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Ease of entry into foreign markets is also a key driver for businesses looking to expand internationally. These businesses usually have evaluated the ease of transferring technology, the costs of manufacturing, the wealth of the country, distribution channels, logistics and infrastructure, and cultural and economic factors that, when considered as a whole, offer promising opportunities. Marketers are also concerned about the access to and cost of available media and promotional channels.

Yet another reason attractive to marketers is exploiting widespread international knowledge of their brands and products, specifically products that have gained international exposure through international sporting events, satellite television, cinema and social media. Thus consumers throughout the world may already have awareness and demand for certain products even though the products are currently not available in their country. Maybe yes and maybe no. The real question is how much and in what ways. With the widespread acceptance and use of social media, satellite television and social media, some pundits hypothesize that cultures are converging and becoming increasingly homogeneous.

Some researchers suggest that this reality reflects a trend that cultures are becoming more alike. However, we also experience cultures holding onto strong beliefs and practices. For instance, using sexuality and nudity in advertising is more accepted in Europe than in the U.


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Similarly, charging interest on loans violates traditional Muslim beliefs. Marketers should be sensitive to how verbal and nonverbal expressions and brand names can be interpreted among different cultures.

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American advertising is full of nonverbal signs that can have unintended meanings in other countries. For instance, the OK sign in the U. Because nationalistic sentiments and socio-economic factors vary among cultures and regions, they can influence whether a purchase is logical, impulsive or emotional. Based on the type of buying decision, one culture may be more likely to respond to a promotional offer, another to an emotional appeal and another to either a different type of promotional offer or an informative offer that stresses features and benefits. Consequently, marketers should not assume that all consumers buy on emotion, impulse or need.

Instead, cultural differences may evoke diverse expectations, emotions and responses from one culture to another. Thus in both business-to-consumer and business-to-business marketing, cultural differences may require different approaches and adjustments in marketing mix, promotional mix and even life cycle variables. When exposed to the same advertisement or promotional offer, one culture may immediately respond differently from another.

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One determining factor might include the degree to which a culture is influenced by personal beliefs in comparison to cultural beliefs. For instance, a Middle Eastern culture would be expected to draw on cultural and religious beliefs when forgoing a pork dinner in favor of a halal beef dinner. Marketers need to evaluate the effectiveness of their promotional offers and advertising messages to targeted foreign cultures and establish the cultural prerequisites needed to be successful.


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Developing markets may lack the literacy skills to comprehend advertising and promotional messages, while other markets may be so new to western style advertising that they need additional time to absorb the message. Marketers must also be cognizant of and alert to advertising norms that may either benefit or undermine their product.

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In some markets, competitors commonly hire marketing firms to produce false and deceitful advertising to destroy the reputation of competing brands. Restrictions may also limit the advertising and promotional channels available to marketers. For example, Sweden prohibits television advertising targeted at children aged 12 and under. A culture interprets advertising and forms attitudes based on the social worlds it encounters. When a single advertisement is shown to different cultures, it may be effective or it may be viewed as contrived or unoriginal and then be quickly discounted.

How the advertisement is interpreted depends on the context, the receiver and the communication codes that form the cultural expectations of the sender and receiver. Non-verbal communication is another key element of advertising.

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Because non-verbal gestures may suggest considerably different meanings from one culture to another, diverse communicative systems among cultures have important implications for international marketing. Ships from the UK. Former Library book. Satisfaction Guaranteed!

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