According to the German existentialist, this feeling is mainly expressed through music, therefore tragedy played a dominant role within the framework of the aesthetic conceptions through the consecutive eras. Nietzsche autobiography was composed just weeks before the writer collapsed into madness. Here were are given an examination of the philosopher himself, as Nietzsche traces his life, work examines his influences and his eventually toppling of them with stunning revelations.
Europe Germany Books. Save to Wishlist. Friedrich Nietzsche was born in Roecken, near Leipzig, in and died in Weimar in He is considered one of the most important German philosophers and philologists. He studied classic philology and his thinking was deeply influenced by the science of theology, as he came from a religious family. Nietzsche is one of the first existentialists and his works have been richly and variously influential. We take a look at five of them below. Courtesy of Penguin Classics.
What it all turns upon is nothing less than the composition of the next generation. It is not the weal or woe of any one individual, but that of the human race to come, which is here at stake.
Here Schopenhauer wrote:. With our knowledge of the complete unalterability both of character and of mental faculties, we are led to the view that a real and thorough improvement of the human race might be reached not so much from outside as from within, not so much by theory and instruction as rather by the path of generation.
Plato had something of the kind in mind when, in the fifth book of his Republic , he explained his plan for increasing and improving his warrior caste. If we could castrate all scoundrels and stick all stupid geese in a convent, and give men of noble character a whole harem , and procure men, and indeed thorough men, for all girls of intellect and understanding, then a generation would soon arise which would produce a better age than that of Pericles. In another context, Schopenhauer reiterated his eugenic thesis: "If you want Utopian plans, I would say: the only solution to the problem is the despotism of the wise and noble members of a genuine aristocracy, a genuine nobility, achieved by mating the most magnanimous men with the cleverest and most gifted women.
This proposal constitutes my Utopia and my Platonic Republic. As a consequence of his monistic philosophy, Schopenhauer was very concerned about the welfare of animals. The word "will" designated, for him, force, power, impulse, energy, and desire; it is the closest word we have that can signify both the real essence of all external things and also our own direct, inner experience.
Music Is the Food of Soul
Since every living thing possesses will, then humans and animals are fundamentally the same and can recognize themselves in each other. Compassion for animals is intimately associated with goodness of character, and it may be confidently asserted that he who is cruel to living creatures cannot be a good man. Nothing leads more definitely to a recognition of the identity of the essential nature in animal and human phenomena than a study of zoology and anatomy. The assumption that animals are without rights and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral significance is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity.
Universal compassion is the only guarantee of morality. Schopenhauer even went so far as to protest against the use of the pronoun "it" in reference to animals because it led to the treatment of them as though they were inanimate things. He was very attached to his succession of pet poodles. Schopenhauer criticized Spinoza's  belief that animals are a mere means for the satisfaction of humans. In the third, expanded edition of The World as Will and Representation , Schopenhauer added an appendix to his chapter on the Metaphysics of Sexual Love.
He wrote that pederasty did have the benefit of preventing ill-begotten children. Concerning this, he stated that "the vice we are considering appears to work directly against the aims and ends of nature, and that in a matter that is all important and of the greatest concern to her it must in fact serve these very aims, although only indirectly, as a means for preventing greater evils".
I have done so by giving them the opportunity of slandering me by saying that I defend and commend pederasty. He was so impressed by their philosophy that he called them "the production of the highest human wisdom", and believed they contained superhuman concepts. The Upanishads was a great source of inspiration to Schopenhauer. Writing about them, he said:. It is the most satisfying and elevating reading with the exception of the original text which is possible in the world; it has been the solace of my life and will be the solace of my death. The book Oupnekhat Upanishad always lay open on his table, and he invariably studied it before sleeping at night.
He called the opening up of Sanskrit literature "the greatest gift of our century" and predicted that the philosophy and knowledge of the Upanishads would become the cherished faith of the West. Schopenhauer was first introduced to the Latin Upanishad translation through Friedrich Majer. They met during the winter of — in Weimar at the home of Schopenhauer's mother according to the biographer Safranski. Majer was a follower of Herder , and an early Indologist.
Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of the Indic texts, however, until the summer of Safranski maintains that between and , Schopenhauer had another important cross-pollination with Indian thought in Dresden. This was through his neighbor of two years, Karl Christian Friedrich Krause. Krause was then a minor and rather unorthodox philosopher who attempted to mix his own ideas with that of ancient Indian wisdom. Krause had also mastered Sanskrit , unlike Schopenhauer, and the two developed a professional relationship.
It was from Krause that Schopenhauer learned meditation and received the closest thing to expert advice concerning Indian thought. Schopenhauer noted a correspondence between his doctrines and the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. Thus three of the four "truths of the Buddha" correspond to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the will.
For Schopenhauer, will had ontological primacy over the intellect. In other words, desire is prior to thought. If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth, I should have to concede to Buddhism pre-eminence over the others. In any case, it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in such close agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their own, for this numbers far more followers than any other. And this agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me, inasmuch as in my philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence [emphasis added].
For up till , when my work appeared, there was to be found in Europe only a very few accounts of Buddhism. Buddhist philosopher Nishitani Keiji , however, sought to distance Buddhism from Schopenhauer. This actual world of what is knowable, in which we are and which is in us, remains both the material and the limit of our consideration.
The argument that Buddhism affected Schopenhauer's philosophy more than any other Dharmic faith loses more credence when viewed in light of the fact that Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of Buddhism until after the publication of The World as Will and Representation in They are included in a recent case study that traces Schopenhauer's interest in Buddhism and documents its influence. Some traditions in Western esotericism and parapsychology interested Schopenhauer and influenced his philosophical theories. He praised animal magnetism as evidence for the reality of magic in his On the Will in Nature , and went so far as to accept the division of magic into left-hand and right-hand magic , although he doubted the existence of demons.
Schopenhauer grounded magic in the Will and claimed all forms of magical transformation depended on the human Will, not on ritual. This theory notably parallels Aleister Crowley 's system of magick and its emphasis on human will. Neoplatonism , including the traditions of Plotinus and to a lesser extent Marsilio Ficino , has also been cited as an influence on Schopenhauer.
In his student years Schopenhauer went more often to lectures in the sciences than philosophy.
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He kept a strong interest as his personal library contained near to books of scientific literature at his death, and his works refer to scientific titles not found in the library. Many evenings were spent in the theatre, opera and ballet; the operas of Mozart , Rossini and Bellini were especially esteemed. As a polyglot, the philosopher knew German , Italian , Spanish , French , English, Latin and ancient Greek , and he was an avid reader of poetry and literature.
If Goethe had not been sent into the world simultaneously with Kant in order to counterbalance him, so to speak, in the spirit of the age, the latter would have been haunted like a nightmare many an aspiring mind and would have oppressed it with great affliction. But now the two have an infinitely wholesome effect from opposite directions and will probably raise the German spirit to a height surpassing even that of antiquity.
In philosophy, his most important influences were, according to himself, Kant, Plato and the Upanishads. If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas, the access to which by means of the Upanishads is in my eyes the greatest privilege which this still young century may claim before all previous centuries, if then the reader, I say, has received his initiation in primeval Indian wisdom, and received it with an open heart, he will be prepared in the very best way for hearing what I have to tell him.
It will not sound to him strange, as to many others, much less disagreeable; for I might, if it did not sound conceited, contend that every one of the detached statements which constitute the Upanishads, may be deduced as a necessary result from the fundamental thoughts which I have to enunciate, though those deductions themselves are by no means to be found there. Schopenhauer saw Bruno and Spinoza as unique philosophers who were not bound to their age or nation.
Consequently, there is no place for God as creator of the world in their philosophy, but God is the world itself. Schopenhauer expressed his regret that Spinoza stuck for the presentation of his philosophy with the concepts of scholasticism and Cartesian philosophy , and tried to use geometrical proofs that do not hold because of the vagueness and wideness of the definitions.
It is the common preference of philosophers of abstraction over perception. Bruno on the other hand, who knew much about nature and ancient literature, presents his ideas with Italian vividness, and is amongst philosophers the only one who comes near Plato's poetic and dramatic power of exposition.
Schopenhauer noted that their philosophies do not provide any ethics, and it is therefore very remarkable that Spinoza called his main work Ethics. In fact, it could be considered complete from the standpoint of life-affirmation, if one completely ignores morality and self-denial. The importance of Kant for Schopenhauer, in philosophy as well as on a personal level, can hardly be overstated. The philosophy of Kant was the foundation of his own. Schopenhauer maintained that Kant stands in the same relation to philosophers such as Berkeley and Plato , as Copernicus to Hicetas , Philolaus , and Aristarchus : Kant succeeded in demonstrating what previous philosophers merely asserted.
In his study room one bust was of Buddha , the other was of Kant. Schopenhauer dedicated one fifth of his main work, The World as Will and Representation , to a criticism of the Kantian philosophy. The leading figures of post-Kantian philosophy , Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, were not respected by Schopenhauer. He argued that they were no philosophers at all, who merely sought to impress the public.
All this explains the painful impression with which we are seized when, after studying genuine thinkers, we come to the writings of Fichte and Schelling, or even to the presumptuously scribbled nonsense of Hegel, produced as it was with a boundless, though justified, confidence in German stupidity. With those genuine thinkers one always found an honest investigation of truth and just as honest an attempt to communicate their ideas to others.
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Therefore whoever reads Kant, Locke, Hume, Malebranche, Spinoza, and Descartes feels elevated and agreeably impressed. This is produced through communion with a noble mind which has and awakens ideas and which thinks and sets one thinking. The reverse of all this takes place when we read the above-mentioned three German sophists. An unbiased reader, opening one of their books and then asking himself whether this is the tone of a thinker wanting to instruct or that of a charlatan wanting to impress, cannot be five minutes in any doubt; here everything breathes so much of dishonesty.
Schelling was deemed the most talented of the three, and Schopenhauer wrote that he would recommend his "elucidatory paraphrase of the highly important doctrine of Kant" concerning the intelligible character, if he had been honest enough to admit he was showing off with the thoughts of Kant, instead of hiding this relation in a cunning manner.
Schopenhauer's favourite subject of attacks was Hegel , whom he considered unworthy even of Fichte and Schelling. Whereas Fichte was merely a windbag, Hegel was a "stupid and clumsy charlatan". Karl Popper agreed with this distinction. Schopenhauer had a large posthumous effect and remained the most influential German philosopher until the First World War. His legacy shaped the intellectual debate, and forced movements that were utterly opposed to him, neo-Kantianism and positivism , to address issues they would otherwise have completely ignored, and in doing so he changed them markedly.
But most of all Schopenhauer is famous for his influence on artists. Richard Wagner became one of the earliest and most famous adherents of the Schopenhauerian philosophy.
Under the influence of Schopenhauer Leo Tolstoy became convinced that the truth of all religions lies in self-renunciation. When he read his philosophy he exclaimed "at present I am convinced that Schopenhauer is the greatest genius among men. It is the whole world in an incomparably beautiful and clear reflection. Jorge Luis Borges remarked that the reason he had never attempted to write a systematic account of his world view, despite his penchant for philosophy and metaphysics in particular, was because Schopenhauer had already written it for him.
Huysmans and George Santayana. Sergei Prokofiev , although initially reluctant to engage with works noted for their pessimism, became fascinated with Schopenhauer after reading Aphorisms on the Wisdom of Life in Parerga and Paralipomena. Friedrich Nietzsche owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading The World as Will and Representation and admitted that he was one of the few philosophers that he respected, dedicating to him his essay Schopenhauer als Erzieher  one of his Untimely Meditations.
As a teenager, Ludwig Wittgenstein adopted Schopenhauer's epistemological idealism. However, after his study of the philosophy of mathematics, he rejected epistemological transcendental idealism for Gottlob Frege 's conceptual realism. In later years, Wittgenstein was highly dismissive of Schopenhauer, describing him as an ultimately shallow thinker: "Schopenhauer has quite a crude mind On the opposite aisle of Russell on the foundations of mathematics, the Dutch mathematician L.
Brouwer incorporated the ideas of Kant and Schopenhauer in intuitionism , where mathematics is considered a purely mental activity, instead of an analytic activity wherein objective properties of reality are revealed. Brouwer was also influenced by Schopenhauer's metaphysics, and wrote an essay on mysticism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Schopenhauer disambiguation. German philosopher. Frankfurt , German Confederation. Continental philosophy Post-Kantian philosophy German idealism   Transcendental idealism   Metaphysical voluntarism Philosophical pessimism.
Main article: The World as Will and Representation. Main article: Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics. Main article: On the Basis of Morality. See also: Arthur Schopenhauer's views on animal rights. See also: Critique of the Kantian philosophy and Schopenhauer's criticism of Kant's schemata. Philosophy portal. Zalta, Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Beiser reviews the commonly held position that Schopenhauer was a transcendental idealist and he rejects it: "Though it is deeply heretical from the standpoint of transcendental idealism, Schopenhauer's objective standpoint involves a form of transcendental realism , i.
A world without a perceiver would in that case be an impossibility. But we can—he said—gain knowledge about Essential Reality for looking into ourselves, by introspection. This is one of many examples of the anthropic principle. The world is there for the sake of man. The World as Will and Representation. For the philosopher, these accounts of the lives of holy, self-denying men, badly as they are generally written, and mixed as they are with superstition and nonsense, are, because of the significance of the material, immeasurably more instructive and impor tant than even Plutarch and Livy.
But the spirit of this development of Christianity is certainly nowhere so fully and powerfully expressed as in the writings of the German mystics, in the works of Meister Eckhard, and in that justly famous book Die Deutsche Theologie. Einstein regarded his separation principle, descended from Schopenhauer's principium individuationis , as virtually an axiom for any future fundamental physics.
Schopenhauer stressed the essential structuring role of space and time in individuating physical systems and their evolving states. This view implies that difference of location suffices to make two systems different in the sense that each has its own real physical state, independent of the state of the other. For Schopenhauer, the mutual independence of spatially separated systems was a necessary a priori truth. The Independent. Archived from the original on 9 April Retrieved 12 March Wittgenstein's Vienna. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Kraus himself was no philosopher, even less a scientist. If Kraus's views have a philosophical ancestry, this comes most assuredly from Schopenhauer; for alone among the great philosophers, Schopenhauer was a kindred spirit, a man of philosophical profundity, with a strange talent for polemic and aphorism, a literary as weIl as philosophical genius. Schopenhauer, indeed, was the only philosopher who at all appealed to Kraus. Ludovici The prophet of anti-feminism". Retrieved 5 May Ettore Majorana: Scientific Papers. His interest in philosophy, which had always been great, increased and prompted him to reflect deeply on the works of various philosophers, in particular Schopenhauer.
Confessions of a Philosopher. Moritz Schlick.
5 Essential Texts By Friedrich Nietzsche You Should Read
Once again, one has to understand Schlick's world conception, which he took over from Schopenhauer's world as representation and as will. Essays and Aphorisms. Penguin Classics. Leeming; Kathryn Madden; Stanton Marlan, eds. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion, Volume 2. A more accurate statement might be that for a German — rather than a French or British writer of that time — Schopenhauer was an honest and open atheist.
Schopenhauer, Philosophy and the Arts. Cambridge University Press. For Kant, the mathematical sublime, as seen for example in the starry heavens, suggests to imagination the infinite, which in turn leads by subtle turns of contemplation to the concept of God. Schopenhauer's atheism will have none of this, and he rightly observes that despite adopting Kant's distinction between the dynamical and mathematical sublime, his theory of the sublime, making reference to the struggles and sufferings of struggles and sufferings of Will, is unlike Kant's.
An Introduction to Schopenhauer's Philosophy and its Origins. An Introduction to the History of Psychology 6th ed. Cengage Learning. Although Schopenhauer was an atheist, he realized that his philosophy of denial had been part of several great religions; for example, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Friedrich Nietzsche.
Schopenhauer's words: 'Man can do what he wants, but he cannot will what he wants,[Der Mensch kann wohl tun, was er will, aber er kann nicht wollen, was er will]' accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others, even if they are rather painful to me. This awareness of the lack of free will keeps me from taking myself and my fellow men too seriously as acting and deciding individuals, and from losing my temper. Payne Prize Essay on the Freedom of the Will. Schopenhauer: a Biography. Life of Arthur Schopenhauer. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific.
Germanic American Institute. Archived from the original on 11 June Harvard University Press. Zimmern — — G. World as Will and Representation. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics. Translated by Paul Carus. Cartwright; Edward E. He had also rehearsed for the first time his physiological arguments for the intellectual nature of intuition [Anschauung, objective perception] in his On Vision and Colours, and he had discussed how his philosophy was corroborated by the sciences in On Will in Nature.
Translated by J. With the proof of the thing in itself it has happened to Kant precisely as with that of the a priori nature of the law of causality. Both doctrines are true, but their proof is false. They thus belong to the class of true conclusions from false premises. Vol 1. Criticism of the Kantian Philosophy. But the whole teaching of Kant contains really nothing more about this than the oft-repeated meaningless expression: 'The empirical element in perception is given from without.
For sensation is and remains a process within the organism and is limited, as such, to the region within the skin; it cannot therefore contain any thing which lies beyond that region, or, in other words, anything that is outside us. It is only when the Understanding begins to apply its sole form, the causal law, that a powerful transformation takes place, by which subjective sensation becomes objective perception.
The contrary doctrine that the law of causality results from experience, which was the scepticism of Hume, is first refuted by this. For the independence of the knowledge of causality of all experience,—that is, its a priori character—can only be deduced from the dependence of all experience upon it; and this deduction can only be accomplished by proving, in the manner here indicated, and explained in the passages referred to above, that the knowledge of causality is included in perception in general, to which all experience belongs, and therefore in respect of experience is completely a priori, does not presuppose it, but is presupposed by it as a condition.
Schopenhauer: Oxford University Press. Hitherto this difference has received too little attention, and its establishment is a fundamental feature of my philosophy In his translation of The Elements , vol. Helmholtz had "maintained that geometry requires us to assume the actual existence of rigid bodies and their free mobility in space" and is therefore "dependent on mechanics". For the fact that something is movable cannot be cognized a priori , but can be cognized only through experience. On the Basis of Morality. Parerga and Paralipomena.
The Descent of Man. Plato wrote that punishment should "be an example to other men not to offend". Plato, " Laws ", Book IX, Psychology Press. Southwest Review. II, p. Payne ed. New York: Dover Publications. Hollingdale, Middlesex: London, , p. Ansell-Pearson — — Psychology Press.
John Sanbonmatsu. Lanham: Rowland, Accordingly, the animal has all the emotions of humans, such as joy, grief, fear, anger, love, hatred, strong desire, envy, and so on. The great difference between human and animal rests solely on the intellect's degrees of perfection. On the Will in Nature , "Physiology and Pathology". Philosophical Writings. London: Continuum. Oxford: Berg Publishers. The effect of this artifice is quite revolting, especially in the case of primates, such as dogs, monkeys, and the like The next morning he went to look for the dead animal; all the other elephants had fled from the neighborhood except a young one, who had spent the night with its dead mother.
Forgetting all fear, he came toward the sportsmen with the clearest and liveliest evidence of inconsolable grief, and put his tiny trunk round them in order to appeal to them for help. Harris says he was then filled with real remorse for what he had done, and felt as if he had committed a murder. IV, Prop. Also, ibid. The rational quest of what is useful to us further teaches us the necessity of associating ourselves with our fellow-men, but not with beasts, or things, whose nature is different from our own; we have the same rights in respect to them as they have in respect to us.
Nay, as everyone's right is defined by his virtue, or power, men have far greater rights over beasts than beasts have over men. Still I affirm that beasts feel. But I also affirm that we may consult our own advantage and use them as we please, treating them in the way which best suits us; for their nature is not like ours, and their emotions are naturally different from human emotions.
Oriental enlightenment. Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 9 May Schopenhauer and Buddhism. Philosophy East and West Volume 43, Number 2 , pp. University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved on: 12 April Holder, Early Buddhist Discourses. Hackett Publishing Company, , p. That he was the first is surely true, but the claim that he was influenced by Indian thought needs some qualification.
There is a remarkable correspondence, at least in broad terms, between some of the central Schopenhauerian doctrines and Buddhism: notably in the views that empirical existence is suffering, that suffering originates in desires, and that salvation can be attained by the extinction of desires. These three 'truths of the Buddha' are mirrored closely in the essential structure of the doctrine of the will. Dauer, Schopenhauer as Transmitter of Buddhist Ideas.
Odin — — University of Hawaii Press. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr. This study provides an overview of the actual discovery of Buddhism by Schopenhauer. Journal of Buddhist Ethics Vol. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pure: Modernity, Philosophy, and the One. Sophia Perennis. Wagner and the Art of the Theatre. Note 5. Gutenberg Spiegel. Es kann daher eine vollkommen wahre Philosophie geben, die ganz von der Verneinung des Lebens abstrahirt, diese ganz ignorirt. We might to a certain extent regard the well-known French biography of Spinoza as a case in point, if we used as a key to it that noble introduction to his very insufficient essay, De Emendatione Intellects , a passage which I can also recommend as the most effectual means I know of stilling the storm of the passions.
Pessimist and Pagan. On the Freedom of the Will. Bibcode : Natur. Weltschmerz, Pessimism in German Philosophy, — Oxford: Oxford University Press. Arthur Schopenhauer was the most famous and influential philosopher in Germany from until the First World War. Schopenhauer had a profound influence on two intellectual movements of the late 19th century that were utterly opposed to him: neo-Kantianism and positivism.
He forced these movements to address issues they would otherwise have completely ignored, and in doing so he changed them markedly. Schopenhauer set the agenda for his age. University of Pittsburgh Press. Pauli greatly admired Schopenhauer. Pauli wrote sympathetically about extrasensory perception, noting approvingly that "even such a thoroughly critical philosopher as Schopenhauer not only regarded parapsychological effects going far beyond what is secured by scientific evidence as possible, but even considered them as a support for his philosophy".
Einstein: His Life and Universe.