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In many developing countries, this was linked to increasing commodity prices, with benefits accumulating at the top. The challenge of linking economic performance to poverty reduction is likely to become more challenging in the foreseeable future. In fact, there is no historical precedent in history for sharp reductions in poverty and growth in incomes that is not characterized by an evolution of the economy from agriculture, to manufacturing, to services.

Yet, it is becoming more difficult to rely on manufacturing to create jobs.

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In many countries in Africa, there is already an ongoing transition from agriculture straight to services — but mostly low-paying services, often in the informal economy. Looking ahead, the role of automation may make the generation of labor-intensive economic activity even more difficult — at least in the short run. Technological change, especially in robotics and artificial intelligence, is providing a wide variety of options to automate industrial production and the delivery of a range of services driverless cars may be around the corner; restaurants and shops increasingly carry the option to order by touchscreen and retail hubs are disappearing due to on-line shopping.

One consequence of this is that many people were left behind, or saw the incomes of others, in their own country or abroad, increase while theirs either stagnated or came down, fueling perceptions of exclusion. It is vulnerable to shocks and crises, be it economic crises, disasters caused by natural hazards, the impacts of climate change, disease outbreaks, and conflicts.

We need only look at the devastating impact of the recent hurricanes in many Caribbean islands to be reminded of the vulnerabilities to shocks that so many around the world still face. To take another example, in Latin America, while the annual average of people that escaped poverty during the period to reached almost 8 million people, following the global economic crisis, this reduction slowed down to an annual average of around 5 million people from to For the last two years, with economic conditions deteriorating, in part due to the decrease in commodity prices, it is estimated that the net number of people living in poverty increased by 1.

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  8. These groups of countries are vulnerable in part because of their narrow and shallow productive capacities, limited trade products and partners, economic concentration on a few sectors, and vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Climate change and environmental degradation add to the challenges.

    UNDP examined the impact of different environmental scenarios on the number of people living in extreme poverty. This would be the consequence of two interrelated factors. First, environmental degradation would increase the number of people in extreme poverty by 1. Second, environmental calamities would keep some million poor people from rising out of extreme poverty, as they would otherwise have done under the base case scenario.

    Another source of shocks and instability is violent conflict. Clearly, no poverty reduction is possible without peace. And when violent armed conflict breaks, that is poverty reduction in reverse.

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    The costs of conflict are staggering, paid in lives lost, in absence of growth, and increases in forced displacement. That is why the UN Secretary-General has put conflict prevention at the core of his priorities. Reaching the Last Mile of Exclusion Poverty is not reflected in low levels of income alone but it is, rather, multifaceted. According to the Multidimensional Poverty Index, which measures the nature and magnitude of deprivations in health, education and living standards at the household level, 1.

    Addressing multidimensional poverty, implies reaching the last mile of exclusion, those living in remote communities, largely disconnected from society or belong to marginalized groups facing multiple, compounding sources of social and economic discrimination, plunging them in a vicious cycle that perpetuates exclusions over generations.

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    Most dramatically, virtually everywhere, are the persistent gender disparities. Just to give examples from gender gaps in labour markets, in some regions, the unemployment rate of women is more than double that of men.

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    Pursuing the Agenda: The Pathway for Poverty Eradication To sum up, eradicating and ensuing that no one is left behind demands that we consider three key aspects. First, as important as the rate of economic growth, is the way in which the benefits of growth are shared across society. Second, we cannot assume that development and the path towards poverty eradication is steady — it will be beset by volatility, by bumps, by shocks, which call for sustained attention to risk-informed approaches to poverty reduction.

    And, third, active policies of inclusion are needed for segments of the population that have been systematically excluded, with a special focus on reducing gender gaps.

    Targeted Poverty Alleviation & 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda

    The pursuit of the Agenda, on the whole, will ensure that these three aspects are considered. The efficient management of our shared natural resources, and the way we dispose of toxic waste and pollutants, are important targets to achieve this goal. Encouraging industries, businesses and consumers to recycle and reduce waste is equally important, as is supporting developing countries to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption by A large share of the world population is still consuming far too little to meet even their basic needs.

    Halving per capita global food waste at the retailer and consumer levels is also important for creating more efficient production and supply chains. This can help with food security and shift us towards a more resource efficient economy. Responsible production and consumption is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development. Learn more about the targets for Goal The SDG Fund is collaborating with partners, including from the private sector, to promote more responsible consumption and outsourcing practices, with a particular focus on ensuring that local farmers can obtain a fairer share of the value generated across the value chain.

    There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

    Strengthening the resilience and adaptive capacity of more vulnerable regions, such as land locked countries and island states, must go hand in hand with efforts to raise awareness and integrate measures into national policies and strategies. It is still possible, with the political will and a wide array of technological measures, to limit the increase in global mean temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This requires urgent collective action. Addressing climate change is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the Agenda for Sustainable Development.

    The SDG Fund joint programmes take into account climate change adaptation considerations along the project cycle. As an example, a key element to mainstreaming climate change is the use of a climate lens. Economic growth has to be inclusive to ensure the wellbeing of the entire population. Inclusive growth requires full respect for human rights. Inclusive growth generates decent jobs, gives opportunities for all segments of society, especially the most disadvantaged, and distributes the gains from prosperity more equally.

    The first priority is to create opportunities for good and decent jobs and secure livelihoods for all.

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    This will make growth inclusive and ensure that it reduces poverty and inequality. Better government policies, fair and accountable public institutions, and inclusive and sustainable business practices are essential parts of a Post agenda.

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    A second priority is to strive constantly to add value and raise productivity. Some fundamentals will accelerate growth everywhere:. Third, countries must establish a stable environment that enables business to flourish. It also wants a simple regulatory framework that makes it easy to start, operate, and close a business. Small and medium firms that employ the most people are especially restricted by complicated regulations that can breed corruption. Fourth, in order to bring new prosperity and new opportunities, growth must also usher in new ways to support sustainable consumption and production.

    It must also enable sustainable development. Poverty reduction in San Pedro region. Two of the MDG-F thematic windows encouraged practices related with inclusive growth, especially providing opportunities for the most vulnerable: youth, employment and migration and private sector and development. Some programmes on culture and development also tried to boost the economic potential of cultural industries to create livelihoods.

    Lessons learned from these programmes have been translated into a broader perspective on inclusive growth as a means of poverty reduction. Economic growth is critical for poverty eradication. Yet, an expanding economy does not mean that everyone benefits equally.

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    The concept of long term sustainability of development programmes is constantly evolving. For our programmes integrating sustainability requires an analysis of the governance architecture and the different stages of the programme cycle. At the national level, this could include the formulation of national policies, long term and multi-year development plans, sectoral budgetary allocation processes, and regulatory processes. At the level of projects on the ground, climate change adaptation considerations might need to be factored within specific elements of the project cycle.

    The following criteria are essential elements to be observed:.