.

Modernism — marked an era when many composers rejected certain values of the common practice period, such as traditional tonality, melody, instrumentation, and structure.