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Laptops are commonly called "notebooks" do to this folding feature and their thin appearance. Recently, touch screens have been introduced into some laptops allowing some operating systems like Windows 8 to open applications with the touch of a finger. While laptops are comparable to desktops in their use, their smaller size results in some small amounts of the computing power and functionality being lost. However, their compact size allows them to be stored when not in use and the familiar "nest" of wires associated with linking up a desktop is reduced to a single power cord.

Laptops are also better at "creating" fully functional content when compared to a Tablet or Mobile Device such as a cell phone. If you require the ability to write reports or long e-mails, to use a spreadsheet in order to crunch numbers, to create a "PowerPoint" presentation, to rearrange music libraries or photo albums, or to edit pictures then you will need a desktop, laptop or a netbook. Tablets and Mobile Devices are more designed to consume content than to create. Tablets are smaller than laptop PCs, very lightweight, and extremely easy to carry, but they lack the processing power of a laptop as well as a keyboard input.

They rely, instead, on a stylus and touch screen. For those who are hardcore gamers, giving business presentations, or conducting heavy research a tablet doesn't offer the speed and efficiency that is needed to complete these tasks. However, if a person is more of a casual internet surfer or "lightweight" game player then a tablet can handle what computing is needed to do this. They can browse the web relatively easy and stream movies or Youtube videos too.

Some artists and designers are now using their tablets for preliminary sketches that they transfer into design software and programs on a full powered laptop later on as well. Netbooks are similar to laptops but differ in size as well as processing. While netbooks are smaller versions of laptops, they have been designed, to the best of their ability, to have the same functionality as laptops and PCs. A netbook's computer display will rarely reach above 10" or 12", and are more commonly smaller than this, whereas some laptops can contain up to Netbooks have been around since , roughly, and have revolved around their ability to connect to mobile networks such as the wifi at your local cafe or restaurant.

Because of this feature, it has changed the laptop industry and has been heralded as a revolutionary and pivotal focal point in the production of laptops and netbooks. Since then this capability has now become a standard among both. Even though they don't maintain some of the functionality and computing power as their desktop and laptop counterparts, they are still capable of word processing, mathematical computation, and other productivity programs that businessmen and students use. On top of that, they are also extremely durable and affordable which make them perfect for educational tools.

Students will find them easy to manage, organize, and carry around as well as a "distraction free" resource because of their minimalistic capabilities. Couple these advantages with internet access to mobile hotspots such as school libraries and it can be easily seen why this device had dominated the market for so long. It has only been a recent trend for individuals to pick up the tablet despite it's rudimentary processing power and it has been speculated that this is due to the tablet's sleek design and effective marketing strategy toward the younger generation.

Smartphones are mobile personal computers that use advanced mobile operating systems that allow mobile, handheld usage. A smartphone is much smaller than a tablet making it easy to fit one in a pocket. Not only can a smartphone make voice calls it can also send and receive text messages.

Smartphones have digital personal assistants, event calendars, media players, video games, GPS navigation, and the ability to take digital photos and videos. A smartphone can also access the internet by either connecting to Wi-Fi or using cellular data.

Chapter 7: Design and Development

The user may also download many helpful apps to a smartphone. Data is calculated and processed on a daily basis through computers in business, at home, and in education. Data is essentially the raw facts that are usually typed into a computer. We call these "raw" facts due to them being unorganized. They can come in any form from audio and visual, to text and numerical. When the data is entered into the computer, it is considered input. The computer calculates the data and spits out the information. Since this information is the output, it becomes the organized version of what used to be raw facts.

This system is considered information processing. Data can also come in other forms including figures, experiments, and surveys. Most everything that is entered into a computer becomes data, which is why this term is so vital to understanding computers and how they operate. When most people think of information, the first source that comes to mind is Google. Google allows you to access a lot of information in a short amount of time. What most do not know is that is exactly what a computer does behind the scenes every time you are entering data into a computer, most of the time without even considering it to be "data.

Many online sources provide endless amounts of information. Without information, people will not have reliable sources for school and their career. Work can be made much easier with information, including jobs which need to calculate employee's total hours worked, or any "total data" that needs to be found or calculated. Data and information are very valuable, and is most certainly the backbone of a computer. These two components may help your computer to be user-friendly by working behind what you are typing to make data useful and organized.

The Industrial Age: First general mechanical computer was proposed and partially built by the English inventor Charles Babbage in It was programmed using punch cards, and also featured integrated memory. Historians consider it to be the first design concept of a general-purpose computer. Unfortunately, because of funding issues the Analytical Engine was never built while Babbage was alive. It wasn't until that Henry Babbage, Charles Babbage's youngest son, was able to complete a portion of this machine which was able to perform basic calculations.

The Analytical Engine was to be a general-purpose, fully program-controlled, automatic mechanical digital computer. It was designed to consist of four components: the mill, the store, the reader, and the printer- which are all essential components of every computer today. Digital computing was invented by Claude Shannon in late 's. What he envisioned was a computer built from electrical circuits instead of motors.

Today, it is difficult for any student to imagine life without a computer. However, computers have only been around since the mid 's.

Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Print version

The computer industry went from making computers that took up an entire classroom to currently being able to fit into a student's backpack. Also, computers used to be much more expensive and required a greater amount of energy than today's computers. Finally, in the s, people began placing these foreign objects into their home.

During this time, people had to really study and be patient with this handy device.


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Computers today are much smaller, lighter, require less energy, and cheaper. However, in today's generation, computers are second nature to most people, and one could not imagine life without them. Computers in our generation seem to be integrated in our every day life to assist in multiple tasks related to our many needs. So much so, it is difficult to picture our world without them.

However, with great success comes great patience. In the first computer model for example, the machine required certain inputs, referred to as punch cards, and physical work to reprogram the computer. The computer itself was nowhere near as helpful, simple, nor convenient as it is today. The first generation computers were built with thousands of vacuum tubes, required physical effort to re-wire the computer, and could only solve one problem at a time. The second generation of computers introduced transistors, which replaced the vacuum tubes. Transistors simply acted as a light switch, allowing the electronic circuits to either open or close.

Both first generation computers, and second generation computers continued to use punch cards for their input. Soon after, , the third generation used a system of integrated circuits, which incorporated many transistors and electronic circuits on a single silicon chip. The third generation of computers started the innovative trend of smaller and more reliable computers. Finally, the development of our current computers, used by practically everyone in society, began.

The fourth generation of computers began in , when it was possible to place far more transistors onto a single chip- the microprocessor. This discovery led within the decade to the creation of IBM's personal computers, as well as the popular Apple Macintosh. Consumers currently use inputs, outputs, and storage that consist of: keyboards, mice, monitors, printers, speakers, hard drives, flash memory media, and optical disks.

Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.

Although the movement from vacuum tubes to microprocessors seemed to take a while, compared to the beginning of civilization thousands of years ago, this advancement happened very quickly. However, it also opens the human mind to realize that innovation takes trial, error, and patience.

The term hardware refers to the components used to build a computer. Breaking down the components into categories, you will find four main groups:.

4.01 CW complexes

Although these are the four main categories, there are three more components to consider that do not fit into those main four:. A computer case is used to put the essential components of a computer in. This provides an enclosed space and easier organization for the components to go. A power supply unit PSU is used to power all components inside the case.

What this means is that each component needs a certain amount of volts to work and the power supply will regulate the volts accordingly. An expansion card is used to enhance certain attributes of the system. For example, a sound card can enhance sound by giving you surround sound capability. Another example is a video card, this will enhance the graphics of your system. This category refers to the components a computer uses that receive data and send information. Input devices do the receiving and the output devices do the sending.

Some examples of input devices are a keyboard, mouse, and a gaming controller. Examples of output devices are a printer, monitor, and speakers. The memory within a computer can be broken down into two categories: short term memory and long term memory. RAM can be tapped into immediately by programs on a computer allowing it to compute faster, but if the user needs to save information for later use, using the HDD or CDD is required. The central processing unit CPU is used to calculate the commands sent to it by the programs used on the system.

It performs all the arithmetic and logical operations. This comes in the form of a small chip that is connected into the computer motherboard. The motherboard is where all other devices are connected so they can speak with each other. Communications hardware is important when it comes to letting computer users access information from the Internet, put information onto the Internet, or interact with other computer users on a network.

This type of hardware includes modems, routers, and network adapters. Modems and routers are the devices that connect computer users to the Internet: Signals go from the Internet service provider to the modem, which then converts them into an appropriate form and sends them through the router to the computer or, when the computer user is sending information to the Internet, signals are sent via the router to the modem, which converts them and sends them to the Internet service provider.

Network adapters are what allow computers to communicate on a small, local network. Sometimes, however, a computer may have a network adapter that consists entirely of software, called a virtual adapter. If this is in use, such as on a virtual private network VPN , then no hardware component is needed. Computer software is used to communicate with the computer processor to direct certain operations to be performed.

This is done through computer programming languages. Software can be broken into two parts: System Software and Application Software. System software refers to the software used to operate the computer components. This also provides a foundation for application software, giving it the ability to carry out the desired functions. This CD provides the operating system, drivers, Windows system, and utility software.

The operating system allows the parts of the computer to communicate. This is done by transferring data. This is also the specific component of system software that allows for the running of application software. Utility software maintains the computer systems.

Device drivers set up the ability for the hardware connected to the computer to function. Windows systems is the part that gives you a graphical interface on your monitor and allows the user to configure all connected devices. Application software are the programs and applications that are developed to carry out desired functions by the user. The way an application works is through programming software. Programming software is the middle man between the system and the actual application the user wants to run.

Some examples of application software are web browsers and video games. Computers are nothing without the people that use them, the common user and the professional. The common user is anyone that uses the computer for general purposes. This includes checking emails, playing computer games, typing up a paper, and the list goes on. What distinguishes a common user from a professional is that a professional works in the field of computer information technology.

Examples of professions in this field are a computer programmer, web designer, network administrator, and software engineer. These are but a few of the many jobs involved in the field of computer information technology. These are the people that design the hardware to build computers, they keep business networks secure, they program software to communicate effectively with the user and hardware, and develop the latest and greatest software for the common user to enjoy.

An embedded computer is a mini computer with a specific function within a product that completes detailed tasks or jobs for that product. Often times, individuals do not realize how many objects have embedded computers enclosed in them. Some examples of embedded computers used in households include, remote controls, heating pads, digital clocks, washing machines, and microwaves.

Others include Bluetooth capabilities in cars, camera traffic lights, and Red Box machines. Surprisingly, a pregnancy test is also considered a simple, yet complicated embedded computer. So how does an embedded computer work? To put it into simple terms, an embedded computer is a computing chip rooted directly onto its motherboard or logic board. Before embedded computers were invented, a computing chip would be connected via wires to the motherboard, which would then be connected via more wires to the RAM and other peripherals. This not only made the interior of any computing device look like an absolute mess, but it was incredibly inefficient and performance was never what it could have been given the capacities of the components involved.

The advantages of the embedded computers are that the bussing speed for data has greatly improved over externally transported components due to the minimal amount of physical distance data needs to travel. It was considered to be one of the highest risks in the Apollo project since it was newly developed, but since then it has been proven to be more efficient.

These embedded computer systems are used in all areas of life, and can be found anywhere from cooking and consumer functions to medical and military tasks. A mobile device is a handheld tablet or other device that is made for portability, and is therefore both compact and lightweight. New data storage, processing and display technologies have allowed these small devices to do nearly anything that had previously been traditionally done with larger personal computers.

With our ever-growing world of technology, mobile devices are at the tips of our fingers. Questions can be answered, maps can be observed, and weather can be checked. Of the many mobile devices used today, smartphones are the most common form of device. They have Internet capabilities along with the extensive list above.

Tablet devices do not have all the capabilities smartphones have, but they are used for Web browsing, gaming, taking digital photos, and playing movies as well as TV shows. This shows how technology will keep improving, to become the some of the most widely used devices around. One of the drawbacks to some of the newer mobile devices is their use of non removable batteries. These batteries are designed to make the device more light weight. Although they are made to last for the duration of the computers life, there are instances when they fail.

If this happens, it can be pricy and difficult for them to be replaced. Because of this, it is not uncommon for a user to simply throw the device away rather than spend the time or money to fix it.

Introduction

This has resulted in a big increase in what is known as e-trash, or electronic trash. Adding to this problem is the fact that these devices often contain toxic and harmful chemicals and eventually end up in landfills that are not able to dispose of them properly. Much of these devices make their way to countries with less standards and regulations for waste management, giving way to environmentally unfriendly and dangerous practices. This leads to toxic and lethal chemicals entering the air and water.

Certain organizations such as Clean Production Action and Greenpeace have developed programs to attempt to persuade manufactures to stop using hazardous chemicals in their products. Unfortunately it may already be too late to reverse the damages done from e-waste. It is essential for the well being of this planet that mobile devices and other computer equipment are disposed of properly. A personal computer is a computer that is mainly for individual use. Before personal computers, computers were designed for companies who would then attach terminals that would allow for more than one user to a single large computer and the resources were shared among all users.

The first personal computers came out around the s. In , IBM came out with its first personal computer. IBM PC took over the market and it was what most people bought. Personal computers use single-user systems and are based on microprocessors. It also contains two types of memory; main memory and auxiliary memory.

The sales of personal computers has grown tremendously over the years, according to Michael Dell in there were million personal computers sold worldwide. Midrange servers were also known as midrange computers or minicomputers in s and were mostly sold to small and medium-sized businesses. However, midrange servers started to become popular in the s.

Midrange servers are used to host data and programs for networks, such as in hospitals or school computer labs. Midrange servers stand in between entry-level servers and mainframe computers. The big difference between midrange servers and mainframe computers is that the midrange servers function as stand-alone personal computers where mainframes are a network hosts. Midrange servers tend to have more memory capacity, such as random access memory RAM , processing power have multiple processors , room for expansion have comparably large hard drives , and are more expensive than desktop computers.

Another type of midrange servers is a special home server that can be build or purchase when personal computer is not enough. Special home server links all the content from all the computers onto one network. It involves splitting hard drives and creating two separate hard drives. It can also involve server virtualization which is splitting the physical server into smaller virtual servers.

Each virtual server can run multiple operating system requests at the same time. Virtualizing servers is the best solution for small and medium-scale applications. Mainframe Computers are much larger computers that consolidate the needs of large organizations like universities, hospitals, banks, government offices, etc. These much more powerful and expensive computers are usually stored in data centers where they connect to all the other computers using a computer network. From this room a single mainframe can serve thousands of users on the same network. Early mainframe computers were first produced in the s due to the increasing processing demands of growing businesses.

From then on, these mainframes have increased in power and improved in size. Manufacturers also began bundling free software with their mainframe computers as an incentive to help compete against other computer manufacturers. Eventually, a lot of these programs and several new ones were offered as separate products that they could sell rather than just giving them away for free. Mainframe computers may be good for having one space to collect data for a company.

They are also known as high end servers, or enterprise class servers. The mainframe computer at IBM has , virtual servers and is actually very economically efficient, and more and more of businesses are trying to make them the most energy efficient as possible. The mainframe computers need a large enough space to be located for one, since they are used for large business responsibilities, such as computing data for a census, statistics, and economic processing.

They are also used for payroll and billing but are constantly running day and night with different tasks to complete all the time. The type of tasks this computer does allow for them to operate for a long time with no interruptions. Mainframe computers are also very expensive. Having to find a way to cool a mainframe computer is difficult just because of their size alone. The other problem with the computers is that they are also expensive to even run, again because of their size. The amount of electricity to cool and run the mainframe computers makes them not the most energy efficient machine to have in a business.

Now that you know the history of how the internet came to be, it's time to start exploring. You double-click your browser of choice, the screen opens up Just take a deep breath; using the internet isn't as complicated as you might think. The most important thing to understand before you start browsing through the cornucopia of online resources is the URL, Uniform Resource Locator.

The URL uniquely identifies a specific Web page. If you want to have your own website, you have to buy the domain name and then build upon your address. Unfortunately, this means you can't ever own the domain name www. In today's technologically booming society, there are hundreds of ways we are connected to computers and the Internet every day.

We use computer networks collections of computers and other devices that are connected together to enable users to share multiple forms of information [6] on a daily basis. While it is not always free to do so, such as having to pay an Internet service provider ISP , there are many places that offer free wifi to people in their area.

Today, we mostly use networks for social media, communication, and spreading of information. Think of the networks in your life. I'm guessing something like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or LinkedIn came to mind along with many others [7]. These are all networks that allow us to share information whether it be personal, images, news stories, surveys, information on new products, etc.

Another way we use the Internet for communication is through email. Most people today have an email address because they are required for registration for many different things we use on a daily basis such as the networks previously listed [8]. Usernames for e-mails have to be unique to ensure that every person in the world that wants to be on the Internet can have e-mail. In the past, blank spaces were not allowed in a username but some companies do allow it now. One symbol that is still not allowed in a username is the symbol, because it could be confused with the same symbol that separates the username and domain name.

An example of this is Drupal. Today's evolving technology is making it easier to access things like networks and email through all of the mobile devices available and the use of apps or condensed mobile versions of the full desktop websites. Besides the obvious social uses of e-mail communication, they are now being used to help college campuses communicate with their students to help alert the students of an emergency like a tornado, dangerous lightning storm, flood warning, or if an intruder is on the campus.

All in all, the Internet and computer have changed our world in forms of communication. The lowest level 4 corresponds to the physical and data link layer model OSI. The next level level 3 - is the level of interconnection, which is engaged in the transmission of packets using a variety of transport technologies of local networks, regional networks, special communication lines, and so on.

As the main network layer protocol in terms of the model OSI IP, which was originally designed to transmit packets through the many numbers of networks, combined both local and global protocols. Therefore, the IP protocol works well in networks with complex topologies using rationally presence of subsystems and economically consuming bandwidth low-speed communication lines. The IP protocol is a datagram protocol, which means it does not guarantee delivery of packets to the destination node, but trying to do it. The last protocol is designed to share information about errors between routers and network node.

Level 2 is called the primary. TCP provides the guaranteed delivering of the information and usually is being used by applications if data integrity and accuracy are critical. The UDP is being used for a non-guaranteed transmitting. The upper level 1 is the application level.

Our generation strives to be the quick paced society which we are known to be. To do so, our generation uses computers to their full potential in order to do more tasks and to do them at a faster pace. Computers benefit the business and personal world by being able to do the following more efficiently: buying and selling products, communicating throughout the world, enhancing our knowledge, job influences, entertainment, research, and paying bills. Computers also benefit society with the enhancement of knowledge of medicine which creates more effective treatments for a healthier and longer life.

Computers are improving healthcare through robotics and research. We communicate operation results and any surgical problems easily and immediately between healthcare providers all over the world. In the past, school was a physical building we had to attend. Today, we can "attend" school completely online, never having to step foot outside of our homes, or attend both online and on a college campus in what is known as a blended course. We are able to invest our time differently and accomplish more. The convenience of computers is that we are able to access the computer 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and days a year.

This gives our society time to expand our knowledge and create new opportunities for our selves. In the end, being able to communicate and engage in this fast-paced manner enhances productivity levels by a great amount. One area this advancement of computers has immensely impacted is the business field. All businesses use computers to keep track of accounts, money, or make transactions. Another field that has come a long way since the production of computers is the entertainment area. Without the exceptional special effects put into an action movie with the help of our advanced technology, the audience would most likely not enjoy the show, resulting in the potential collapse of the entertainment business.

For example, imagine watching the epic science fiction film, Avatar , but without any special effects put into it…it certainly would not be as entertaining as the power of computers transformed it to be. Hence, computers are able to keep both consumers and sellers satisfied, while still continuing to integrate into the everyday lives of average individuals. With any benefits, there comes a disadvantage. As for computers, there have been problems with excessive use, security and privacy issues and the problem with a dominant culture.

With any product, any excessive use is bad; in this case the excessive use of the computer may result in a lack of human communication for face to face conversation and more communication through the computer. To further add, people have the accessibility to abuse their time whereas people tend to be more attentive to their internet accesses and making the computer a time-consuming product. Many of the security and privacy concerns stem from the fact that a lot of our personal business takes place online.

One example of a security risk today is malware. Malware can be accidentally installed onto your computer by clicking on a link on a Web page or e-mail message that contains a malware program, such as a computer virus. Once a malware program is successfully installed, it will typically erase data or bog down the computer, but it can also a steal sensitive data from the computer such as passwords or credit card numbers.

To fight against malware, a wide variety of security software can be installed which will notify and block any attempts of malware trying to gain access to a computer. Another very common security risk is identity theft. Identity theft is when someone else gains access to your personal information and uses your identity to purchase goods or services.

A popular way for identity thieves to steal personal information is phishing, a fraudulent e-mail or website that appears like a legitimate business in order to obtain Social Security numbers or other information needed for identity theft. Lastly, societies throughout the world compete with one another for the latest technology, pitting countries against each other, While competition can be a good thing, tension and competition. It is obvious that, as the computer has evolved, our communication processes through it have as well. Emails and social networks have quickly become the telephone of the past; these tools are not only used in the personal world, but in the business world as well.

However, though computers make it easy and drastically more convenient to communicate with people, it is important to follow a few simple guidelines and watch the tone while talking. These guidelines have come to be known as netiquette. Netiquette simply establishes what is and what is not acceptable when involved in online communications. One needs to remember that though it may not be face-to-face, they are still interacting with a human being.

Act kind, courteously, professionally, and respectfully. And how can you adjust your tone of voice when communicating by typing? Simply remember to NOT use all caps, which denotes yelling, and watch your use of exclamation points. Too often exclamation points are used when a simple period is best. It is an inevitable fact that, with increasing online communications, there is almost always going to be a sense of anonymity.

Like almost anything in the world, this can be used for both good and bad purposes. Online, one can be who they want to be. They can have a secret identity, they can make unknown usernames, and they can say the things they want without feeling the judgment of others upon them. This can be used for good if it is for true, honest, and legitimate opinions. Examples of this are reviews, discussions, blogs, and important emails. The freedom of being a faceless commentator makes the individual feel comfortable expressing how they truly feel. However, it is important not to abuse this anonymity.

People often use it to insult, harm, or coerce others into fraud. It is essential that one learns how to properly and respectfully use this gift of obscurity without abusing it. Diving deeper into the aspect of anonymity on the Internet, we see the need for anonymity and accountability. Users need to be anonymous in regards to personal information, such as credit card information but need to be accountable for what they say online. Accountability means that anyone that partakes in misconduct online will be identified and be responsible for the consequences.

David Davenport, an assistant professor in the Computer Engineering department at Bilkent University, explains that allowing anonymous communication online ensures that users of the Internet become unaccountable for what they say. He believes that free speech is not hindered if users are identifiable online. YR: DE: maps-; cartography-; automatic-cartography; data-processing; computer-programs; Fortran-; topography- CC: Areal-geology-Maps-and-charts. Salzburg, Inst. New Orleans, Dep.

YR: DE: sedimentary-rocks; classification-; textures-; igneous-rocks; metamorphic-rocks; data-processing; petrology-; petrography-; Fortran; computer-programs; general- CC: Petrology-Igneous-and-metamorphic; Petrology-Sedimentary. Stellenbosch, Dep. AN: TI: A spreadsheet model for integrating stratigraphic and lithofacies maps.

CSIT Computer Info Sciences

YR: DE: data-processing; maps-; automatic-cartography; cartography-; models-; stratigraphy-; lithostratigraphy-; stratigraphic-maps; lithologic-maps; lithofacies- CC: Petrology-Sedimentary; Stratigraphy-Historical-geology-and-paleoecology; Areal-geology-Maps-and-charts. AN: TI: Simultaneous solution of geobarometers and geothermometers using a microcomputer spreadsheet.

Liverpool, Dep. YR: DE: fluid-inclusions; P-T-conditions; mineral-assemblages; data-processing; petrology-; geologic-thermometry; geologic-barometry; inclusions-; metamorphic-rocks CC: Petrology-Igneous-and-metamorphic. AN: TI: A review of recent developments in geostatistics. Leeds, Dep. YR: DE: data-processing; general-; geostatistics-; mathematical-geology; statistical-analysis; kriging-; fuzzy-logic; hydrology-; hydrogeology-; models-; three-dimensional-models; one-dimensional-models; two-dimensional-models; petroleum-engineering CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology.

Mathematical Geosciences. Natural Resources Research. Applied Computing and Geosciences. IAMG Newsletter. Powered by Dragonfly IT Inc. YR: DE: data-processing; methods-; mathematical-methods; geostatistics-; statistical-analysis; variograms-; variance-analysis; least-squares-analysis; semivariograms- CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology AN: TI: STRATE; a microcomputer program for designing optimal stratified sampling in the marine environment by dynamic programming; I, Theory and method.

YR: DE: data-processing; hydrogeology-; hydrology-; models-; catchment-hydrodynamics; geomorphology-; fluvial-features; drainage-basins; digital-simulation; drainage-patterns; divergent-flow CC: Hydrogeology-and-hydrology; Surficial-geology-Geomorphology AN: TI: MWINDOW; an interactive Fortran program for calculating moving-window statistics. YR: DE: geophysical-methods; gravity-methods; techniques-; computer-programs; Fortran; three-dimensional-models; models-; gravity-anomalies; mathematical-geology; applications-; sedimentary-basins CC: Geophysics-Applied AN: TI: Geomagnetic, geocentric, and geodetic coordinate transformations.

YR: DE: geodesy-; geodetic-coordinates; computer-programs; data-processing; geophysical-methods; coordinate-systems; Fortran; equations-; coordinates-; geomagnetic-coordinates; geocentric-coordinates CC: Geophysics-Applied AN: TI: DENSCAL; a program for calculating densities of silicate melts and mantle minerals as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition in melting range. YR: DE: data-processing; geophysical-methods; acoustical-methods; OS2IFD-; computer-programs; oceanography-; numerical-models; models-; finite-difference-analysis; statistical-analysis CC: Geophysics-Applied; Marine-geology-and-oceanography AN: TI: Pixel sampling of remotely sensed digital imagery.

YR: DE: data-processing; general-; directory-; catalogs-; computer-programs; Fortran- CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology AN: TI: An algorithm for the triangulation of arbitrarily distributed points; applications to volume estimate and terrain fitting. YR: DE: data-processing; maps-; contour-maps; cartography-; automatic-cartography; triangulation-; computer-programs; ground-water CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology AN: TI: A new algorithm for coding geological terminology.

YR: DE: mathematical-geology; methods-; Monte-Carlo-analysis; data-processing; regression-analysis; computer-programs; Fortran-; statistical-analysis; applications- CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology AN: TI: MBSSAS; a code for the computation of Margules parameters and equilibrium relations in the binary solid-solution aqueous-solution systems. YR: DE: mathematical-geology; applications-; bathymetry-; oceanography-; techniques-; geophysical-methods; acoustical-methods; data-processing; statistical-analysis; data-acquisition; two-dimensional-models; models- CC: Marine-geology-and-oceanography; Geophysics-Applied AN: TI: Program to correct anomalous subsurface temperature gradients resulting from surface temperature variations.

YR: DE: heat-flow; geothermal-gradient; models-; data-processing; geophysical-methods; computer-programs; Fortran-; one-dimensional-models; temperature-; mathematical-geology; applications- CC: Geophysics-Applied AN: TI: A numerical filter for the restitution of digital seismograms. YR: DE: seismology-; seismic-sources; signals-; data-processing; filters-; mathematical-geology; graphic-display; seismograms- CC: Geophysics-Seismology AN: TI: Zero crossover; a Fortran program to determine the dip and extent of a geological boundary using horizontal derivatives of upward-continued gravity data.

YR: DE: data-processing; methods-; stereographic-projection; computer-programs; graphic-display; Microsoft-Excel CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology AN: TI: Progress in with computer applications in the ''hard-rock'' arena; geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, and volcanology. YR: DE: data-processing; general-; applications-; education-; popular-geology; petrology-; geochemistry-; mineralogy-; Quaternary-; isotopes-; igneous-rocks; metamorphic-rocks; mineral-exploration; Fortran-; videodisks-; computer-programs; volcanology-; Smithsonian-Institution CC: Petrology-Igneous-and-metamorphic AN: TI: Computer applications in paleontology; balance in the late s?.

YR: DE: data-processing; paleontology-; applications-; computer-programs; review-; morphometry-; multivariate-analysis; statistical-analysis; biostratigraphy-; data-acquisition CC: Paleontology-General AN: TI: The need for recognized standards of applied geophysical software and the geophysical education of software users.

YR: DE: sedimentary-rocks; lithostratigraphy-; data-processing; stratigraphy-; applications-; biostratigraphy-; shape-analysis; computer-programs CC: Stratigraphy-Historical-geology-and-paleoecology AN: TI: Hydrogeological investigations; data and information management. YR: DE: waste-disposal; site-exploration; ground-water; data-processing; hydrogeology-; information-systems; management-; applications-; computer-programs; models-; theoretical-studies CC: Hydrogeology-and-hydrology; Environmental-geology AN: TI: Image transformations in mountainous terrain and the relationship to surface patterns.

YR: DE: geomorphology-; data-processing; image-enhancement; remote-sensing; Newfoundland-; geophysical-surveys; Yukon-Territory; imagery-; surficial-geology; terrains-; models-; SPOT-; Landsat-; satellite-methods; thematic-mapper; mountains-; Morne-National-Park; Western-Canada; Canada-; Eastern-Canada; boreal-environment; environment-; discriminant-analysis; statistical-analysis CC: Surficial-geology-Geomorphology; Geophysics-Applied AN: TI: Spatial and spectral classification of remote-sensing imagery.

YR: DE: Yukon-Territory; geophysical-surveys; remote-sensing; imagery-; classification-; data-processing; Western-Canada; Canada-; southwestern-Yukon-Territory; segmentation-; models-; altitude-; Landsat-; satellite-methods; thematic-mapper; Kluane-National-Park; computer-programs CC: Geophysics-Applied AN: TI: Segmentation of well logs by maximum likelihood estimation; the algorithm and Fortran implementation. YR: DE: data-processing; geophysical-methods; well-logging; algorithms-; computer-programs; Fortran; segmentation-; models-; Kalman-filters CC: Geophysics-Applied AN: TI: Kinematic modeling of cross-sectional deformation sequences by computer simulation; coding and implementation of the algorithm.

YR: DE: deformation-; theoretical-studies; compression-; folds-; mechanics-; shear-; data-processing; structural-geology; faults-; models-; algorithms-; kinematics-; digital-simulation CC: Structural-geology AN: TI: Multisite binding equilibria and speciation codes; incorporation of the electrostatic interaction approach into PHREEQE. YR: DE: data-processing; methods-; kriging-; computer-programs; COKRI-; statistical-analysis; Matlab-; mathematical-geology CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology AN: TI: An interactive program for the graphical representation of striated faults and applied normal and tangential stresses.

YR: DE: faults-; interpretation-; data-processing; structural-geology; deformation-; theoretical-studies; stress-; computer-programs; Fortran; histograms-; statistical-analysis; stylolites-; secondary-structures; sedimentary-structures; striations-; bedding-plane-irregularities; slickensides-; ultrastructure-; graphic-methods; brittle-deformation; interactive-techniques CC: Structural-geology AN: TI: EXSHALL; a Turkel-Zwas explicit large time-step Fortran program for solving the shallow-water equations in spherical coordinates.

YR: DE: data-processing; general-; computer-programs; EXSHALL-; Fortran-; Turkel-Zwas; models-; algorithms-; filtration-; shallow-water-environment; environment-; mathematical-geology; meteorology-; finite-difference-analysis; statistical-analysis; spherical-models CC: Miscellaneous-and-mathematical-geology AN: TI: A Fortran program for interpretation of relative permeability from unsteady-state displacements with capillary pressure included.

YR: DE: data-processing; engineering-geology; petroleum-engineering; reservoir-properties; computer-programs; Fortran-; models-; permeability-; capillary-pressure; equations- CC: Engineering-geology AN: TI: A Fortran subroutine for cartographic generalization. YR: DE: sedimentary-rocks; classification-; textures-; igneous-rocks; metamorphic-rocks; data-processing; petrology-; petrography-; Fortran; computer-programs; general- CC: Petrology-Igneous-and-metamorphic; Petrology-Sedimentary AN: TI: Paleocurrent analysis using Lotus YR: DE: sedimentary-structures; planar-bedding-structures; cross-bedding; data-processing; sedimentary-petrology; sedimentation-; computer-programs; Lotus; Fortran-; paleocurrents-; provenance-; mathematical-geology; equations-; sinuosity- CC: Petrology-Sedimentary [DOS] bytes [UNIX] bytes [MAC] bytes AN: TI: A spreadsheet model for integrating stratigraphic and lithofacies maps.

YR: DE: data-processing; maps-; automatic-cartography; cartography-; models-; stratigraphy-; lithostratigraphy-; stratigraphic-maps; lithologic-maps; lithofacies- CC: Petrology-Sedimentary; Stratigraphy-Historical-geology-and-paleoecology; Areal-geology-Maps-and-charts AN: TI: Simultaneous solution of geobarometers and geothermometers using a microcomputer spreadsheet.

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YR: DE: fluid-inclusions; P-T-conditions; mineral-assemblages; data-processing; petrology-; geologic-thermometry; geologic-barometry; inclusions-; metamorphic-rocks CC: Petrology-Igneous-and-metamorphic AN: TI: A review of recent developments in geostatistics. This is an introductory course in high level programming language, Visual Basic VB , which introduces elementary ideas of object-oriented and event-driven programming, concepts using VB. Scientific problem solving; structured program development: simple algorithm design, arithmetic operations, data types and their declarations; control statements, loops, input and output including text files; arrays, functions, mathematical functions and round off error estimation.

Applications to engineering, sciences and mathematics. Credit will not be given for both CSIT and Background assumed: N. An introductory course in client-side web technologies: HTML, cascading style sheets and JavaScript; designing and publishing a web site. A comprehensive overview of the scope and dynamics of computer science.

Survey of the field of computer science. Topics include: history of computing, computer organization and components, operating systems, programming languages, introduction to programming and program development, data structures, problem solving, software engineering, computer ethics, and computer applications. The course introduces information technology used in day-to-day business operations. It covers business applications software for office management, communication, project management, relational databases, eCommerce, web development, data transmission and networks, etc.

The course also covers such basic information systems concepts as querying simple databases, data analysis and database design. Laboratory instruction is used to complement the course with hands-on experience with a set of above applications. The course is designed for students who will work as end-users, user-managers, leaders, or information systems professionals.

Introduces desktop, internet, and network security issues and how they interact with the ethical values of individuals, organizations, and society. Includes methods of avoiding, detecting, and analyzing network intrusions as well as the ethics related to computer security and privacy. Integrated Algebra and Geometry, or Math A, or equivalent. The course introduces multimedia systems from a theoretical and practical perspective. Topics covered include: computer manipulation of images, music, animation, and video, including theoretical aspects of lighting, color, elementary acoustics principles, motion, perspective, graphical and sound file formats, and network transmission.

Various software packages will be introduced: for raster and vector graphics; for 2-D- and 3-D-modeling and animation; for sound recording and editing. Using these software packages and applying the principles learned in the course, students will practice creating, processing, and modifying graphics and sound. Students will gain practical hands-on experience through the course work and understand the operating principles of multimedia systems.

No programming background is assumed. Advanced visual Basic programming techniques with graphical user interface and Active X controls. Topics include: multiple forms and other GUI elements, database concepts and interacting with databases, server side web programming, dynamic and static data types, arrays, files, lists, stacks and queues, concept of classes and related notions, designing Windows API calls and Windows registry functions and advanced event-driven business applications.

The course provides a computer laboratory component to ensure practice with the above concepts. An advanced course in server-side web programming. Topics include: cookies, file and database access, portals and web applications; server side scripting. This course will provide an introduction to current and future techniques for computer game design and implementation. Topics will cover graphics game engines, motion generation, behavioral control for autonomous characters, layered game architecture, interaction structure, and interface issues of multi-user play. The course will emphasize a practical approach to the development of games.

A variety of game development technologies will be considered. Object-oriented design methodologies; object-oriented programming; class concepts, encapsulation; operator overloading, polymorphism, inheritance; virtual, constant and friend functions; constructors and destructors; dynamic and delayed binding; abstract classes and interfaces; function overloading; and exception handling; advanced OO programming and applications.

UNIX commands, shells, utilities, editors; file types and modes; shell scripts; make-files; memory and storage management; C programming tools; processes, IPC signals, sockets, pipes ; development tools; streams; networking; UNIX internals, system administration and other topics as time permits. Study of mathematical topics needed for further study of computer science at the advanced undergraduate level, including: logic, sets, proof techniques, matrices, basic number theory, modular arithmetic, functions, linear transformations, relations, basic combinatorics.

A continuation of CSIT Topics include combinatorics, digraphs, and trees; recurrence relations; switching circuits and logic gates; automata, grammars and languages; other topics as time permits. Overview of information systems IS for operational, tactical and strategic functions of business organizations; IS practices and challenges for business competitiveness; data, information and knowledge processing; information systems theory and quality decision, systems analysis and design, database management, network and network management; electronic commerce and social and ethical issues; IS and IT planning and implementation.

Selected topics in computer and information sciences based on instructor or student interest requiring basic understanding of computer information systems operations. Participation in an approved professional experience in the area of computer science. Students must submit a proposal describing the work experience, its relationship to subject matter in computer science, and how it will be monitored and evaluated.

Permission of the department required. This course is designed to introduce and explore new subjects in Computer and Information Sciences at level based on faculty and student interest. Non-credit course for students interested in performing computer-related services for the Computer and Information Sciences program. An introduction to cross platform and hybrid mobile application aesthetic design.

This course emphasizes prototyping mobile applications and powering their functionality through iterative development. The course includes a comprehensive project including the design and implementation of a web-based software product based on predefined specifications.

Computer Science (CPTR)

Introduction to the basic concepts of computer organization, digital logic, data representation, and machine instructions repertoire; memory access and storage; instruction execution; assembly language; computer organization; levels of computer structures; data representation and transfer; digital arithmetic; memory structure and addressing methods; cache; secondary memory structure and organization. For Computer Information Systems majors; Computer Science majors may not count this course to meet major requirements.

The course introduces techniques, ideas, and models involved in designing, implementing, and evaluating interactive technologies for human use.


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It explores principles of design and usability, with an emphasis on the human-side of interaction. Accordingly, in addition to human and computing factors, the role of task goals and context are highlighted as key to understanding interaction phenomena at the individual, group, organizational, and societal levels. These include issues related to internationalization, such as cultural, ethical, and social aspects of interaction. Students will learn how to gather requirements, to design usable interfaces, and both implementation and evaluation processes. They will gain hands-on experience with contemporary interaction design techniques, and will have the opportunity to analyze and critique various computing interfaces including web sites, computer systems, video games, mobile devices, and more.

Brief history of programming languages; language design issues; syntax and translation; data types; sequence control; the procedural paradigm; the object-oriented paradigm; the functional paradigm; the logical paradigm.


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This course introduces system development for the Android, iPhone or Windows mobile operating systems from both the practical software implementation and the theoretical software design perspectives. Computer networking overview; OSI model and network layers; Ethernet and other local area network technologies; routing and data flow control; point-to-point, broadcasting, local and wide area networks; internetworking; modern network management protocols; network administration. Some programming assignments and practical work may be assigned to gain understanding of the network protocols.

Review of basic data structures and algorithmic complexities; recursion; topological order; Sorting and searching; Huffman codes; tries; binary trees; binary search trees; tree traversals; general trees, heaps, balanced trees; priority queues; hashing; graphs, graph algorithms. Review of business programming language principles and techniques; interfacing with computing environment; sorting, table handling, indexing and searching; preparation and handling of data; file organization, and file update; business system analysis, design and implementation; introduction to business information systems.

An intensive project-oriented course utilizing emerging technologies. Departmental approval is required. Independent study of a selected list of readings approved by a faculty advisor. Programming and development for embedded microcontrollers.