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Chester Zmudzinski wrote an energetic critique of the Fund in Jun of saying that the Fund wanted to limit Neighborhood House to social group work and community organization, and expected volunteers and students to take over the rest of the activities. Zmudzinski himself ruminated that one center would likely have to be dropped. This was about much more than a cut to one city organization.
The United Givers Fund was in fact making choices that would increase funding to some organizations and cut others, such as MNC, by as much as ten percent. Seventeen members of the Ninth Ward Organization promised to end their contributions to the fund. Others threatened to picket the Givers building, start a counter-fund, and even sue the Fund on the grounds that it solicited contributions from area residents by asking them to support Neighborhood House when they were really going to close it. This reporting, and the fanning of the flames, came through The Capital Times newspaper, known as the more progressive of the two Madison newspapers.
Madison Neighborhood Centers was doing its own damage control. MNC nonetheless got an earful for not threatending to end their relationship with the Fund and not forming a special committee to deal with the issues. Then in February word came that MNC was somehow keeping all four centers open. Certainly the wide support from political officials and the public for Neighborhood House helped. The United Givers Fund cut would begin a period of tremendous struggle within MNC that would reverberate through the community centers. Back at Neighbohood House, and just as the United Givers Fund cuts went into effect, the Dane County Mental Health Center, which had been renting out one wing of the building, began looking for bigger space to handle a fifty percent increase in clients.
Technology and Culture
Neighborhood House had reduced its director position to part-time status, and had lost its director in the process. These times must have been amazingly distracting for the staff at Neighborhood House. No one could have blamed them if they would have just walked away. We would have lauded them if they had simply persevered.
But, far from just hunkering down and trying to ride the storm out, they ventured right out into the maelstrom, innovating like they had never innovated before. Perhaps the innovation that was most ahead of its time was the Independent Living for the Elderly project. But it remained a seriously underserved population segment. With token funding from the United Way Innovation Fund and a grant from the State Division of Aging, Neighborhood House initiated a pilot project to provide transportation, educational services, and home visitation for the elderly. The transportation services would not simply get elders to various care services but also to events and other places.
Paul Rowland was unemployed at the time he began volunteering at Neighborhood House. Among his duties was driving the van that transported elders around town. Neighborhood House made the daring choice of hiring Lawrence Merkle, who was the very first male graduate in pre-school education from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, to co-direct an innovative new daycare center with Mrs. Venice Duter, another University of Wisconsin graduate experienced in special education.
The teacher is there to help and enhance what the child is doing. For older youth, Neighborhood House initiated a youth jobs and leadership program. With Lester Pines working as youth coordinator, Neighborhood House hired ten high school students for five hours a week, focusing not just on doing the work but also learning community leadership skills by engaging in the community. In between were all manner of programs.
Quiet, kind, Miss Mary Lee Griggs had never invoked controversy and had only been in the news when her work was featured. After her retirement she had stayed out of the media spotlight except for a brief moment in when she donated a flag from the old Neighborhood House to the Gay Braxton Apartments community room.
And, for the first time in public, mild-mannered Mary Lee Griggs had been pushed too far. We get the sense that she was never that keen on urban renewal—the disruption of family life, the dismembering of community networks, and the destruction of Neighborhood House. These new plans, however, were too much. Those people who had their homes in that area sure got a raw deal. The five no votes were not identified. I believe I know from first hand experience just what was done to the people living there…. When the people were pressured out of the area they were promised that the area would continue to be residential.
Miss Griggs would have more to fight, and plenty of fight left in her, just a couple years down the road. United Neighborhood Centers the renamed Madison Neighborhood Centers had remained unstable through the ensuing years and had evoked the ire of its member centers. The attendees additionally passed a resolution to review the UNC director, and by-law changes that gave centers more power in UNC decisions. Weathering the storm in the Neighborhood House director chair this time was Marjorie Chirichella—who had covered Neighborhood House news as a a writer for the Wisconsin State Journal while she was a University of Wisconsin student.
She was from the east coast, and was definitely not part of subdued midwestern culture. Along with the after-school program Marge ran, she was also known for loading up the Neighborhood House summer camp kids, and her two dogs, into her own blue van for trips near and far. This fight to save Neighborhood House seemed like history repeating itself.
Once again, no willing buyer stepped forward at a price that UNC was willing to entertain. Even while under constant pressure, or perhaps because of it, Neighborhood House worked to expand its power and establish itself as a force in city politics. There was not enough money left in the Triangle urban renewal pot to support the plan, and Neighborhood House was exploring other ways to spend the funds.
And Neighborhood House brought political education into the mix. They hosted the first film festival dedicated to older adults, which included films about the Gray Panthers and other activist elders, co-presented with the Resource Exchange Network of the University of Wisconsin School of Social Work and Jewish Social Services. And grow programs he did. Neighborhood House became the home of the SWAP program, one of the first experiments in alternative economies in Madison, where members would earn credits by doing work for each other, and spend those credits on work done by others.
The plan was to sponsor separate events that would draw each group into Neighborhood House and then develop joint programs. One such strategy was to create a network where seniors would get services from students, and in turn provide garden space for students and opportunities for conversation. Eischens was also a yoga instructor and Neighborhood House got him to do yoga instruction as a means of attracting students. The classes became so popular they ran out of space and Neighborhood House leased the space of the former Mound St.
Grocery Co-op space to open a yoga center. Bonnie Raitt came to town, I cooked dinner for her at my house…. The concert was wildly successful and complete fun to do. Longfellow School had long been the neighborhood school, and from the days of urban renewal has been threatened with closing. Eppstein participated at a meeting with a group of people, mostly parents, who opposed the closing of Longfellow. But the issue seemed below the radar in Madison initially.
As they strategized, one of the strategies they came up with was to go to the school board meeting, have Eppstein register to speak in opposition, and at the closing of his speech, call for a walkout of anyone interested in stopping it. So I finished my speech, and urged anyone interested to walk out and meet in the hallway. And 50 people walked out of the school board and all of a sudden you get a lot of press. So that snowballed into six or eight months of furious activity. This was also a circumstance where the relationships forged through United Neighborhood Centers could be mobilized.
In February of the school board delayed a decision on their plan. However, they cut a deal with the school board to come up with an alternative plan without having to admit any wrongdoing. The s, to a large extent, signaled the end of the s era. And Neighborhood House tried to settle into the new era with its own shifts. Perhaps nothing more signified the shift to the s than the passing of Mary Lee Griggs on January 15, And Neighborhood House concentrated on programming.
A program guide listed:. Monday: singing club, karate, pre-teen drop-in, teen drop-in, pottery. Tuesday: pottery class, yoga, pre-teen drop-in teen drop-in, yoga for runners, karate, weight control class. Wednesday: senior exercise, ballet, pre-teen drop-in teen drop-in karate, yoga. Thursday: pre-teen drop-in teen drop-in movies, karate, yoga for runners. Friday: crafts and cooking club, karate.
Saturday: karate. Special events: senior. Some of these activities built and maintained partnerships. Yoga classes were, for a time, provided by University Extension. Neighborhood House continued its focus on the arts, to great success. And Neighborhood House did not forget its roots, hosting an annual Greenbush reunion that brought together old residents with all those wanting to keep the neighborhood alive in their imaginations and memories.
But the s also signaled a new era of almost continuously difficult economic times. Gone were the days that funded a college education, the War on Poverty, and urban renewal.
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In its place was what would become known as neoliberalism, and its effects were felt most intensely by those at the bottom and those who served them. Wth staples from the foodbank and day-old produce from Greenleaf Grocery, Neighborhood House took its turn each week feeding 80 to people, engaging students, seniors, and evel local businesspeople in serving the lunches.
Neighborhood House as an organization was itself increasingly suffering. By David Eppstein, the Neighborhood House director, was the only full-time employee at the organization. Little noticed at first, as a result of new federal immigration legislation in and the conclusion of the war in Vietnam, the country was experiencing a new wave of immigration from new places, especially Global South places like Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America. And some of those new immigrants were arriving in Madison. The Bayview apartments in particulary had become home for many Hmong immigrants in need of extra services.
So intense was the need that the Bayview Foundation began planning a new community center in the midst of the apartment complex. While the plan was that the center would be only for Bayview residents, it was nonetheless only a few blocks away from Neighborhood House. Immigrant services was the familiar territory Neighborhood House had been founded upon. But this was also unfamiliar territory, as the lessons learned about working with immigrants were now mere history. And the cultures were different. David Eppstein voiced his perceptions that the European immigrants of half a century past had worked very hard to get along.
It was not an entirely accurate portrait, but there apparently was a level of tension between Blacks and Southeast Asians in the Triangle area that became a focus for Neighborhood House and other service organizations, with Neighborhood House organizing a benefit dinner and other cultural events for the new immigrants. Southeast Asians were, of course, not the only group that turned to Neighborhood House. I was directed here because I was told a lot of international individuals—students—came here, so I was sure I would be able to find someone else from the Caribbean.
I came directly here and I met other people—just what I was looking for—and made lasting friendships. And dance and celebrate and connect they did. Holmes had actually started as the youth director when David Eppstein was director. Holmes stepped into the results of the UNC economic disaster. And Holmes went to work. Holmes also focused on building collaborations, helping to organizing the Bayview-Brittingham-Vilas Neighborhood Steering Committee, that included area organizations, hospitals, and businesses. Holmes also helped usher Neighborhood House into the s. Neighborhood House had always taken risks, and that risk-taking spread to the arts as the s approached.
In Jim Holloway, in need of services himself, found Neighborhood House. Holloway mural In another sign of the times, Neighborhood House opened the newly painted gymnasium to touring punk and rock bands, becoming a sober all-ages venue. This offered teenagers in the Madison community a rare opportunity to see their favorite bands play live in a safe and welcoming environment. One of the most memorable shows was the punk rock band Fugazi. Five dollars to get in was a cheap price for the people who lined up to see Fugazi play at Neighborhood House on June 19th of The band from Washington D.
They are a self-managed band run through Dischord Records. Great venue for a great show. Get a recording of the Neighborhood House concert. It appeared that Neighborhood House was becoming more and more adept at surfing the heavy waves created by the constant state of crisis in United Neighborhood Centers. And then, almost as if it were an attempt to snatch defeat from the jaws of victory, the worsening UNC budget crisis forced them to again cut Neighborhood House to a half-time director. So once again, the end was nigh.
And once again Neighborhood House would prove its fortitude. We culd find no records of the Neighborhood House advisory board for this period, and the MNC board records are sparse, so we only have newspaper sources to go on. In this case, however, it was part of a photo caption showing him with a child in front of a new donated color TV at Neighborhood House, making the title more plausible.
We could find no Neighborhood House or Madison Neighborhood Center records to establish her correct name. John E.
Roger A. Peace Moves Backed by Ninth Warders, Wisconsin State Journal, May 12, —they also voted to support a resolution to stop the war and bring the troops home by a margin of Triangle area apartments get U. Records, Wisconsin Historical Society archives. It is interesting to ponder that the Madison Sustaining Fund, the precursor to what we now know as Community Shares of Wisconsin that is considered by many to be the progressive alternative to the United Way, started in Staff searches for Way to Keep Mills St.
Burrows Jr. MNC Personnel committee meeting minutes, Sept. The Capital Times, November 30, Jordan S. The community development industry system: a case study of politics and institutions in Cleveland, — Journal of Urban Affairs, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages — How MNC got ownership over the building is unclear, since the Neighborhood House Association was the original owner, but that must have been an agreement for affiliation at some point.
Wisconsin State Journal, September 12, Thomas W. Neighborhood House News Mar-Apr, probably though no year is listed on the masthead, but only in an upcoming events listing inside, lists Eppstein as director, Neighborhood House archives; Neighborhood House News, January also lists Eppstein as director. Eppstein was listed as director in in the Neighborhood House Planning Document , Neighborhood House archives, but Eppstein himself, in a interview, says he was director only until Madison teachers will pay for cost of restraining order, Wisconsin State Journal, November 27, Richard W.
Dianne M. Free workshop on tenants rights offered, The Capital Times, November 16, Records , Wisconsin Historical Society archives. Robb Johnson, S. The city council passed a resolution commemorating the anniversary—Resolutions adopted, Wisconsin State Journal, December 11, Neighborhood committee meets tonight, Wisconsin State Journal, March 8, Holloway donated months of his time painting a mural across the entire wall of the gym at Neighborhood House.
This image is reconstructed from photographs in the Neighborhood House archives. The vertical lines show where the photos were pieced together. The biker and basketball player are not part of the mural. Reconstruction by Randy Stoecker. As Neighborhood House reached the s, it seemed to settle into a pace that would last into the new millennium. Much of the credit for that achievement would go to those who provided stable leadership even in the face of continuing problems in United Neighborhood Centers.
And perhaps no one provided more visible stable leadership than Linda Weyenberg. During much of that time, the community center employed only two full-time paid staff—Linda, and the youth program director, initially Jennifer Classon. Neighborhood House hosted community meals that drew in a diverse group from the community, from the homeless to university professors, in an attempt to bring people together from different walks of life.
Linda was passionate and dedicated to the Neighborhood House mission. Her son Sam tells a story about someone who came into Neighborhood House looking for clothes and a shower because he had a job interview the next day. It was situations like this that kept her motivated to create a place where people could get a shower and find clothes for a job interview.
She was driven to provide necessities and opportunities to her community. She saw this as a real opportunity to put that philosophy and perspective on life into play, and to try and foster that more. And, I think that diversity that she was able to help promote here was really showing by the time she retired.
Through the s, Neighborhood House continued building on new traditions and bringing new groups into its fold. The center remained a local all-ages concert venue. This anniversary celebration also continued a tradition of an absence of media coverage. And it was more than a select few who were interested—they had 80 kids in all. Other activities continued some of the oldest traditions of Neighborhood House. All this time Neighborhood House was also managing the challenges created by the continuing troubles of United Neighborhood Centers.
The city council was considering a budget amendment that would allow centers to keep getting their portion of city funds even if they became independent. The transition was not easy for Neighborhood House either. We did get funding from the city that helped, but we were always trying to raise money because we were always in short fall for the budget. Neighborhood House was still adjusting to its newly independent status when the September 11th, terrorist attacks shocked the United States, leaving the nation at a loss for words and searching for direction. And, like the anti-immigrant sentiment that Neighborhood House worked to overcome during World War II, some people directed their reactions at innocent immigrants.
Muslim Americans across the country became outsiders in their communities as a result of misguided anger from their neighbors. A group of Muslim women in Madison, Wisconsin felt the direct effects. The Neighborhood House was a safe haven not just for the food, not just for the fun, not just for the good, but for the bad, for the support.
She used Neighborhood House as a way to bring a sense of belonging and stability to the lives of Muslim women and provide a safe haven where they could meet. My sisters here are truly there for me [with services like] laundry, cleaning, food, family. I can count on the people here. As the Neighborhood House budget declined, they helped in whatever way they could. We see Neighborhood House as a family home. So coming here where everything is just so regulated and segmented, that I see people staying in their houses more than interacting with their neighbors.
So in that sense we see the Neighborhood House as the community meeting place where people can meet other people. So we had to find some other place and I thought, ah, Neighborhood House. Youth services and activities have always been a core part of the Neighborhood House mission. And the youth program directors have always been core staff. In the new millennium youth changed, and the role of the youth director became ever more important. Youth were becoming more sophisticated, more savvy, while at the same time needing all the developmental support they have always needed.
Youth programming took off in the new millennium, though it also resurrected some of the oldest themes of Neighborhood House. The youth had to raise their own travel expenses, and such expectations might seem lofty. But Classon had seen what organized youth could do. That allowed Neigborhood House to pay off their van and buy new rims and backboards for the gym. The van that they helped pay off was itself an achievement that many would have called unrealistic.
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Classon was working to improve the quality of after school and summer camp programs, in order to bring more structure and provide leadership opportunities. But the world was getting smaller, and helping youth make their way in that world required more than what could be accomplished within the walls of Neighborhood House itself. Classon was using her own car to drive kids around to do community work. So she led an effort to buy a vehicle to transport youth groups.
It increased mobility tremendously. The kids were really involved in [the fundraising] part. We would host community dinners to be able to bring in additional money to pay for those things. Tehmina Islam, that youth who went to Arcatao with Classon, also became a summer camp counselor under the direction of Classon. She remembers fondly the fun and friendship these programs brought to her and the youth of the community. I really loved her ability to say something really simple and have it mean so much. The next youth director, Alexis London, would continue the spirit of innovation.
London and the Neighborhood House youth got together with artist Lance Owens for the massive project. The kids involved were not without lack of instruction, however. Lance stepped in when necessary to teach painting techniques and how to execute such a large piece of art. These include images such as kids playing in Vilas park, or the enormous Greenbush doughnut looming in the background.
The process by which the mural was created reflects the beauty and importance of Neighborhood House in the community. People who were here working on the mural had a huge amount of control over what got painted when they painted it. If you were here working on the mural and you wanted to paint a certain thing in a certain place, you could.
That really did happen. Neighborhood House also never became shy about supporting alternative educational practices seeking space in its building, regardless of their long-term prospects. Overall, university students remained an important part of the mix, with an estimated University of Wisconsin-Madison students involved at Neighborhood House in As a result, the Neighborhood House board formed a finance committee.
In this context Neighborhood House celebrated its 90th anniversary on October 21, Linda Weyenberg would formally retire in , the longest legacy of any Neighborhood House director after Gay Braxton. In the Neighborhood House board hired Zanna Majerle as the new director. But, unlike the Neighborhood House of 70 years previous, the Neighborhood House of did not have the connections to wealth and power, or the presence of a strong community to hold it up. In the midst of the crisis, Neighborhood House continued supporting alternative and diverse activities to the extent it was able. In desperation, Neighborhood House briefly considered running a beer garden on University of Wisconsn Badgers football game days, but abandoned the idea because of the contradictory messages it might send.
Miranda described hosting events at Neighborhood House as requiring days of cleaning and prep work to get the room clean and presentable. The stress was beginning to show on the organization itself. As city staff did site visits they saw the decline in both numbers and quality in the youth programs in particular, and they began pressing Neighborhood House to improve both the numbers and the quality, but to no avail. Most organizations would have collapsed at this point. From the days of urban renewal, when its neighborhood was wiped out, Neighborhood House had struggled to reclaim its space and its image.
Neighborhood House had been trying to find the path forward ever since and in , sensing the dangers ahead, the board redoubled its efforts. In the summer of , Janet Laube sent an email to fellow board members with her five-year vision for Neighborhood House. Her vision included a new or refurbished building with more distinction from the surrounding community facilities, greater outreach to youth from more neighborhoods,a revitalized and more diverse board, and an expanded image for Neighborhood House across the area communities. One board member compiled the results and sent them out to the others, including lists of possible goals, missions, purposes, and identities for the community center, along with strategies for funding such as partnerships with local businesses and hospitals.
Many thoughts touched on the facilities themselves, expressing both an interest in a new building or expanding the current location. All discussed expanding the programming available at Neighborhood House, with many interested in it being a multi-generational center with activities for youth through seniors. Others stressed the importance of welcoming a wide variety of groups and cultures to utilize the space and programs at the center. A few also emphasized partnerships with major players in the community, such as hospitals and businesses, to improve funding and meet fundraising goals.
In a report to Neighborhood House from the Greenbush Neibhborhood Planning Team, the Greenbush Neighborhood Association made several recommendations to the board at the center based on a community survey they had conducted. The first of these was more noticeable signage, as their survey revealed that few people in the neighborhood knew what Neighborhood House was.
To correct for this, the association recommended better publicizing volunteer opportunities and activities in the neighborhood newsletter, to get the local community more involved. Though few in the neighborhood used Neighborhood House, many expressed interest in utilizing the gym and attending youth programming and other activities at the center. Strategic planning became more intense in February when the board met with a community development educator from the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension to discuss needs and goals for the strategic planning.
In the notes from the session, board members established that they recognized that the constituency of the center had changed and Neighborhood House needed to re-establish who the organization did and should serve. Board members considered both a high demand with high support scenario—with a new building offering more programs and receiving more support—and a high demand with low support scenario—with all of the demand but no new resources.
In early , the board submitted a proposal to the city for a strategic planning grant, and got a consultant to help shepherd them through the full strategic planning process.
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It was not easy. A Friends of Neighborhood House group formed, and tensions between that group and other Neighborhood House supporters created challenges for the planning process. Or, maybe find a graceful way to close. But Neighborhood House had faced this before—in when the Vocational School withdrew its funding; again and again in the s when United Neighborhood Centers tried to sell its building. It had weathered a Great Depression, a World War, the turmoil of the s, and budget cut after budget cut after budget cut. Once again, the Neighborhood House spirit honed over nearly a century of experience took over.
The first thing that happened is that Amy Roundtree decided to focus on providing a summer camp even though there was no city money coming in to fund it.
Amy organized the curriculum, wrote grant proposals, and recruited volunteers who dedicated their time and energy to make the program happen. And the board started searching for a new executive director, despite the advice of their strategic planning consultant, who encouraged the board to wait until after the planning was completed.
He pushed a strategy that would show the community that failure and closing were not options. You need to keep the front doors open just like any other business. In addition, he worked to showcase to the city where money was being spent and on what programs, convincing the city of Madison to reinvest in the community center.
He led the organization to examine the various avenues of revenue as separate entities in order to diagnose how to boost revenue from each avenue. In doing this, he accomplished what he set out to do by increasing grants, funding from the city, and other revenue sources. Neighborhood House also hired Amanda Ryan in to take on the role of program director. She , too had a big job ahead of her. The summer program was the only thing that was running at the time she joined the team. She started with six mentors to be a support and resource to six youngsters in the community.
Ryan also worked with multiple interns including Ben Tolle, who started at Neighborhood House around the same time as Ryan did in , and is still is involved today in in a more independent role ensuring after school programs are running smoothly. The Neighborhood House spirit showed in the edition of the long-standing holiday auction. When veteran Neighborhood House member Andy Heidt took up the microphone to start the auction, little did he know his performance as auctioneer would go down in the memory books at Neighborhood House.
It was the most well run scenario as far as everything goes. The success gradually gathered steam. I was hopeful to have a new executive director who had an experience and a skillset to bring us really solid leadership. Perhaps most important, leaders from the cultural groups using Neighborhood House gave passionate testimony.
As finances improved, the board of directors, which had dwindled in numbers through these traumatic times, reorganized. By , the board was back up to eleven members, restoring the leadership structure of Neighborhood House. By , the financial books at Neighborhood House were secure. Dance groups began coming back and, with them, the livelihood of the community center. Cecilia Miranda was proud to see Neighborhood House again become presentable, with a waxed floor she now would walk barefoot on.
The rummage and craft sale returned. Jonathan Gramling interview, The last garage sale listing in the papers was Wisconsin State Journal March 31, Community center sets 26th annual holiday auction, Wisconsin State Journal December 5, There is no holiday fundraiser listed, and the last year it is listed is in the Wisconsin State Journal December 1, Pat Schneider, time to close a broken umbrella? Neighborhood House Community Center, Inc. Help center thrive another century, Wisconsin State Journal April 27, Heidi M. Pascual, Asian Wisconzine, Joe Tarr, No room for hip-hop?
Neighborhood House Faces Cuts.
Programs, Classes and Entertainment Offered at Neighborhood House
Neighborhood House archives. Greenbush Neighborhood Association planning team, possibly from early , Neighborhood House archives. Nora G. Hertel, Can Neighborhood House get its act together? In Neighborhood House launched into a celebration of its th anniversary. Neighborhood House board and staff did their own research at the Wisconsin Historical Society, collecting photos that filled the walls of the Neighborhood House Community Room, complimented by some much needed new furniture. The gallery was unveiled with a reception on January 28th. The entire history of Neighborhood House was presented by Randy Stoecker in a four-part series over the summer.
Then, on Saturday September 24, —the exact date of the opening dedication of Neighborhood House years ago—Neighborhood House held a day-long celebration of music, food, film, and fun inside and out. The tradition of Neighborhood House being an open space for groups of all different kinds to meet continues on today. More important than the physical space that these groups share is that they all call Neighborhood House home. This international focus is what makes Neighborhood House unique. Almost every international organization I am aware of has been meeting here or started meeting here….
The value of a neighborhood is in its ability to build face to face relationships and create a kind of semi-self-sufficient community. Neighborhood House tries to bridge the local and the global, and has stretched beyond its immediate neighborhood to accomplish that. Another way to understand the importance of Neighborhood House across the city is, interestingly enough, through the newspaper obituary column.
Morales, Cynthia A. There were 19 such mutualistas in San Antonio between and , but they were wiped out by the Great Depression. The Woodmen of the World offered similar relief. Women were active in these and other organizations that defended the rights of Mexicanos. Throught these bodies they founded schools and libraries, opened free medical clinics and raised money for victims of the flood and the Mexican Revolution.
Women in middle class organizations were especially eager to assimilate into American society. They would provide ethnic leadership in the future and create a Mexican American identity. Nixon, Pat Ireland. A Century of Medicine in San Antonio. San Antonio The time frame covered by the book really exceeds a century since it reviews the history of medicine and more particularly the medical profession and its practitioners from Spanish times to the New Deal. Prior to late nineteenth century San Antonio suffered a dearth of doctors but there was no shortage of medical quacks.
The book covers epidemics, medicines and forms of treatment, medical facilities and the Board of Health. Nixon documents the appalling living conditions of the Hispanic population after and their consequently high mortality rate. Pilcher, Jeffrey M. The chili queens were portrayed as erotic and transgressive figures who offered exotic and unclean fare. Middle class reformers — Anglo and Mexican — made recurring efforts to regulate and eventually outlaw their outdoor restaurants in the interests of urban hygiene.
Additionally, the better economic opportunities afforded by World War II induced Mexican women to work in some other business. Meanwhile, Anglo owned food processors began popularizing chili powder and other key ingredients. Pycior, Julie Leininger. Immigrant communities formed various mutualistas to offer their members loans, insurance and social outlets at a time when the public sector provided little or no relief, especially to minorities.
The organizations died out in the 's owing to the depression and the departure — in some cases deportation -- of many Hispanic residents. Rhoads, Edward J. Prior to , about 50 or so Chinese immigrants lived in San Antonio operating laundries and restaurants. They met with various forms of discrimination. Most came originally from the Canton region and lived on the west side of San Antonio where they opened up grocery stores and other businesses.
Rivas-Rodriguez, Maggie. He also established La Opinion in Los Angeles. He urged his readers to preserve their Mexican culture in preparation for the day when they would one day return to Mexico. Lozano never became a U. La Prensa took a conservative approach to issues involving Mexico but not necessarily to political matters in the United States.
Santos, John Phillip. Places Left Unfinished at the Time of Creation. Santos recalls growing up in a Mexican American family in San Antonio in the mid-twentieth century. Schement, Jorge Reina and Ricardo Flores. Spanish language programs started to air in San Antonio in The biggest challenge owner Raul Cortez confronted was in finding advertisers; many businesses did not believe there was enough of a customer base among the Mexican American community. Based on interviews with the general manager of KCOR and its public relations director.
Smith, Marvin H. The Scottish rite organization established a local lodge in Membership grew considerably during World War I thanks to the military encampments. Construction was started on its new temple near the Alamo in and completed three years later. Membership and initiation fees fell during the 's. The thesis mostly focuses on various financial schemes to pay off the debt and the ensuing legal battles. During the 's membership rebounded and the debt was cleared by Based on organization records, interviews and legal documents. Sweeney, Mary Francis. Trevino, Roberto O. White Texans looked down on Hispanics, whether native Texans or immigrants, in much the way they did African Americans around Women in religious orders, like the Congregation of the Sisters of Divine Providence, provided desperately needed services to the Hispanic community, but often perpetuated the social subordination of Mexican Americans.
Mexican nuns were denied education and often assigned menial, domestic tasks. Nuns were closely acquainted with the needs of immigrants and the poor, and between and began to confront prejudice and inequality in the schools, in social services and within their own ranks. The nuns stopped training Mexican American girls to be domestics and instead encouraged them to become social workers through the Worden School of Social Service at Our Lady of the Lake College.
Beasley, Wanda Edna. The initial goal was to improve navigation along the river so as to make San Antonio a port — a project later abandoned though technically possible. Its main responsibility evolved into flood control in Bexar, Wilson, Karnes and Goliad counties. Corps of Engineers. Mostly draws on government documents and interviews. Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. Occupational segregation by sex and race was the norm; different occupations were reserved for men and women based on their race, though these patterns tended to weaken in San Antonio during the decade.
Anglo women monopolized the better paying positions as office workers. The domestic and service sectors were dominated by Black women. Mexican women worked in the manufacturing sector, many doing piecework in their homes.
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The pecan shelling industry also employed many Mexican women during the winter months when they and their families were not tending crops elsewhere. Chambers, William T. A largely upbeat assessment of the Alamo City that concentrates on its economic sectors: commerce, industry, tourism and the military. Major industries of the time included publishing, baking, foundries and textiles. Cotton trader George W. Most of the booklet is devoted to a chronology of San Antonio history, preceded by a 2 page history of the bank. Illustrated, with color postcards of the bank circa Denver, Tom.
Denver does homage to a Texas institution that emerged during the 's. The prototypical ice house served as a local gathering place for a mostly working class clientele. San Antonio had a reputation in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a city of drinking and gambling. The popularity of ice houses peaked in the 's, and now they seem to be on the way out as the city becomes more impersonal and metropolitan. Dodd, Doris MacDonald.
Drawing primarily from newspapers and guide books, Dodd juxtaposes the development of the hotel along with the development of the city. The study also covers the buildings many renovations. Appendix includes sample menus of prominent banquets. Many civil rights issues came to the fore as local officials endeavored to suppress the strike through intimidation, violence and police harassment.
Filewood, David Lewis. The strike was the culmination of years of labor organizing within the city's Hispanic community. Support for the nueceros within the Hispanic community divided along class lines. The poor and isolated working class Tejano community used traditional Mexican forms of protest and resistance to prosecute the strike.
Their success in mobilizing their community prompted the violent crackdown by city authorities. Although the strike was ultimately unsuccessful the industry moved production elsewhere it demonstrated to the Tejano population that they could challenge a racist economic and political regime. Fisher, Lewis F. It has been the source of irrigation, floods and tourist dollars. Fisher especially looks at various technological innovations to control or exploit the river with dams, channels, businesses and beautified walkways.
A richly illustrated business history of the family and firm associated with the Pioneer Flour Mills located near the King William district. German immigrant and miller Carl Hilmar Guenther — arrived in San Antonio in after first setting up business in the Hill country. Gower, Patricia E. The immigrants had been controlled by the local political machine, but Mexican Americans turned against it when they saw it come to the support of the owners during their strike.
The police used especially harsh and violent tactics claiming that communists were using the strike to foment revolution. The strike was settled by arbitration, but a few months later the businesses shut down rather than pay the newly enacted minimum wage. The aroused Mexican American community nonetheless helped elect Maury Maverick as mayor in and installed the first city administration to seriously consider their needs.
Guerra, Mary Ann Noonan. It discusses the various structures that preceded it at the corner of St. LeCompte, Mary Lou. Johnson was a San Antonio businessman credited with keeping rodeo alive and well during the Depression decade. He controlled a rodeo circuit that included most of the major cities in the northern states. Never a cowboy himself, he was not always liked by those who participated in his rodeos, but he was a savvy entrepreneur. McCaffery, Isaias James. As elsewhere, garment workers in San Antonio and Los Angeles participated in several major strikes during the New Deal.
They were less successful in the Southwest because the heavily Mexican workforce confronted special challenges owing to their low social status, the threat of deportation, the abundance of low skilled labor, and pervasive racist and sexist attitudes. The International Ladies Garment Workers Union also failed to reach out to Hispanics and underestimated the importance of Mexicana culture in fostering worker solidarity.
McGill, Allan Cleveland. A journalism student follows the major personalities involved with the Express , the business dealings and evolving technology, editorial styles and daily coverage. Based on the James P. Newcomb papers, oral interviews and the newspaper itself. Miller, Char. After the deadly and devastating flood of Sept. Consequently when another major flood hit the city in the west side suffered the bulk of the damage. In its aftermath Communities Organized for Public Service put pressure on city officials to build infrastructure to curb chronic flooding in minority communities.
Nelson, James L. The brewery industry in San Antonio boomed in the late nineteenth century due to the local German population. During the 's the company shifted to producing alternative products without much success. Based on business records of the Pearl Brewing Company and local unions. The plaza was first laid out to protect the early settlement.
By the mid-nineteenth century its military role was overtaken by its commercial one as it became the locale of the city market, the chili queens and various forms of popular entertainment, gambling, and public events, including hangings. Mainly drawn from newspaper accounts. Sanders, Heywood T. During much of the twentieth century the city government was preoccupied with upgrading a long neglected sewage system. Historically, San Antonio did not provide infrastructure support sewers or sidewalks unless the affected residents would pay for it themselves.
The City Water Board endeavored to keep rates low to attract business, even if this meant it never acquired the financial resources to tap other sources of water. Shapiro, Harold A. A threatened reduction in the piece rate spurred workers to organize a strike in February of After 37 days the matter went to arbitration and the workers won an increase in the piece rate. Not long thereafter the Southern Pecan Shelling Company and other firms were required to boost wages to accord with the newly enacted minimum wage 25 cents an hour.
At the point the industry shifted to making greater use of machinery, discharging much of the workforce, and the industry gradually died out. Smith, Charles. The Chamber evolved from a membership based organization to a professionally managed one by the 's. The Chamber also promoted various projects to foster economic growth. Smith consulted the records of the Chamber, newspapers and oral interviews. Smith documents the changing appearance and function of the public space in front of the Alamo Mission. It first served as the courtyard of the original mission. After the mission was secularized the grounds were used by Spanish troops.
It suffered many years of neglect after the battle. The Daughters of the Republic of Texas eventually laid claim to much of the space to better preserve the Alamo shrine. The study utilizes newspapers, directories and city records. Swaney, Eugene L. This extensive survey covers the introduction of cattle under the Spanish, local ranches and dairies, the nineteenth century trail drives, the impact of the railroad, the opening of the Union stockyards in , and, in the twentieth century, the establishment of the Stock Show and Rodeo and the consolidation of the cattle industry.
Numerous profiles of prominent cattlemen and cowboys. Sources mostly published records and accounts. Vargas, Zaragosa. She first became active at age 16 when joined the women striking at the Fink Cigar Company. The strikers soon looked to her leadership given her organizational skills, her education and her refusal to be intimidated by the local, white male power establishment. In the Pecan Shellers Strike met with fierce opposition from local authorities, the Catholic Church, and the Mexican American middle class.
She briefly joined the Communist Party in for which she was vilified in the press. In Tenayuca helped organize a meeting of the Communist Party at the Municipal Auditorium that was attacked by a mob. She left San Antonio and the Communist Party not long thereafter, but she did return to her native city many years later. Walker, Kenneth P. Walker reviews the events leading up to and following the major strike of the Mexican workers in San Antonio in City officials sided with the pecan shelling companies and warned of communist infiltration.
They sought to brutally suppress the strike by arresting one thousand peaceful picketers, but the dispute was settled with arbitration. Wimberley, Laura Anne. San Antonio has been slow to properly regulate its only source of drinking water. Most of the nineteenth century settlers to San Antonio came from regions where water was abundant and failed to appreciate the need for proper management of the Edwards Aquifer.
Only the severe drought of the 's forced residents in South Central Texas to begin to cooperate by forming the Edwards Underground Water District. Farmers, environmentalists, developers and suburbanites squabbled over a water supply that is in ever greater demand due to population increase and modern conveniences. In recent years only the prodding of the federal government has forced users to confront a variety of water management issues. Booth, John A. David R. Johnson, John A. Booth and Richard J. Lincoln, Neb: San Antonio's leaders evidenced less cohesion, vision and initiative than city leaders elsewhere, such as Dallas and Houston.
The authors broad survey covers "Boss" Bryan Callaghan II's political machine of the late nineteenth century, the implementation of commission government in the progressive era, and the later shift to the city manager form of government with the appearance of the Good Government League. Chabot, Frederick C. This 6 page piece of campaign literature profiles the Maverick family. He was elected to Congress as a Democrat in and would serve 2 terms before serving on term as Mayor. Judith Kaaz. In the depths of the Great Depression, city tax collector and future mayor Maury Maverick helped establish a camp about 5 miles outside of town for impoverished veterans of the Great War.
Some had been recently driven out of Washington D. The camp was organized along military lines. Residents held property communally and strove to be self-sufficient through barter and exchange. For a time Maverick viewed the community as a radical experiment, but it disbanded within a year. Doyle, Judith Kaaz. His constituents supported his efforts to bring Federal relief and spending to the area.
His defeat in the Democratic primary was a product of his independent and liberal voting record and his abrasive personality. Doyle, J. Doyle explores the racial mindset of the liberal congressman and San Antonio Mayor in his battle with the local machine in his mayoral campaigns of and Maverick was a firm supporter of equal rights in the economic sphere, but felt that Afro Americans should not press for social or political equality including the vote.
By Maverick was warning against Negro domination should the machine win. Fairbanks, Robert B. During the New Deal, urban officials in Texas defined the problem of housing as one of eradicating slums rather than improving living conditions. San Antonio had the worst housing conditions in the state especially in the Mexican populated west side and led the drive for federal public housing initiatives.
In later years, however, anti-communism and concern over the rights of property owners slowed the growth of public housing in Texas municipalities. Fisher, Mary Maverick McMillan. Robert C. Austin, Texas: The city government ran out of money to provide any further relief late in It organized a Central Unemployment Relief Committee to raise private funds to supplement efforts of local churches and the Salvation Army. Area school districts could only pay their teachers off in scrip.
Local resources proved inadequate to meet the lengthening relief roles, and those engaged in the relief effort looked to the federal government to furnish the necessary funds. College Station: