He only buried alive scholars, while we buried 46, In our suppression of the counter-revolutionaries, did we not kill some counter-revolutionary intellectuals? I once debated with the democratic people: You accuse us of acting like Ch'in-shih-huang, but you are wrong; we surpass him times. The People's Republic of China under Mao exhibited the oppressive tendencies that were discernible in all the major absolutist regimes of the twentieth century.
Each of these regimes witnessed deliberately ordered mass 'cleansing' and extermination. Others, such as Philip Short , reject such comparisons in Mao: A Life , arguing that whereas the deaths caused by Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia were largely systematic and deliberate, the overwhelming majority of the deaths under Mao were unintended consequences of famine. Short argues, "Mao's tragedy and his grandeur were that he remained to the end in thrall to his own revolutionary dreams He freed China from the straitjacket of its Confucian past, but the bright Red future he promised turned out to be a sterile purgatory.
Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that whilst Mao "was a great leader in history", he was also "a great criminal because, not that he wanted to, not that he intended to, but in fact, his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people. He put no value on human life. The deaths of others meant nothing to him. For example, they note that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the deaths of millions. While discussing labour-intensive projects such as waterworks and making steel, Mao said to his inner circle in November "Working like this, with all these projects, half of China may well have to die.
If not half, one-third, or one-tenth—50 million—die. Thomas Bernstein of Columbia University argues that this quotation is taken out of context, claiming:. The Chinese original, however, is not quite as shocking. In the speech, Mao talks about massive earthmoving irrigation projects and numerous big industrial ones, all requiring huge numbers of people.
If the projects, he said, are all undertaken simultaneously "half of China's population unquestionably will die; and if it's not half, it'll be a third or ten percent, a death toll of 50 million people. Anhui wants to do so much, which is quite all right, but make it a principle to have no deaths.
And he exposes the extent of the violence used against the peasants": . Mass killings are not usually associated with Mao and the Great Leap Forward, and China continues to benefit from a more favourable comparison with Cambodia or the Soviet Union. But as fresh and abundant archival evidence shows, coercion, terror and systematic violence were the foundation of the Great Leap, and between and , by a rough approximation, some 6 to 8 per cent of those who died were tortured to death or summarily killed—amounting to at least 3 million victims.
And all of them shared an ideology in which the end justified the means. In , having lost millions of people in his province, Li Jingquan compared the Great Leap Forward to the Long March in which only one in ten had made it to the end: 'We are not weak, we are stronger, we have kept the backbone. He also notes that "In a chilling precursor of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, villagers in Qingshui and Gansu called these projects the 'killing fields'.
The United States placed a trade embargo on the People's Republic as a result of its involvement in the Korean War , lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with the PRC would be useful in dealing with the Soviet Union. The television series Biography stated: "[Mao] turned China from a feudal backwater into one of the most powerful countries in the World The Chinese system he overthrew was backward and corrupt; few would argue the fact that he dragged China into the 20th century.
But at a cost in human lives that is staggering. Wasserstrom of the University of California, Irvine compares China's relationship to Mao Zedong to Americans' remembrance of Andrew Jackson : both countries regard the leaders in a positive light, despite their respective roles in devastating policies. Jackson forcibly moved Native Americans , resulting in thousands of deaths, while Mao was at the helm during the violent years of the Cultural Revolution and the Great Leap Forward: .
Though admittedly far from perfect, the comparison is based on the fact that Jackson is remembered both as someone who played a significant role in the development of a political organization the Democratic Party that still has many partisans, and as someone responsible for brutal policies toward Native Americans that are now referred to as genocidal. Both men are thought of as having done terrible things yet this does not necessarily prevent them from being used as positive symbols.
Mao Tse Tung | History TV
At times Jackson, for all his flaws, is invoked as representing an egalitarian strain within the American democratic tradition, a self-made man of the people who rose to power via straight talk and was not allied with moneyed interests. Mao stands for something roughly similar. Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one, especially in manners of guerrilla warfare, at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius.
Mao had successfully applied Mobile Warfare in the Korean War, and was able to encircle, push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea, despite the clear superiority of UN firepower. Let us imagine how many people would die if war breaks out. There are 2. If it is a little higher, it could be half I say that if the worst came to the worst and one-half dies, there will still be one-half left, but imperialism would be razed to the ground and the whole world would become socialist.
After a few years there would be 2. But historians dispute the sincerity of Mao's words. Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama 's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems. The ideology of Maoism has influenced many Communists, mainly in the Third World , including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia 's Khmer Rouge ,  Peru 's Shining Path , and the Nepalese revolutionary movement. Under the influence of Mao's agrarian socialism and Cultural Revolution , Cambodia's Pol Pot conceived of his disastrous Year Zero policies which purged the nation of its teachers, artists and intellectuals and emptied its cities, resulting in the Cambodian genocide.
China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death, and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism, in line with Mao's view of " Capitalist roaders " within the Communist Party. As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late s and as later Chinese leaders took power, less recognition was given to the status of Mao.
This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organised numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's th birthday. Nevertheless, the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao. In the mids, Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People's Republic of China. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognised in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency.
- The Non-Sovereign Self, Responsibility, and Otherness: Hannah Arendt, Judith Butler, and Stanley Cavell on Moral Philosophy and Political Agency.
- When Soldiers Quit: Studies in Military Disintegration.
- Structural Pattern Recognition with Graph Edit Distance: Approximation Algorithms and Applications?
On March 13, , a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping. Mao gave contradicting statements on the subject of personality cults. In , as a response to the Khrushchev Report that criticised Joseph Stalin , Mao stated that personality cults are "poisonous ideological survivals of the old society", and reaffirmed China's commitment to collective leadership.
In , Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement SEM in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the "temptations" of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from Liu's economic reforms. Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them, and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership. Over the years, Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere, present in homes, offices and shops.
His quotations were typographically emphasised by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings. Music from the period emphasised Mao's stature, as did children's rhymes. The phrase "Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years " was commonly heard during the era.
Mao also has a presence in China and around the world in popular culture, where his face adorns everything from T-shirts to coffee cups. Mao's granddaughter, Kong Dongmei, defended the phenomenon, stating that "it shows his influence, that he exists in people's consciousness and has influenced several generations of Chinese people's way of life. Just like Che Guevara's image , his has become a symbol of revolutionary culture.
This is a common Chinese naming convention. He became Mao Zedong's liaison with the Politburo in Mao Zedong had a total of ten children,  including:. Mao's first and second daughters were left to local villagers because it was too dangerous to raise them while fighting the Kuomintang and later the Japanese. Their youngest daughter born in early in Moscow after Mao separated and one other child born died in infancy. Two English researchers who retraced the entire Long March route in —  located a woman whom they believe might well be one of the missing children abandoned by Mao to peasants in Through his ten children, Mao became grandfather to twelve grandchildren, many of whom he never knew.
He has many great-grandchildren alive today. One of his granddaughters is businesswoman Kong Dongmei, one of the richest people in China. Mao's private life was kept very secret at the time of his rule. However, after Mao's death, Li Zhisui , his personal physician, published The Private Life of Chairman Mao , a memoir which mentions some aspects of Mao's private life, such as chain-smoking cigarettes, addiction to powerful sleeping pills and large number of sexual partners.
Having grown up in Hunan , Mao spoke Mandarin with a marked Hunanese accent. Sinologist Stuart Schram emphasised Mao's ruthlessness, but also noted that he showed no sign of taking pleasure in torture or killing in the revolutionary cause. Levine wrote that Mao was a "man of complex moods", who "tried his best to bring about prosperity and gain international respect" for China, being "neither a saint nor a demon. Mao had learned some English language, particularly through Zhang Hanzhi , who was his English teacher, interpreter and diplomat who later married Qiao Guanhua , Foreign Minister of China and the head of China's UN delegation.
He first chose to systematically learn English in the s, which was very unusual as the main foreign language first taught in Chinese schools at that time was Russian. Mao was a prolific writer of political and philosophical literature. Mao wrote several other philosophical treatises, both before and after he assumed power. These include:. Mao was also a skilled Chinese calligrapher with a highly personal style. In China, Mao was considered a master calligrapher during his lifetime. There currently exist various competitions specialising in Mao-style calligraphy. As did most Chinese intellectuals of his generation, Mao's education began with Chinese classical literature.
Mao told Edgar Snow in that he had started the study of the Confucian Analects and the Four Books at a village school when he was eight, but that the books he most enjoyed reading were Water Margin , Journey to the West , the Romance of the Three Kingdoms and Dream of the Red Chamber. Brooding over this immensity, I ask, on this boundless land Who rules over man's destiny?
Some of his most well-known poems are Changsha , The Double Ninth Mao has been portrayed in film and television numerous times. Some notable actors include: Han Shi, the first actor ever to have portrayed Mao, in a drama Dielianhua and later again in a film Cross the Dadu River ;  Gu Yue , who had portrayed Mao 84 times on screen throughout his year career and had won the Best Actor title at the Hundred Flowers Awards in and ;   Liu Ye , who played a young Mao in The Founding of a Party ;  Tang Guoqiang , who has frequently portrayed Mao in more recent times, in the films The Long March and The Founding of a Republic , and the television series Huang Yanpei , among others.
The Beatles ' song " Revolution " refers to Mao: " From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mao disambiguation. This is a Chinese name ; the family name is Mao. Mao Yichang father Wen Qimei mother. Central institution membership. Other offices held. Main article: Early life of Mao Zedong. Main article: Early revolutionary activity of Mao Zedong. Play media. Main article: Second Sino-Japanese War. Main article: Great Leap Forward. Main article: Sino-Soviet split. Main article: Cultural Revolution. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Death and state funeral of Mao Zedong. Further information: Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Had Mao died in , his achievements would have been immortal. Had he died in , he would still have been a great man but flawed. But he died in Alas, what can one say? Main article: Poetry of Mao Zedong. Biography portal China portal Communism portal. Due to its recognizability, the spelling was used widely, even by the Foreign Ministry of the PRC after pinyin Hanyu Pinyin became the official romanization system in While the pinyin-derived spelling "Mao Zedong" is increasingly common, the Wade-Giles-derived spelling "Mao Tse-tung" continues to be used in modern publications to some extent.
The spelling "Mao Zedong" will be used in the rest of this article, except in citations and reference to the titles of books, articles, and other media. Xinchaoshe Press. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. The China Quarterly. The China Journal. Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century. Retrieved August 23, Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Archived from the original on March 21, Retrieved April 2, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. Cambridge University Press. Ecco Press. Syracuse, N. Anyuan: Mining China's Revolutionary Tradition.
Berkeley: University of California Press, II, M. Sharpe, p. Quotations from Mao Zedong on War and Revolution. Columbia University. Retrieved November 12, Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Retrieved March 12, Was Mao Really a Monster? The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Dong, eds. New York: China Study Group. Eastday in Chinese. Retrieved March 4, Eyewitness Travel Guides China. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited. Fodor's China. Random House. July Strategic Studies Institute. Princeton University Press. In Zhangzhuangcun, in the more thoroughly reformed north of the country, most "landlords" and "rich peasants" had lost all their land and often their lives or had fled. All formerly landless workers had received land, which eliminated this category altogether. As a result, "middling peasants," who now accounted for 90 percent of the village population, owned Basic Books , Deaths in China Due to Communism.
Mao got this number from a report submitted by Xu Zirong, Deputy Public Security Minister, which stated , counter-revolutionaries were executed, 1,, were imprisoned, and another 1,, were "subjected to control. Fairbank ; Roderick MacFarquhar The Cambridge history of China.
Free Press, Archived from the original PDF on July 29, Retrieved June 21, Archived from the original on June 27, Archived from the original on April 4, Retrieved May 4, March 5, Retrieved May 11, CATO Journal. International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on August 9, Retrieved July 28, The Spectator.
Retrieved January 15, June China Perspectives. The Independent. Retrieved September 20, Princeton UP. The Chinese. Oxford UP. Livelihood Issues. National Review. Archived from the original on August 8, The Australian. February 13, BBC News. The Mongo Mango Cookbook. Pineapple Press Inc. Mao's Golden Mangoes and the Cultural Revolution. University of Chicago Press. Walder China Under Mao. Harvard University Press. University of Chicago Press, Books. Retrieved August 17, The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved January 28, Collectors Weekly. Retrieved February 28, Encyclopedia of Marxism.
Retrieved October 6, Spence, Johnathan Archived from the original PDF on January 31, Nicholas Griffin Simon and Schuster. Eugene Sadler-Smith June 15, William C. Triplett, II Regnery Publishing.
Gerald Ford on Death of Mao Tse-Tung
Free Press. A Critical Introduction to Mao. Karl Duke University Press. Heather Timmons December 30, The Atlantic. Johan Nylander February 9, Al Jazeera English. Jamie Florcruz January 7, CNN News. Retrieved October 25, Internet Archive. September 9, September 18, Retrieved October 8, December 23, The Economist. August 31, Retrieved May 18, Sky News.
China Daily. December 25, Retrieved January 2, People's Daily. December 27, Mao Routledge Historical Biographies. Routledge , Harvard University Press , Retrieved June 28, Systematic genocide Archived April 11, , at the Wayback Machine. The Spectator , September 25, Zocalo Public Square. April 22, Retrieved February 8, Matt Schiavenza. Archived from the original on February 9, January 22, Archived from the original on August 27, International Maoism in the developing world. Praeger, Cambodia, — Rendezvous with Death. March 13, Archived from the original on June 1, This remark of Mao seems to have elements of truth but it is false.
He confuses the worship of truth with a personality cult, despite there being an essential difference between them. But this remark played a role in helping to promote the personality cult that gradually arose in the CCP. Fifty years of Chinese Propaganda Posters". Retrieved November 7, The Trustees of the British Museum, Univ of South Carolina Press. Archived from the original on November 7, October 21, VOA News. October 23, The Sydney Morning Herald. November 23, Agence France Presse. Huffington Post. July 9, Retrieved July 29, Malcolm Moore May 9, The Telegraph.
Los Angeles Times. August 4, Retrieved April 30, Calligraphy and Power in Contemporary Chinese Society. People in Chinese. September 11, China Quarterly 13 : 60— Global Times. July 4, Retrieved March 15, July 5, China Daily European Weekly. CCTV News. The Beatles Illustrated Lyrics. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. New York: Black Dog. Becker, Jasper Hungry Ghosts: Mao's Secret Famine. Holt Paperbacks.
Carter, Peter London: Oxford University Press. Chang, Jung ; Halliday, Jon Mao: The Unknown Story. London: Jonathan Cape. Chirot, Daniel Modern tyrants: the power and prevalence of evil in our age. Feigon, Lee Mao: A Reinterpretation. Chicago: Ivan R. Gao, Mobo London: Pluto Press. Hollingworth, Clare Mao and the Men Against Him. Kuisong, Yang March Li, Zhisui London: Random House. MacFarquhar, Roderick ; Schoenhals, Michael Mao's Last Revolution. Pantsov, Alexander V. Mao: The Real Story. Schram, Stuart Mao Tse-Tung. Short, Philip Mao: A Life. Owl Books. Spence, Jonathan Mao Zedong.
Penguin Lives. New York: Viking Press. Lay summary February 6, Terrill, Ross Mao: A Biography. Valentino, Benjamin A. Cornell University Press. Anita M. Andrew; John A. Rapp Davin, Delia Mao: A Very Short Introduction. Keith, Schoppa R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schaik, Sam Tibet: A History. Mao Zedong at Wikipedia's sister projects. Articles related to Mao Zedong. Paramount leaders of the People's Republic of China. Leaders of the Communist Party of China. Heads of state of the People's Republic of China. Buddhist Christian Islamic Jewish.
Adhocracy Anarchist economics Basic income Calculation in kind Commune Common ownership Cooperative ownership Decentralized planning Direct democracy Economic democracy Economic planning Equal opportunity Free association Industrial democracy Labor-time calculation Labour voucher Production for use Public ownership Social dividend Socialist mode of production Technocracy Workers' self-management Workplace democracy.
Tommaso Campanella Thomas More. Tawney E. Mao was born on 26 December into a peasant family in Shaoshan, in Hunan province, central China. After training as a teacher, he travelled to Beijing where he worked in the University Library. It was during this time that he began to read Marxist literature. Mao and other communists retreated to south east China. In , after the KMT surrounded them, Mao led his followers on the 'Long March', a 6, mile journey to northwest China to establish a new base.
The Communists and KMT were again temporarily allied during eight years of war with Japan , but shortly after the end of World War Two, civil war broke out between them. Chiang Kai-shek fled to the island of Taiwan. Mao and other Communist leaders set out to reshape Chinese society. Industry came under state ownership and China's farmers began to be organised into collectives. All opposition was ruthlessly suppressed.
The Chinese initially received significant help from the Soviet Union, but relations soon began to cool. In , in an attempt to introduce a more 'Chinese' form of communism, Mao launched the 'Great Leap Forward'. This aimed at mass mobilisation of labour to improve agricultural and industrial production. The result, instead, was a massive decline in agricultural output, which, together with poor harvests, led to famine and the deaths of millions.
The policy was abandoned and Mao's position weakened.
- The Role of Mao Tse-tung;
- Globalization of Manufacturing in the Digital Communications Era of the 21st Century: Innovation, Agility, and the Virtual Enterprise?
- Lets learn Polish?
- Dear Teacher: 1001 Teachable Moments for K-3 Classrooms?
In an attempt to re-assert his authority, Mao launched the 'Cultural Revolution' in , aiming to purge the country of 'impure' elements and revive the revolutionary spirit.