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Peer Review Summary

Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35 , pp. Corvello, D. Gitto, S. Carlsson, P.

Value Creation

Using information technology to manage diverse knowledge sources in open innovation processes. Managing open innovation technologies, pp. Cui, H. Ye, H. Teo, J. Information technology and open innovation: A strategic a lignment perspective. Alonso-Martinez, M. Tzagarakis, N.

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Exploring value cocreation in relationships between an ERP vendor and its partners: A revelatory case study. MIS Quarterly, 36 , pp. Scheepers, K. Venkitachalam, M. Knowledge strategy in organizations: Refining the model of Hansen, Nohria and Tierney. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 13 , pp. Scenario planning: A tool for strategic thinking. Sloan Management Review, , pp. Interaction management: The next and necessary step beyond knowledge management. Business Process Management Journal, 9 , pp. Tavakoli, D. Schlagwein, D. Open strategy: Literature review, re-analysis of cases and conceptualisation as a practice.

Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 26 , pp. Teece, M.

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Peteraf, S. Dynamic capabilities and organizational agility: Risk, uncertainty and strategy in the innovation economy. Tidd, J. Tsiliki, N. Karacapilidis, S. Christodoulou, M. Collaborative mining and interpretation of large-scale data for biomedical research insights. MIT Press, ,. Weinberger, F. Please enable JavaScript before proceeding:. Internet Explorer. In stock online. Not available in stores. The following ISBNs are associated with this title:. ISBN - X. ISBN - On the Content tab, click to select the Enable JavaScript check box. Click OK to close the Options popup.

More recently in the summer of a similar program was conducted in Shanghai. The cumulative build-out of this work has established a global food safety knowledge base made up of knowledge assets and knowledge experts as depicted in Figure 2.

This figure provides an overview of collaborators, resources and approaches being implemented in China. The main effort will be focused on generating economic growth by building out food safety knowledge and competencies of the estimated four hundred thousand food manufacturers and suppliers in China. The plan is to scale up use of existing open resources and roll out a program using a train-the-trainer approach in the fall of The business model for the China train-the-trainer program is to reuse existing open educational resources and make little to no upfront investment in training materials.

Public investment is being sought to support the initial train-the-trainer delivery. Downstream delivery to food manufacturers and suppliers would entail participants paying a fee. Earlier initiatives have not scaled up as expected. Table 1 indicates the potential starting points for various stakeholder groups in China in using the nine different types of open practices.

For example, government and funders are poised to make use of eight of the nine open practices open content, open data, open access, open government, open sources software, open policy and open licensing , whereas the use of open hardware, which is a relatively new form of open practice, is most likely to be initiated by universities and colleges.

In Colombia the provincial government of Cundinamarca in partnership with Convenio Andres Bello and education partners are interested in open and distance education as a means of rural social development including food safety. It is led by the Ministers of Education of the member countries.

Convenio Andres Bello promotes consensus building among members and joint action plans for culture, education, science and technology. Convenio Andres Bella's strategic plan focuses implementation of an ordered set of initiatives under four program areas:. Cundinamarca and Convenio Andres Bello have asked the OpenCourseWare Consortium OCWC for help in designing a digital learning initiative with a goal of adopting open online education in support of these aims.

The OCWC is a worldwide community of hundreds of higher education institutions and associated organizations committed to advancing open education and its impact on global education. The consortium seeks to engender a culture of openness in education to allow everyone, everywhere to access the education they desire, while providing a shared body of knowledge and best practices that can be drawn upon for innovative and effective approaches. In addition the OCWC helps to solve social problems through expansion of access to education.

This figure provides an overview of collaborators, resources and approaches being implemented in Colombia. The GFSP may benefit through the development of standardized curricula and courses that are aimed at different target groups including:. The aim is to start with a substantial body of food safety knowledge already in OER form available through GFSP and other stakeholders. Combined with the existing local curriculum, the intent is to adapt these core resources to address different levels of education.

A curriculum component that provides education on what someone needs to know about cleanliness at any level might also be a curriculum component for someone enrolled in a two year program to become a certified food inspector. OER will be adapted for the Colombian context and used to create:. In addition to food safety pertaining to food manufacturing and supply, the Colombia program seeks to:. Curricula will be made open to all, enabling local communities, farmers, food vendors, small business food suppliers and even the general public to become active participants in knowledge creation and dissemination.

This open model Figure 3 blends expert and indigenous knowledge into a knowledge co-creation open model. One ambitious concept is supporting a free path to certification — and employment — for members of communities most affected by food security and problems with food safety. As part of its redesign for digital learning a full range of contemporary options are being considered including:. There also are opportunities for entrepreneurs to play a role in providing web-based, just-in-time knowledge delivery services like iCow which provides timely information to small-holder cattle farmers.

Certification tracks will be designed in such a way that participants can take courses online at their own pace with a practicum and assessment at the end. National centers will be used for the face-to-face practicum and assessment with colleges and universities being the certification entities. The Colombia case example has a unique business model. The concept is that the avoidance of public health problems that are caused by unsafe foods can more than pay for the costs of employment in the area of training, monitoring and reporting on food safety in poor areas, both rural and urban.

In raising the profile of food safety in these communities, related issues of nutrition and food security can be included to support even better social results, including lowered health costs and improved educational results. You can save more money on not providing emergency services than what it would cost you to provide education through this open model. Savings generated through improved nutrition, public health, and reduced days lost to illness, clinic visits and use of medical facilities pay for the food safety education.

Using an open model could make the cost of the education very low. Revenue will be generated from those seeking formal certification. However, programs targeted at displaced, impacted communities will be government funded or have a publicly subsidized lower fee. A matrix of stakeholder groups in Colombia and their potential starting points in using the nine different types of open practices is presented in Table 2.

For example, the OCWC makes use of open content, open access, open standards, open policy and open licensing. The community, farmers, entrepreneurs, food vendors and suppliers have the potential to make use of open content, open access, open source software, open standards and open hardware. The adoption of an open policy represents a major culture change. For some it is a leap into uncharted territory.

Although many organizations and businesses have successfully exploited the open ecosystem see examples of success in Appendix A , in many respects it is easier to start something new in an open paradigm than it is to make the transition from a traditional approach. Historically, people have provided value through their proprietary content, process or service. As content, processes and services become available for free on the internet, basic assumptions and accepted business models are being challenged. Providing seamless access to resources that could potentially be open while protecting those that need to be secured would be a breakthrough, forging a path for others to follow and may lead to the creation of businesses around this new service.

The GFSP is positioned to lead in this arena. One way GFSP members operationalize this intention is to enable the use, reuse, redistribution and remixing of the knowledge they choose to share as part of the partnership. The following broader statement is proposed to encompass the various facets of openness discussed in Appendix A. This will facilitate a staged approach as comfort with open concepts grows, without necessitating frequent revision of the policy. Partners will give consideration to the adoption and use of open strategies and tactics across all GFSP activities including:.

Engage GFSP global network and public in use, reuse, and continuous improvement of openly licensed deliverables. Will bring forward those resources to the whole GFSP group and assess return on investment of combining those resources collectively across the partnership and with the new GFSP deliverables being developed.

GFSP partners have differing understanding of what openness is and what it means to global food safety and to their respective organizations. Organization of information sessions, workshops, events, activities and resources about openness would increase awareness, adoption and use both strategically and tactically. To stimulate innovation in the adoption of open methods and the creation of new business models that leverage open methods GFSP partners should consider the use of open competitions either within specific projects or in general. Competitions are increasingly being utilized as a method to stimulate innovation and could be used to spur the adoption of open methods and the creation of open business models.

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The competition is attended by several thousand people, including representatives from major health providers, venture capitalists and entrepreneurs and has led to the creation of new businesses. This could be replicated for food safety stakeholders. The commitment to an open operating principle is founded on a belief that open strategies uniquely provide opportunities for the GFSP and all food safety stakeholders to disseminate and scale their work for greatest impact and global public good. Through openness the food safety community can leverage existing knowledge, reduce duplicative efforts, and speed and scale global solutions.

This article is derived from The Open Models Concept paper written by the authors for the World Bank under contract Open models utilize a range of open practices. Here are nine open practices, their meaning and their value proposition.

Reusing Open Source Code: Value Creation and Value Appropriation Perspectives on Knowledge Reuse

Open Educational Resources OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Former Wall Street hedge fund analyst, Salman Khan, started creating web-based tutorials to help his cousin with her math which grew into the Khan Academy , reaching about 10 million students per month and delivering over million lessons around the world. It allows farmers to see techniques demonstrated by their peers in their own language. The Food Safety Knowledge Network is an example of a University initiative providing free and openly licensed food safety learning resources that help stakeholders in emerging markets navigate the complexities of food safety and training.

Government entities, including regulatory agencies, ministries of health and human services, environmental services, etc. There is significant value to all stakeholders in having a common authoritative reference point for all industry participants, minimizing the time and cost associated with acquiring accurate and consistent information regarding regulatory requirements and food safety standards.

NGOs play an important role in helping a wide variety of stakeholders better understand regulatory requirements, relevant food safety standards and policies, industry best practices, etc. Creating and releasing documents and other educational and informative content to the public as open content can extend the impact of the NGO in its mission.

Educational institutions have the potential to further their mission to educate the public and can work with faculty and staff to release course materials and other educational materials related to food processing, manufacturing, food management, food safety, etc. Furthermore, educational institutions and faculty can utilize open content to augment or add to gaps in curriculum, leading to opportunities for cost savings for the institution and students, as well as increased opportunities for knowledge sharing and collaboration.

Manufacturers, therefore, can provide a wide variety of food safety training documents, plans and procedures that suppliers can leverage to implement adequate training regimes. Providing open content also demonstrates a willingness to have additional public accountability and showcase a commitment to food safety.

Additionally, there is potential for manufacturers and other stakeholders to leverage this content to form added value products and services, such as consulting and training services. For new business owners or entrepreneurs, knowing where to begin in order to comply with food safety and regulatory compliance related issues can be a time consuming and costly undertaking.

Access to open content, including food safety training documents, generic HACCP models and record keeping templates, regulatory compliance guidelines, etc. This can result in significant cost savings for small business owners and also increase the likelihood that these entities attempt to abide by food safety standards and practices.

Those who are successful in meeting compliance guidelines could gain credibility and possibly expand their business by documenting innovative and cost-effective means of compliance and sharing them with others. This might also be an efficient means of proving compliance to multiple buyers of their product. Open data is data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone, anywhere, for any purpose - subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share-alike summary of OpenDefinition.

Historically very little open data has been available in areas such as health, energy, education, public safety, and global development.

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Today more and more of this data is becoming available and used by entrepreneurs, researchers, tech innovators, and others to create countless new applications, tools, services, and businesses. Several decades ago, the US government made a decision to make geographic information system GIS data publicly available and spawned a multi-billion dollar industry. In the first draft of the human genome was published in Nature iv as a result of international data sharing by researchers and its public release has led to the creation of hundreds of new drugs and new companies based on that data.

In data. In , a national annual competition was created as part of the Health Data Initiative to stimulate the innovative use of health data in apps and products. Governments who collect data related to food safety, food industry trends, food safety research and analysis, can make these data open, leading to more informed decision making and the possibility of new business models that can build product and services offerings.

These advances, ultimately, feed back into the economy.

2010 – today

Universities, colleges, and educational institutions engaged in activities and studies related to teaching or researching food safety, food manufacturing, food processing, management, etc. Open data - whether historical data or current - can be analyzed and leveraged by small to medium enterprises to potentially design new technologies and software, assess particular market or industry trends, to learn about customer segments, and even develop practices that increase efficiencies in business operation and staffing, manufacturing, food processing, etc.

Many small and very small food businesses lack adequate resources to generate data that can be used as analysis tools to validate processes and substantiate food safety practices. Access to open data could enable these stakeholders to replicate processes and achieve food safety benchmarks. Furthermore, open data can be leveraged by the community and entrepreneurs to develop added value products and services that can have direct benefits to economies and businesses. There are a number of open access journals and online publications that provide free and open access to scholarly articles specific to food safety, foodborne illness, manufacturing and processing practices, etc.

In the US National Institutes of Health enacted an open access policy requiring the researchers they fund to make their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts publicly available no later than 12 months after official date of publication. The number of open access journals is rapidly increasing - the Directory of Open Access Journals lists over 9, Government agencies can provide and also promote or mandate access to publicly funded research and other food safety, processing, and scientific literature, which a wide variety of stakeholders can leverage in substantiating manufacturing practices.

The public and economic value that stems from government agencies providing access to this information is far lower than the cost of correcting the public health problems and food safety risks that can stem from a lack of access. NGOs involved in carrying out or sponsoring studies, research, and the publication of other scientific or relevant food safety literature can demonstrate a significant commitment to the dissemination of this literature through an open access policy, whereby content is freely available for people to freely access.

They can also leverage existing open access resources in the creation of additional knowledge and training resources intended for different audiences. Universities and other educational institutions involved in publishing scientific and other literature related to food safety and food manufacturing can provide and promote free and open access this literature.

A wide variety of stakeholders can leverage this literature and research to support food processing and manufacturing practices. Open government is the governing doctrine which holds that citizens have the right to access the documents and proceedings of the government to allow for effective public oversight v. Open government initiatives are focused on a wide range of topics including access to information, anti-corruption, citizen participation, open data, and budget transparency.

Success stories related to these topics can be found here. It has over 20, bribe reports filed from Indian cities and NGOs from 26 countries are interested in replicating its model. By providing complete and open access to municipal, state, federal regulation, including guidelines, draft legislation, memos, discussion, generic food safety models, etc.

Constituents can subsequently provide input that helps guide legislation and guidelines, helping to preserve cultural or local practices and provide an understanding of how regulatory requirements may benefit or hinder the processes and practices of small and very small businesses.

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Open source software is software that can be freely used, changed, and shared in modified or unmodified form by anyone Open Source Definition: opensource. Both new and established businesses have created valuable services around free software.