Tables 2 and 3 illustrate the phenomenon for four-syl- lable rhythm groups or accent phrases , the irst table giving average durations in centiseconds and the second table representing durations as a percentage of the duration of the group-inal syllable. For Standard European French, we can see that unstressed syllables preceding the inal are of more or less equal dura- tion, and the duration of the inal stressed syllable is at least double that of an unstressed syllable.
In the Ontario French studied by Robinson , a corpus drawn from speakers recorded during a radio broadcast and speaking a fairly standardized variety of Canadian French, we see that the duration diference be- tween the penult and inal syllable is lower, while in Nova Scotia and PEI Acadian varieties, the length of the penult approaches that of the inal syllable. Over the past decade, one of the most notable developments in research on prosodic rhythm has been the application of rhythm indices designed to situate Table 2.
It is obtained by taking the abso- lute value of the duration diference between each pair of contiguous vowels and dividing this absolute value by half of the total duration of the two vowels. For our initial study of rhythm in the PFC corpus, we selected three Wind- sor speakers, four Hearst speakers and two Quebec City speakers. Our working hypothesis was that the Ontario speakers would show PVI values closer to those of English than Quebec speakers i.
We can observe small diferences in PVI values between speakers from the minority setting Windsor and the majority settings Hearst, Quebec City , but the diferences are not large and would not likely be statistically signiicant.
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Bearing in mind the reference values of Conclusion he goal of this chapter has been to present the Hearst Ontario PFC study and de- scribe the main phonological characteristics of this variety of Laurentian French that inds itself in an exceptional situation of being the local majority language in a Canadian location outside of Quebec. Elements of general phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Pierre R. II, Studia Phonetica 18, 55— Barysevich, Alena. Carter, Phillip M. Quantifying rhythmic diferences between Spanish, English, and His- panic English.
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Geofrey Williams, — Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Germain, Doric. Ginsberg, Raymond E. Study of the lexical interrogative sentence in the French of Welland, Ontario. PhD diss.
Golembeski, Daniel J. French Language Maintenance in Ontario, Canada. A Sociolin- guistic Portrait of the Community of Hearst. Variable lexical usage in the French of Northern Ontario. IUWPL 2. Grabe, Esther, and Ee Ling Low. Durational variability in speech and the rhythm class hypothesis. In Papers in laboratory phonology 7, eds.
Natasha Warner and Carlos Gussen- hoven, — Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Holder, Maurice. Phonetica 33— La Linguistique 19 1 : 13— Paris: Nathan. Second edition. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press. Studia phonetica 1.
Illustrations from three continents
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Mougeon, Raymond, and Terry Nadasdi. Sociolinguistic discontinuity in minority lan- guage communities. Language 74 1 : 40— Nadasdi, Terry. Nemni, Monique. Nolan, Francis, and Eva Liina Asu. Phonetica 64— Opitz, Helgard. Pike, Kenneth. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Poplack, Shana, and Douglas Walker. Going through L in Canadian French. Sylvain Detey and Dominique Nouveau, — Poirier, Claude.
Luc Baro- nian and France Martineau, — Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition — Robinson, Linda. Studia Phonetica 1. Statistics Canada. Szmidt, Yvett. Tennant, Jef. Revue du Nouvel-Ontario — Language contact and intonational variability: High rising terminals in On- tario French. Tennant, Jef, and Ruth King.
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Studia Phonetica Prosodic rhythm and African American English. English World Wide 27 3 : — MA research paper, University of Western Ontario. Part II. Europe; 7. Chapter 5. An overview of the phonological and phonetic properties of Southern French: Data from two Marseille surveys by Coquillon, Annelise ; 8. Chapter 6.
Phonological Variation in French Illustrations from three continents 11
The variation of pronunciation in Belgian French: From segmental phonology to prosody by Hambye, Philippe ; 9. Chapter 7. Chapter 8. Part III. North America; Chapter 9. Chapter Phonological variation in French: Unity and diversity across continents by Lyche, Chantal ; Varieties and geographical names; Subjects and key notions.
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