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Bayesian Modeling for Spatial and Spatio-temporal Data. SIAM — 88 AMS — Analysis of Stochastic Partial Differential Equations. SIAM — 85 SIAM — 84 SIAM — 82 SIAM — 81 SIAM — 83 SIAM — 86 AMS- SIAM-6 SIAM-9 SIAM-8 AMS-6 AMS-7 AMS-9 SIAM-7 One verification project, Metamath , includes human-written, computer-verified derivations of more than 12, theorems starting from ZFC set theory, first-order logic and propositional logic. Combinatorial set theory concerns extensions of finite combinatorics to infinite sets. Descriptive set theory is the study of subsets of the real line and, more generally, subsets of Polish spaces.

It begins with the study of pointclasses in the Borel hierarchy and extends to the study of more complex hierarchies such as the projective hierarchy and the Wadge hierarchy. Many properties of Borel sets can be established in ZFC, but proving these properties hold for more complicated sets requires additional axioms related to determinacy and large cardinals. The field of effective descriptive set theory is between set theory and recursion theory. It includes the study of lightface pointclasses , and is closely related to hyperarithmetical theory. In many cases, results of classical descriptive set theory have effective versions; in some cases, new results are obtained by proving the effective version first and then extending "relativizing" it to make it more broadly applicable.

A recent area of research concerns Borel equivalence relations and more complicated definable equivalence relations. This has important applications to the study of invariants in many fields of mathematics. In set theory as Cantor defined and Zermelo and Fraenkel axiomatized, an object is either a member of a set or not. In fuzzy set theory this condition was relaxed by Lotfi A. Zadeh so an object has a degree of membership in a set, a number between 0 and 1. For example, the degree of membership of a person in the set of "tall people" is more flexible than a simple yes or no answer and can be a real number such as 0.

An inner model of Zermelo—Fraenkel set theory ZF is a transitive class that includes all the ordinals and satisfies all the axioms of ZF. One reason that the study of inner models is of interest is that it can be used to prove consistency results. For example, it can be shown that regardless of whether a model V of ZF satisfies the continuum hypothesis or the axiom of choice , the inner model L constructed inside the original model will satisfy both the generalized continuum hypothesis and the axiom of choice.

Thus the assumption that ZF is consistent has at least one model implies that ZF together with these two principles is consistent.

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The study of inner models is common in the study of determinacy and large cardinals , especially when considering axioms such as the axiom of determinacy that contradict the axiom of choice. Even if a fixed model of set theory satisfies the axiom of choice, it is possible for an inner model to fail to satisfy the axiom of choice.

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For example, the existence of sufficiently large cardinals implies that there is an inner model satisfying the axiom of determinacy and thus not satisfying the axiom of choice. A large cardinal is a cardinal number with an extra property. Many such properties are studied, including inaccessible cardinals , measurable cardinals , and many more. These properties typically imply the cardinal number must be very large, with the existence of a cardinal with the specified property unprovable in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory.

Determinacy refers to the fact that, under appropriate assumptions, certain two-player games of perfect information are determined from the start in the sense that one player must have a winning strategy. The existence of these strategies has important consequences in descriptive set theory, as the assumption that a broader class of games is determined often implies that a broader class of sets will have a topological property. The axiom of determinacy AD is an important object of study; although incompatible with the axiom of choice, AD implies that all subsets of the real line are well behaved in particular, measurable and with the perfect set property.

AD can be used to prove that the Wadge degrees have an elegant structure.

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Paul Cohen invented the method of forcing while searching for a model of ZFC in which the continuum hypothesis fails, or a model of ZF in which the axiom of choice fails. Forcing adjoins to some given model of set theory additional sets in order to create a larger model with properties determined i. For example, Cohen's construction adjoins additional subsets of the natural numbers without changing any of the cardinal numbers of the original model. Forcing is also one of two methods for proving relative consistency by finitistic methods, the other method being Boolean-valued models.

A cardinal invariant is a property of the real line measured by a cardinal number. For example, a well-studied invariant is the smallest cardinality of a collection of meagre sets of reals whose union is the entire real line. These are invariants in the sense that any two isomorphic models of set theory must give the same cardinal for each invariant. Many cardinal invariants have been studied, and the relationships between them are often complex and related to axioms of set theory.

Set-theoretic topology studies questions of general topology that are set-theoretic in nature or that require advanced methods of set theory for their solution. Many of these theorems are independent of ZFC, requiring stronger axioms for their proof. A famous problem is the normal Moore space question , a question in general topology that was the subject of intense research.

The answer to the normal Moore space question was eventually proved to be independent of ZFC. From set theory's inception, some mathematicians have objected to it as a foundation for mathematics. The most common objection to set theory, one Kronecker voiced in set theory's earliest years, starts from the constructivist view that mathematics is loosely related to computation.

If this view is granted, then the treatment of infinite sets, both in naive and in axiomatic set theory, introduces into mathematics methods and objects that are not computable even in principle. The feasibility of constructivism as a substitute foundation for mathematics was greatly increased by Errett Bishop 's influential book Foundations of Constructive Analysis. The scope of predicatively founded mathematics, while less than that of the commonly accepted Zermelo-Fraenkel theory, is much greater than that of constructive mathematics, to the point that Solomon Feferman has said that "all of scientifically applicable analysis can be developed [using predicative methods]".

Ludwig Wittgenstein condemned set theory. He wrote that "set theory is wrong", since it builds on the "nonsense" of fictitious symbolism, has "pernicious idioms", and that it is nonsensical to talk about "all numbers". Category theorists have proposed topos theory as an alternative to traditional axiomatic set theory. Topos theory can interpret various alternatives to that theory, such as constructivism , finite set theory, and computable set theory.

An active area of research is the univalent foundations and related to it homotopy type theory. Within homotopy type theory, a set may be regarded as a homotopy 0-type, with universal properties of sets arising from the inductive and recursive properties of higher inductive types. Principles such as the axiom of choice and the law of the excluded middle can be formulated in a manner corresponding to the classical formulation in set theory or perhaps in a spectrum of distinct ways unique to type theory.

Some of these principles may be proven to be a consequence of other principles. The variety of formulations of these axiomatic principles allows for a detailed analysis of the formulations required in order to derive various mathematical results. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the branch of mathematics. For musical set theory, see Set theory music. Branch of mathematics that studies sets. Naber and T. Tsou, editors, Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics, Elsevier, Joyce, 'Riemannian holonomy groups and exceptional holonomy', volume 4, pages in J. Joyce, 'Generalized Donaldson-Thomas invariants', pages in 'Geometry of special holonomy and related topics', editors N. Leung and S. Joyce, 'Conjectures on counting associative 3-folds in G 2 -manifolds', pages in V. Smith and R. Joyce, 'Compact manifolds with exceptional holonomy', pages in 'Geometry and Physics', editors J.

Andersen, J. Dupont, H. Pedersen and A. Swann, Lecture notes in pure and applied math. Joyce, 'Compact manifolds with exceptional holonomy', pages in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians, Berlin, , vol II. Documenta Mathematica, University of Bielefeld, Published online. Joyce, 'A theory of quaternionic algebra, with applications to hypercomplex geometry', pages in Proceedings of the Second Meeting on Quaternionic Structures in Mathematics and Physics, Rome, , editors S. Marchiafava, P. Piccinni and M. Pontecorvo, World Scientific, Singapore, Casuberta, R.

Verdera and S. Berrick, M.


Leung and X. Xu, Contemporary Mathematics volume , A. Joyce, 'Constructing compact manifolds with exceptional holonomy', pages in M. Douglas, J. Gauntlett and M. Joyce, 'Lectures on special Lagrangian geometry', pages in D. Joyce, 'The exceptional holonomy groups and calibrated geometry', pages in S. Akbulut, T. Joyce, 'Special Lagrangian 3-folds and integrable systems', pages in M. Guest, R. Miyaoka and Y. Cao and S.

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Joyce, 'On manifolds with corners', pages in S. Janeczko, J. Li and D. Joyce, 'On the topology of deformations of Calabi-Yau orbifolds', math. Joyce, 'Lectures on Calabi-Yau and special Lagrangian geometry', math. An expanded version of this is published as Part I of our book, M.