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Armstrong donates historic pump photos to Montreal art gallery Learn more. Nuit Rouge Learn more. Sustainability achievements celebrated Learn more. Armstrong relocates Shanghai HQ Learn more. HI announces HI board of directors and officers for Learn more. End suction pump Learn more. Armstrong announces Harley promotion winners Learn more. The bigger picture Learn more. Armstrong Compass R Circulator Learn more.

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Heating solutions for heating, ventilation, air conditioning

Armstrong Retro Gadget Giveaway Learn more. HVAC Upgrades with a 2. Energy Savings, Mass-Produced Learn more. Mobile boiler rooms ease construction Learn more. Nissan America Case Study Learn more. Armstrong Fluid Technology conferences target sustainable cities Learn more. Energy savings at office complex Learn more. Renewable onsite power generation from packaged biomass systems Learn More.

Pump Efficiency Learn More. Fire Sprinkler Systems Learn more. Rescued Flight Plans Learn more. Ipswich business pumping as supplier spreads its wings Learn more. Armstrong unveils improved Astro 2 hot water recirculation systems Learn more. Revved Up at the Harley Factory Learn more. This type of system can be constructed as tubes or pipes impeded inside the surface where the cooling or heating media is circulated into the tubes to cool or heat the surface.

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The tubes are contacted to the adjacent large surface area to achieve the desired surface temperature for cooling and heating process. The heat transfer process is mainly by the radiation mode between the occupants and the radiant panels, and the natural convection mode between the air and panels. Radiant ceiling or wall panels can be used for cooling and heating process. The surface temperature should be higher than the air dew point temperature to avoid condensation on the surface during the cooling process.

The installation of such systems is often expensive compared to other types as mentioned above, but they can be useful and has a lower running cost mainly because of the surface temperature restriction. A control signal is connected to the thermostat of each zone to manipulate the medium temperature to condition the space. The used medium can be refrigerant or water mixing with inhibited glycol anti-freeze instead of plain water to prevent icing inside the tubes for the cooling process.

The main advantage is no space required, only a few inches for the panels to be installed and no more collected dirt in the standard ceiling or the ductwork. Many designs are available to produce attractive panels. Some buildings can have multiple zones or have a large, single zone, which needs central HVAC systems to serve and provide the thermal needs [ 4 , 5 ]. However, other building may have a single zone which needs equipment located inside the zone itself, such as small houses and residential apartments. This type of system is considered as local HVAC systems since each equipment serving its zone without crossing boundaries to other adjacent zones e.

Therefore, a single zone requires only one-point control point connected to a thermostat to activate the local HVAC system. Some buildings have multiple local HVAC systems as proper equipment serving specific single zones and controlled by the one-point control of the desired zone. However, these local systems are not connected and integrated to central systems, but still part of a large full-building HVAC systems. A single zone will require a complete, single package of heating system which contains heat source and distribution system. Some examples include portable electric heaters, electric resistance baseboard radiators, fireplaces and wood stoves, and infrared heaters [ 8 ].

Local cooling systems can include active systems as air-conditioning systems that provide cooling, a proper air distribution inside a zone, and control of humidification, and natural systems as convective cooling in open window, evaporative cooling in fountains [ 5 , 6 ]. Local ventilation systems can be forced systems by using devices such as window fan to allow air movement between outdoor and a single zone without changing in the thermal environment of the zone.

Other systems used for ventilation are air circulation devices such as desk or paddle fans to improve thermal comfort of the space by allowing the heat to be transferred by conventional mode [ 5 , 6 ]. A local air conditioning system is a complete package that can contain cooling and heating source, a circulation fan, a filter, and control devices. There are three main types listed below [ 5 , 6 ].

This system is a packaged device consisting of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle that contains a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, and an evaporator, in addition to a fan, a filter, control system and housing.

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Window air-conditioners can be installed in a framed or unframed opening in building walls and in window openings without any ductwork and distribution the cooling or heating air effectively inside the conditioned space. The air conditioning contains both evaporator and condenser where the condenser is located outside the space while the evaporate is inside the space, however, it serves the entire single zone with the thermal requirements. The heating process can be achieved by adding electric resistance coil in the air conditioning or reversing the refrigeration cycle to act as a heat pump.

Many feature designs are produced to provide aesthetical values and improve the quality and response.


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It is similar to window air conditioners from the equipment perspective, but it is designed for commercial buildings. Every single zone will contain one unitary air-conditioner as in each guest room in many hotels. This system may be connected to ductwork and serve a large-size single zone that cannot be served by unitary or window air conditioners.

The split systems contain two central devices [ 5 , 6 ]: the condenser, located outdoor, and the evaporator, located indoors. The two devices are connected by a conduit for refrigerant lines and wiring. This system solves some issues of small-scale single-zone systems since the location and installation of window, unitary or rooftop air conditioners may affect the esthetic value and architectural design of the building.

The split systems can contain one condenser unit and connected to multiple evaporator units to serve multiple zones as possible under same conditions or different environmental conditions. This chapter presents the types of HVAC systems.

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HVAC systems have several requirements including primary equipment such as heating equipment, cooling equipment, and delivery equipment; space requirement such as HVAC facilities, equipment room, and vertical shaft; air distribution; and piping. This classification depends on zone types and the location of HVAC equipment.

US20130179373A1 - Systems and Methods for Estimating HVAC Operation Cost - Google Patents

The central HVAC systems can serve multiple and single zones and locate away from the building, which needs distribution devices. They also can be sub-classified into all-air HVAC systems, air-water systems, all-water systems, water-source heat pumps, and heating and cooling panel systems. The local HVAC systems are mostly placed inside or adjacent to the living spaces and serve one single zone. They consist of local heating systems, local air-conditioning systems, local ventilation systems, and split systems.

Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Mohsen Sheikholeslami Kandelousi. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract HVAC systems are milestones of building mechanical systems that provide thermal comfort for occupants accompanied with indoor air quality.

Introduction Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning HVAC system is designed to achieve the environmental requirements of the comfort of occupants and a process. HVAC system selection System selection depends on three main factors including the building configuration, the climate conditions, and the owner desire [ 2 ]. Basic components of an HVAC system The basic components or equipment of an HVAC system that delivers conditioned air to satisfy thermal comfort of space and occupants and the achieve the indoor air quality are listed below [ 3 ]: Mixed-air plenum and outdoor air control Air filter Supply fan Exhaust or relief fans and an air outlet Outdoor air intake Ducts Terminal devices Return air system Heating and cooling coils Self-contained heating or cooling unit Cooling tower Boiler Control Water chiller Humidification and dehumidification equipment.

However, it is difficult for roof location due to bad weather Reliability Central system equipment can be an attractive benefit when considering its long service life Reliable equipment, although the estimated equipment service life may be less Flexibility Selecting standby equipment to provide an alternative source of HVAC or backup Placed in numerous locations to be more flexible.

Comparison of central and local HVAC systems. Central HVAC systems A central HVAC system may serve one or more thermal zones, and its major equipment is located outside of the served zone s in a suitable central location whether inside, on top, or adjacent to the building [ 4 , 5 ]. All-air systems The thermal energy transfer medium through the building delivery systems is air. Single zone A single zone system consists of an air handling unit, a heat source and cooling source, distribution ductwork, and appropriate delivery devices. Multi-zone In a multi-zone all-air system, individual supply air ducts are provided for each zone in a building.

Dual duct The dual duct all-air system is a terminal-controlled modification of the multi-zone concept. Variable air volume Some spaces require different airflow of supply air due to the changes in thermal loads.


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  5. All-water systems In an all-water system, heated and cooled water is distributed from a central system to conditioned spaces [ 4 , 5 ]. Air-water systems Air-water systems are introduced as a hybrid system to combine both advantages of all-air and all-water systems [ 5 ]. Fan-coil units Fan-coil units for air-water systems are similar to that of all-water systems except that the supply air and the conditioned water are provided to the desired zone from a central air handling unit and central water systems e.

    Induction units Induction units are externally similar to fan-coil units but internally different.

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    Water-source heat pumps Water-source heat pumps are used to provide considerable energy savings for large building under the extreme cold weather [ 6 ]. Heating and cooling panels Heating and cooling panels are placed on floors or walls or ceilings where can be a source of heating and cooling [ 7 ]. Local HVAC systems Some buildings can have multiple zones or have a large, single zone, which needs central HVAC systems to serve and provide the thermal needs [ 4 , 5 ].

    Local heating systems A single zone will require a complete, single package of heating system which contains heat source and distribution system. Local cooling systems Local cooling systems can include active systems as air-conditioning systems that provide cooling, a proper air distribution inside a zone, and control of humidification, and natural systems as convective cooling in open window, evaporative cooling in fountains [ 5 , 6 ]. Local ventilation systems Local ventilation systems can be forced systems by using devices such as window fan to allow air movement between outdoor and a single zone without changing in the thermal environment of the zone.

    Local air-conditioning systems A local air conditioning system is a complete package that can contain cooling and heating source, a circulation fan, a filter, and control devices. Window air-conditioner This system is a packaged device consisting of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle that contains a compressor, a condenser, an expansion valve, and an evaporator, in addition to a fan, a filter, control system and housing.

    Consumer rights under the purchaser deposit Convention. Convention catering Corporate meeting. Cost of goods sold Cross-selling. Customer centricity Cycle menus. Chapter E: Earnings per Share Extranet. Chapter O: Occupancy, Types of Overstay. Chapter P: Pay and Benefits Purveyors. Chapter Q: Qualitative vs.