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Back to Research Quantum Quantum technology Time and frequency. Further progress in studies of atomic structure was in tight connection with the advance to shorter wavelength in EUV region. In Osgood  and Hoag  reported on grazing incidence concave grating spectrographs and photographed lines down to 4.
Handbook for Highly Charged Ion Spectroscopic Research
Dauvillier  used a fatty acid crystal of large crystal grating space to extend soft x-ray spectra up to Grotrian  developed his graphic presentation of energy structure of the atoms. Russel and Saunders  proposed their coupling scheme for the spin-orbit interaction and their generally recognized notation for spectral terms.
Theoretical quantum-mechanical calculations become rather accurate to describe the energy structure of some simple electronic configurations. The results of theoretical developments were summarized by Condon and Shortley  in Spectra of rather high ionization stages e. Cu XIX were observed. This implied that the solar corona has a temperature of a million degrees, and strongly advanced understanding of solar and stellar physics.
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See X-ray astronomy. More intense research continued since including spectrometers on satellites. In the same period the laboratory spectroscopy of MIA becomes relevant as a diagnostic tool for hot plasmas of thermonuclear devices see Nuclear fusion which begun with building Stellarator in by Spitzer, and continued with tokamaks , z-pinches and the laser produced plasmas.
Laser spectroscopy on highly charged ions
Simultaneously theoretical and computational approaches provided data necessary for identification of new spectra and interpretation of observed line intensities. A new page in the spectroscopy of MIA may be dated as with development of EBIT Levine and Marrs, LLNL due to a favorable composition of modern high technologies such as cryogenics , ultra-high vacuum , superconducting magnets , powerful electron beams and semiconductor detectors.
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It has been suggested that this article be merged into history of spectroscopy. Discuss Proposed since November Dover, New York, , 4th ed. Micrographia: or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses with observations and inquiries thereupon…. Leyden published The Bakerian Lecture. On the theory of light and colours".
The Discovery of New Emission Lines from Highly Charged Heavy Ions | Lab Manager
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. The Royal Society.
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In George Peacock ed. Miscellaneous works of the late Thomas Young Volume 1. Annalen der Physik. Bibcode : AnP Preliminary notice of the results accomplished in the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purposes" PDF. On the spectra of sodium and potassium".
Annalen der Physik in German.
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Svenska Vetensk. Handbuch der Physik.