Tripwire is made up of two major components: policy and database. Policy lists all the files and directories that the integrity checker should take a snapshot of, in addition to creating rules for identifying violations of changes to directories and files. Database consists of the snapshot taken by Tripwire.
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Tripwire also has a configuration file, which specifies the locations of the database, policy file, and Tripwire executable. It also provides two cryptographic keys—site key and local key—to protect important files against tampering. The site key protects the policy and configuration files, while the local key protects the database and generated reports. In order to use Tripwire, we need to download and install it first.
Debian and Ubuntu users can install Tripwire directly from the repository using apt-get. Non-root users should type the sudo command to install Tripwire via apt-get. CentOS and other rpm-based distributions use a similar process.
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For the sake of best practice, update your repository before installing a new package such as Tripwire. The command yum install epel-release simply means we want to install extra repositories. This command causes the installation to run a configuration of packages that are required for Tripwire to function effectively. In addition, it will ask if you want to select passphrases during installation. You can select "Yes" to both prompts. Also, select or choose "Yes" if it's required to build the configuration file.
Choose and confirm a passphrase for a site key and for a local key. A complex passphrase such as Il0ve0pens0urce is recommended. You can use the following command to instruct Tripwire to check whether your files or directories have been modified. Tripwire's ability to compare files and directories against the initial snapshot in the database is based on the rules you created in the active policy.
You can also limit the —check command to specific files or directories, such as in this example:.
To easily generate a daily system integrity report, create a crontab with this command:. Afterward, you can edit this file with the text editor of your choice to introduce tasks to be run by cron. For instance, you can set up a cron job to send Tripwire reports to your email daily at a.
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On Debian-based systems, we get a warning about plaintext passwords upon installation of tripwire. If one does not want to risk exposure during installation, how do you generate keys after installation? Thank you. It is possible to generate keys after installation but it is a manual process and complex, too. I would rather advise you to store the plain-text password somewhere and encrypt it. For example, how long will you keep the old backups?
Must-know Linux Commands
When do you need to backup your system every day, every week …? Portioning disks gives you the opportunity of performance and security in case of a system error. In the picture below, you can see the option of how to separate partitions in Kali Linux during the installation.
The boot directory contains important files related to the Linux kernel, so you need to make sure that this directory is locked down to read-only permissions by following the next simple steps. The first thing to do after the first boot is to update the system; this should be an easy step. Generally, you open your terminal window and execute the appropriate commands.
Must-know Linux Commands | Network World
In Kali Linux, you achieve this by executing the commands in the picture below:. List all packages installed on your Linux OS and remove the unnecessary ones. Remember that disabling unnecessary services will reduce the attack surface, so it is important to remove the following legacy services if you found them installed on the Linux server:.
Identifying open connections to the internet is a critical mission. In Kali Linux, I use the following command to spot any hidden open ports:. Yes, indeed SSH is secure, but you need to harden this service as well. However, if you want to use it, then you have to change the default configuration of SSH. The list can go on and on, but these should be enough to start with. For example, some companies add banners to deter attackers and discourage them from continuing further. I encourage you to check the manual of the SSH to understand all the configurations in this file, or you can visit this site for more information.
Security Enhanced Linux is a Kernel security mechanism for supporting access control security policy. The SELinux has three configuration modes:. Securing your Linux host network activities is an essential task.
Securing the Linux filesystem with Tripwire
Here are some important features to consider for securing your host network:. I strongly recommend using the Linux Firewall by applying the iptable rules and filtering all the incoming, outgoing and forwarded packets. People often reuse their passwords , which is a bad security practice. We are going to use the PAM module to manage the security policies of the Linux host.
Another password policy that should be forced is strong passwords. Linux will hash the password to avoid saving it in cleartext so, you need to make sure to define a secure password hashing algorithm SHA Another interesting functionality is to lock the account after five failed attempts.
After five failed attempts, only an administrator can unlock the account by using the following command:. Also, another good practice is to set the password to expire after 90 days, to accomplish this task you need to:. The final tip for passwords policy is to disable the system accounts for non-root users by using the following bash script:.
Prepare yourself mentally because this is going to be a long list. But, permissions is one of the most important and critical tasks to achieve the security goal on a Linux host. In this short post, we covered many important configurations for Linux security. Ghassan Khawaja holds a BS degree in computer Science, he specializes in. NET, asp. Net, HTML5 and ethical hacking. He is passionate about Technology and loves what he's doing. After many years of experience in computer science, he has turned his attention to cyber security and the importance that security brings to this minefield.