At the UN's fourth conference on LDCs, which was held in May , delegates endorsed a goal targeting the promotion of at least half the current LDC countries within the next ten years. There are three countries which presently meet the criteria for LDC status, but have declined to be included in the index, questioning the validity or accuracy of the CDP's data: Ghana , Papua New Guinea , and Zimbabwe.
Least developed countries can be distinguished from developing countries , "less developed countries", "lesser developed countries", or other terms for countries in the so-called Third World.
A Guide to Graduating from Least Developed Country Status | Commonwealth Bookshop
Although many contemporary scholars argue that "Third World" is outdated, irrelevant or inaccurate, others may use the term "Fourth World" in reference to least developed countries although Fourth World is also used to refer to stateless ethnic groups. The term "less economically developed country" LEDC is also used today. However, in order to avoid confusion between "least developed country" and or LEDC "less economically developed country" which may both be abbreviated as LDC , and to avoid confusion with landlocked developing country which can be abbreviated as LLDC , " developing country " is generally used in preference to "less-developed country".
Countries with populations over 75 million are excluded. The three criteria human assets, economic vulnerability and gross national income per capita are assessed by the Committee for Development Policy every three years. Countries must meet two of the three criteria at two consecutive triennial reviews to be considered for graduation. Since the LDC category was initiated, five countries have graduated to developing country status. The first country to graduate from LDC status was Botswana in The second country was Cape Verde in The first two were in Paris, in and ; the third was in Brussels in It was attended by Ban Ki-Moon , the head of the UN, and close to 50 prime ministers and heads of state.
The conference endorsed the goal of raising half the existing Least developed countries out of the LDC category by As with the Seoul Development Consensus drawn up in , there was a strong emphasis on boosting productive capability and physical infrastructure, with several NGOs not pleased with the emphasis placed on the private sector. In the process of increasing awareness towards the needs of the LDCs, the importance of the inputs and contributions of the members of the Civil Society were first acknowledged during the NGO Forum held in parallel to the third UN Conference on Least Developed Countries in Brussels in They have also been involved in the implementation and follow-up, monitoring and review of the progress made by LDCs and the success of the implementation of the BPoA.
LDC Watch has organised civil society consultations at various levels. These consultations were organised to critically assess the progress made by LDCs in the ten years since the adoption of the Brussels Programme of Action and with the intention of influencing the outcome of LDC IV.
The Forum will open two days before the official conference begins and will continue till the end of the conference. Issues surrounding global trade regulations and LDCs have gained a lot of media and policy attention thanks to the recently collapsed Doha Round of World Trade Organization WTO negotiations being termed a development round.
But analysis of the deal by NGOs found that the text of the proposed LDC deal had substantial loopholes that might make the offer less than the full percent access, and could even erase some current duty-free access of LDCs to rich country markets. They addressed issues of market access, special and differential treatment provisions for developing countries, participation of developing countries in the multilateral trading system, and development questions, especially the interests of developing countries in competition policy.
The list of "least developed countries" according to the United Nations with some that are categorised into the landlocked developing countries and the Small Island Developing States : .
In Africa there are 33 countries that are classified as least developed countries. In Asia there are 9 countries that are classified as least developed countries. In Oceania there are 4 countries that are classified as least developed countries.
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In the Americas there is one country that is classified as a least developed country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Least Developed Countries. Former LDCs. Retrieved Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
- Module Code: EC3040.
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World Trade Organization. The central role of macro and micro institutions in economic development is considered in detail.
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Satisfactory completion of this module will contribute to the development of the following key skills:. The main textbook for the course is: Michael Todaro and Stephen C. Smith, Economic Development , 11th edn. Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion, students will be able to: Explain what is commonly meant by development and which countries fit into the less developed country category and why they do so.
Critically assess the evidence for a relationship between growth and poverty. Explain and evaluate models of economic growth and how education and development may be related. Apply economic theory to issues of population growth and urbanization and examine the evidence for these theories in developing countries.
A Guide to Graduating from Least Developed Country Status
Identify and account for the challenges of government planning in developing countries. Appraise the contribution of trade, finance and aid policies to the advancement of developing countries and formulate a balanced judgement on the opportunities and threats posed by these to developing countries. Recognise the multiple functions of institutions and the role they play in economic development.
Outline the connections between economic development and the environment and articulate a balanced judgement on the potential policy responses.