The most vulnerable road users are pedestrians, cyclists, two-wheeler riders, and passengers on public transport.
- Road Traffic Accidents Increase Dramatically Worldwide!
- Ethics Education in the Military?
- 1st Edition;
RTA injuries are becoming the third largest contributor to the global burden of diseases by It is estimated that every year RTA costs billions of rupees globally and nationally. An RTA injury puts significant strain on health care budgets. Road deaths and injuries are preventable. A wide range of effective road safety interventions exist and a scientific system approach to road safety is essential to tackle the problem.
This approach should address the traffic system as a whole and look into interactions between vehicle, road users, and road infrastructure to identify solution. Well-maintained vehicles with good breaks, lighting, tyres etc. Vehicles should be provided with seat belts and other necessary safety provisions like airbags. Roads should be well maintained with frequent relaying of road surfaces and markings of road safety signs.
Issuing of the driving license should be strictly based on the minimum proficiency acquired by the learners from designated driving schools. Training on first aid should be compulsory along with heath education and traffic education for the general public to prevent accidents. Indiscriminate honking to be avoided, except as a means of greeting or in dire emergencies.
Rules for compulsory wearing of helmets by two wheelers and seat belts by four wheelers must be implemented. Removal of stray animals like cattle and removal of encroachments on footpath and road margins will enable smooth flow of traffic. Preventing haphazard parking of vehicles on busy roads and intersections to ensure free flow of traffic. Provision of ambulances and trained health personals in shifting and transporting the injured person to nearby hospitals for treatment. Awareness creation among all sections of the society to treat accident victims with sympathy and without fear so that the morbidity and mortality can be reduced.
Many deaths and impact of injuries can be prevented with first aid if causalities are treated immediately. One of the most common causes of a road accident death is due to loss of oxygen supply. This is mostly caused by a blocked airway. Normally it takes less than 4 min for a blocked airway to cause death. If proper first aid is given, road accident victims have a greater chance of survival and a reduction in the severity of their injuries. The presidents and prime ministers of these countries are expressing their commitment and launching national plans for the Decade, which seeks to save 5 million lives over the year period.
India is also a committed partner in this campaign and on May 11 the event was launched with greater commitment to minimize road accidents. Effective community participation also plays a key role in the prevention of RTA.
- Fundamentals of fingerprint analysis.
- Road Traffic Accidents Increase Dramatically Worldwide.
- Live Without a Net.
Addressing the risks of these three groups will require multiple policy initiatives. The real pressure and motivation to improve driving skills can come only through licensing authorities by adopting stricter, more comprehensive, and scientifically based tests, laying a stress on road rules, regulations, and traffic control devices. The injury profile for road traffic crashes in developing countries differs in important ways from the profile seen in developed countries. The safety on our roads needs to be given the highest priority by governments as well as the public at an all-India level.
The Bill seeks to establish a National Road Safety and Traffic Management Board for the development and regulation of road safety, traffic management system, and safety standards in highway design and construction. The functions of the Board include recommending minimum standards for design, construction, and maintenance of national highways, recommending minimum standards for trauma and paramedical facilities for traffic-related injuries on the national highway, and conduct safety audits to monitor compliance with the standards notified by the central government.
It also recommends minimum safety standards for the manufacture of mechanically propelled vehicles and other types of vehicles, recommends minimum conditions of safety such as specifying the maximum load bearing and capacity limits, recommends standards for vehicular traffic on the national highways speed lanes, right of way , conduct research on road safety and management, establish procedure for data collection, involve nongovernment organizations in the promotion of road safety, and provide for special requirement of women, children, and senior citizens.
The legislation was introduced in May and sought to create separate national and state boards to address road safety issues, including road engineering, awareness campaigns to reduce accidents on national and state highways, and coordination with different agencies on safety issues. Two years after it was rejected by a parliamentary standing committee with a stinging critique, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has decided to give another push to National Road Safety and Traffic Management Board Bill in the current financial year.
During the post-Budget session in March , a new bill on Motor Vehicle Act was passed in the Parliament and the Union Cabinet has approved the Motor Vehicle Amendment Bill which will enhance the tooth and power of the traffic enforcing agencies throughout the country, a uniform code of strict traffic rules and enhanced penalties for different types of traffic violations which is expected to act as a deterrent for traffic violations and there by help to reduce road accidents and deaths.
According to the amendment, the use of mobile phones or iPads while driving could be subjected to a fine of Rs for the first offence, with Rs and Rs chargeable for the second time. For overspeeding, a fine ranging between Rs and Rs can be imposed for the first offence and for the second offence Rs and Rs There is no substantial change in the penalty of rash driving. While the same offence a second time will cost you between Rs and Rs The bill has categorized driving under influence as follows. In the case of death in a road accident, the compensation proposed has been hiked from Rs 25, to Rs , In the case of serious injury, the compensation would be Rs 50, As per the new bill, motor insurance claims have to be filed within a year of the accident.
The Supreme Court of India as long back as observed that when accidents occur and the victims are taken to hospitals or to a medical practitioner, they are not taken care of for giving emergency medical treatment on the ground that the case is a medico-legal case and the injured person should go to a Government Hospital. The Supreme Court emphasized the need for making it obligatory for hospitals and medical practitioners to provide emergency medical care.
This law clearly states that it shall be the duty of every hospital and every medical practitioner to immediately attend on every person involved in an accident or who is purportedly in an emergency condition, when such a person has come or has been brought to the hospital or to the private medical practitioner and screen or transfer such person as stated in section 4 and when the screening reveals the existence of an emergency medical condition, to stabilize or transfer such person as stated in section 5 and afford them, such medical treatment as may be urgently called for:.
Without raising any objection that it is a medico-legal case requiring information to the police authorities,. Whether or not such a person is immediately in a position to make payment for screening and emergency medical treatment, and without insisting on payment as a condition precedent,. Whether or not such a person has medical insurance or is a member of any medical scheme of the person's employer or to a scheme which otherwise provides for medical reimbursement, and. Even in spite of this legal protection, the emergency care to accident victims is delayed resulting in loss of precious lives.
Road Traffic Injuries are one of the leading causes of premature deaths, hospitalizations, disabilities, and socioeconomic losses. The problem is hidden and unrecognized due to the absence of good quality information within the health and related sectors. The currently available data reveal only the number of deaths due to different causes of injuries which is not enough to formulate injury prevention programs.
The Injury surveillance system aims at collecting relevant information from a large number of participating organizations in a uniform way to understand injury profiles and characteristics. Reliable and scientific information is one of the basic requisites to plan, implement, and evaluate road safety activities.
Information of RTI is primarily collected by the Police department and sufficient information is not available from the health sector and under-reporting is a serious issue undermining the public health burden and impact of RTIs. In this context, the Bengaluru injury and road traffic injury surveillance program had been initiated in under the auspices of the Indian Council of Medical Research, World Health Organization India country office and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi. This project was planned to develop a surveillance program with data collection from 25 major hospitals in Bengaluru along with linkages to police records.
As a pilot project, this program was initiated in Bengaluru, Pune, and New Delhi. Depending on the experiences and the lessons learnt, the program will be expanded to other parts of India. IDSP is a decentralized, state-based surveillance program in the country, which is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner.
Analysis of the factors affecting the severity of two-vehicle crashes
The health sector is an important partner in the process of prevention and control of RTA. But the role of the medical professionals in advocacy for the prevention and control of RTA is always under-rated. The role of health sector is to provide appropriate prehospital and hospital care and rehabilitation for victims, improve data collection, contribute to policies, develop prevention activities, conduct advocacy, and contribute to the implementation and evaluation of interventions. India's Motor Vehicles Act lagging far behind the needs of a fast-motorizing society is painfully evident from its road safety record.
Such an agency is vital to set standards for road design, inspect existing roads, and investigate accidents scientifically. For example, road traffic fatalities declined by 27 percent in the United States and by 63 percent in Canada from to But traffic fatalities increased in developing countries during the same period—by 44 percent in Malaysia and percent in China, for instance.
More than one-half of all road traffic deaths globally occur among people ages 15 to 44—their most productive earning years. Moreover, the disability burden for this age group accounts for 60 percent of all DALYs lost because of road traffic accidents.
Three-quarters of all poor families who lost a member to road traffic death reported a decrease in their standard of living, and 61 percent reported they had to borrow money to cover expenses following their loss. As in developed countries, driver impairment is an important component of road traffic accidents in developing countries.
Services on Demand
Driving at excess speeds, while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, while sleepy or tired, when visibility is compromised, or without protective gear for all vehicle occupants are major factors in crashes, deaths, and serious injuries. In general, pedestrians, cyclists, and moped and motorcycle riders are the most vulnerable road users as well as the heaviest users of roads in poor countries.
Most people who use public transportation, bicycles, or mopeds and motorcycles or who habitually walk are poor, illuminating the higher risk borne by those from less privilege. Prevention interventions fall into several broad categories:. Managing risk exposure with land-use. In developing countries, exposure to potential road traffic injury has increased largely because of rapid motorization, coupled with poor road conditions, rapid population growth, lack of safety features in cars, crowded roads, poor road maintenance, and lack of police enforcement.
For example, in Vietnam, the number of motorcycles grew by 29 percent in , with an associated increase of 37 percent in the number of road traffic deaths. Promoting efficient patterns of land use and providing shorter, safer routes for vulnerable road users can reduce their exposure. Studies in Brazil, Mexico, and Uganda have found that pedestrians would rather cross a dangerous road than go out of their way to take a pedestrian bridge, even though such preferences increased their exposure to injury risk.
Improving public transportation systems can also reduce exposure.
People in cars are between 8 and 20 times less likely to be killed in a road accident than walkers, bicyclists, or motorized two-wheeler users. Planning and designing roads for safety. The Effect of Sex of Driver 3. Accuracy of the Accident Rates 3. Overturning in Single-Vehicle Accidents Chapter 4. Vehicle-Handling Characteristics 4.
Vehicle Design Parameters 4. Vehicle Response Parameters 4. Braking Characteristics 4. Stability Characteristics 4.
The Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Road Accidents
Vehicle Handling 5. Vehicle Stability 5. Synopsis 6. Accident Rates by Model of Car 6. Accident Involvement 6. Measures of Handling and Stability 6. Measures of Handling Related to Accident Rates 6. Measures of Stability Related to Proportion of Overturning 6. Concluding Remarks 6. Other Relevant Work 6. Future Work Appendix I. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:. Thank you for posting a review!