And keeping activities that shorten our telomere down to a minimum. Also, the environments and relationships we put ourselves play a part.
Creating healthful, supportive environments and relationships, with an abundance of greenery would affect our psychological states immensely as well. He is also an Educator with Aileron Wellness Academy. Read more about Jun Xian here. Subscribe to our e-newsletter! Toggle navigation. To begin off, what are Telomeres? Location Map.
Molecular Aging Program
Send Us an Enquiry. All Rights Reserved. Selection of methods to be employed in age estimation depends upon the materials available for examination, their condition and the age category of the individual . According to the age group to which the individual belongs, different methods of age estimation can be used. In this way, dental development could be used in fetal individuals , the presence of ossification nuclei , or long bones development . In the case of children, dental development can be used [4, 7], the presence of ossification centers and the fusion of the epiphyses [3,8], and development of hand and wrist bones .
Dental development has been demonstrated to reflect chronological age more accurately than osteological development. Dental development appears to be under stronger genetic control, while osteological development is more influenced by environmental factors such as biomechanics, physiological stress and nutrition .
So that, in cases of age estimation of inmature individuals fetal, neonatal, infant, child and adolescent a special attention on dental age estimation methods should be considered. In adolescents and young adults the most relevant age indicators are the development of the third molar , development of hand and wrist bones [9,11], spheno-occipital fusion [6,12] Scheuer and Black, ; Madeline and Elster, , and fusion of the sternal end of the clavicle [13, 14]; It is advisable to use as many indicators as possible, to obtain better results.
As in the case of children, adolescents and young adults up to about years of age skeletal indicators of age are based on the individual's growth and development; but when growth ends and the development of the individual is completed, age indicators are based on degenerative changes in the skeletal system.
There are different indicators of bone age in the adult as the pubic symphysis [15, 16], auricular surface of the coxae , the acetabulum surface , the sternal end of the ribs [ 21], as well as degenerative changes in teeth . Also, at a microscopic level an estimate of age can be achieved by the number of osteons . All these mentioned methods based on different skeletal indicators have certain limitations that must be taken into account when applying them in forensic cases.
Suchey-Brooks method  as well as Lamendin method  show greater accuracy in individuals between 20 and 40 years old.
Why Do You Age?
The Lovejoy method based on auricular region changes and his method based on the closure of cranial sutures [17, 28] have shown inter- and intraindividual variation. Also, the microscopic method based on the number of osteones present in the bone  is harder to implement than the observational methods mentioned. Table 1 resumes the different skeletal indicators for age assessment. When growth has ceased, age estimation in adults is basically based on the degenerative changes of bone and teeth, which can be affected by pathology.
Ageing - Wikipedia
Therefore, the estimation of age in adult individuals is generally less precise than in subadults . Because of that reason, most researches suggest that when determining age in adult individuals, assessing multiple age indicators provides more accurate results than using a single indicador .
So that, it is always recommended to use as many indicators as possible in order to achieve the most accurate results. Age estimation accuracy decreases as the age of the individual increases, other methods have been developed for estimating the age of the adult individual. These newer methods are based on changes at the biochemical level due to the physiological process of aging .
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Biochemical methods for age estimation Biochemical methods for determining age are based on the natural process of aging, which induces alterations in tissues and organs at different biochemical levels . According to these levels, methods for determining age are divided into chemical methods, including racemization of aspartic acid, lead accumulation, collagen cross-links, chemical composition of the teeth and analysis of advanced glycation end products AGEs.
Molecular methods include the analyses of telomere shortening, sjTRECs rearregements, the study of mitocondrial mutations and more recently epigenetic modifications [31, 32].
In living organisms, the most common amino acids have the L optical form. The racemization converts these amino acids into their D form, producing conformational alterations in proteins, which affect their biological activities and their chemical properties [33, 34]. These alterations in proteins can be correlated to the progressive changes associated with aging . Aspartic acid has the fastest racemization range, becoming D-Asp, and being the most widely used amino acid in age estimation studies.
Hence, aspartic acid racemization has been applied to different tissues, showing its accuracy in dentin [36, 37], cementum , intervertebral discs , elastine  and bone . Since lead is one of the most common contaminants, measurement of its accumulation in dentin has been studied for the determination of age. The study of Al-Qattan and Elfawal  found an error of 1. Despite this result, more research is needed in this line to be able to assure that this technique can be applied to determine the age in forensic science.
Collagen matrix of cartilage, bone, dentin and other skeletal materials is stabilized through covalent bonds between collagen molecules .
A component of these linkages is deoxypyridoline DPD. The chemical structure of the teeth changes with aging, particularly, the mineralization of the dentin and the reduction of the dentinal tubules, inducing an increase of the transparency of the root with the age. Structural and biochemical changes in dentin have been studied by several researchers in relation to age [5, 44], although the error in the estimation is not very high, additional studies are required to determine its possible application in the forensic context.
Advanced glycation endproducts occur through the Maillard reaction between reduced sugars and amino groups of the proteins, which induce different modifications in those proteins.