It is a branch of structural engineering closely affiliated with architecture. Structural building engineering is primarily driven by the creative manipulation of materials and forms and the underlying mathematical and scientific ideas to achieve an end which fulfills its functional requirements and is structurally safe when subjected to all the loads it could reasonably be expected to experience.
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This is subtly different from architectural design, which is driven by the creative manipulation of materials and forms, mass, space, volume, texture and light to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional and often artistic. The architect is usually the lead designer on buildings, with a structural engineer employed as a sub-consultant. The degree to which each discipline actually leads the design depends heavily on the type of structure.
Many structures are structurally simple and led by architecture, such as multi-storey office buildings and housing, while other structures, such as tensile structures , shells and gridshells are heavily dependent on their form for their strength, and the engineer may have a more significant influence on the form, and hence much of the aesthetic, than the architect.
The structural design for a building must ensure that the building is able to stand up safely, able to function without excessive deflections or movements which may cause fatigue of structural elements, cracking or failure of fixtures, fittings or partitions, or discomfort for occupants.
It must account for movements and forces due to temperature, creep , cracking and imposed loads. It must also ensure that the design is practically buildable within acceptable manufacturing tolerances of the materials. It must allow the architecture to work, and the building services to fit within the building and function air conditioning, ventilation, smoke extract, electrics, lighting etc. The structural design of a modern building can be extremely complex, and often requires a large team to complete.
Earthquake engineering structures are those engineered to withstand earthquakes. The main objectives of earthquake engineering are to understand the interaction of structures with the shaking ground, foresee the consequences of possible earthquakes, and design and construct the structures to perform during an earthquake. Earthquake-proof structures are not necessarily extremely strong like the El Castillo pyramid at Chichen Itza shown above.
One important tool of earthquake engineering is base isolation , which allows the base of a structure to move freely with the ground. Civil structural engineering includes all structural engineering related to the built environment. It includes:. The structural engineer is the lead designer on these structures, and often the sole designer. In the design of structures such as these, structural safety is of paramount importance in the UK, designs for dams, nuclear power stations and bridges must be signed off by a chartered engineer.
Civil engineering structures are often subjected to very extreme forces, such as large variations in temperature, dynamic loads such as waves or traffic, or high pressures from water or compressed gases. They are also often constructed in corrosive environments, such as at sea, in industrial facilities or below ground. The principles of structural engineering are applicable to variety of mechanical moveable structures. The design of static structures assumes they always have the same geometry in fact, so-called static structures can move significantly, and structural engineering design must take this into account where necessary , but the design of moveable or moving structures must account for fatigue , variation in the method in which load is resisted and significant deflections of structures.
The forces which parts of a machine are subjected to can vary significantly, and can do so at a great rate. The forces which a boat or aircraft are subjected to vary enormously and will do so thousands of times over the structure's lifetime. The structural design must ensure that such structures are able to endure such loading for their entire design life without failing. Aerospace structures typically consist of thin plates with stiffeners for the external surfaces, bulkheads and frames to support the shape and fasteners such as welds, rivets, screws and bolts to hold the components together.
A nanostructure is an object of intermediate size between molecular and microscopic micrometer-sized structures. In describing nanostructures it is necessary to differentiate between the number of dimensions on the nanoscale.
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Nanotextured surfaces have one dimension on the nanoscale, i. Nanotubes have two dimensions on the nanoscale, i. Finally, spherical nanoparticles have three dimensions on the nanoscale, i. The terms nanoparticles and ultrafine particles UFP often are used synonymously although UFP can reach into the micrometre range. The term 'nanostructure' is often used when referring to magnetic technology. Medical equipment also known as armamentarium is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.
There are several basic types: diagnostic equipment includes medical imaging machines, used to aid in diagnosis; equipment includes infusion pumps, medical lasers and LASIK surgical machines ; medical monitors allow medical staff to measure a patient's medical state. Monitors may measure patient vital signs and other parameters including ECG , EEG , blood pressure, and dissolved gases in the blood; diagnostic medical equipment may also be used in the home for certain purposes, e.
A biomedical equipment technician BMET is a vital component of the healthcare delivery system. Employed primarily by hospitals, BMETs are the people responsible for maintaining a facility's medical equipment. Columns are elements that carry only axial force compression or both axial force and bending which is technically called a beam-column but practically, just a column. The design of a column must check the axial capacity of the element, and the buckling capacity.
The buckling capacity is the capacity of the element to withstand the propensity to buckle.
Structural Fire Loads: Theory and Principles : Leo Razdolsky :
Its capacity depends upon its geometry, material, and the effective length of the column, which depends upon the restraint conditions at the top and bottom of the column. The capacity of a column to carry axial load depends on the degree of bending it is subjected to, and vice versa. This is represented on an interaction chart and is a complex non-linear relationship. A beam may be defined as an element in which one dimension is much greater than the other two and the applied loads are usually normal to the main axis of the element.
Beams and columns are called line elements and are often represented by simple lines in structural modeling. Beams are elements which carry pure bending only. Bending causes one part of the section of a beam divided along its length to go into compression and the other part into tension. The compression part must be designed to resist buckling and crushing, while the tension part must be able to adequately resist the tension.
Principles of Reinforced Concrete
A truss is a structure comprising members and connection points or nodes. When members are connected at nodes and forces are applied at nodes members can act in tension or in compression. Simplified versions of energy, mass, and momentum equations are provided in dimensionless form with their solutions in tabular form. Step-by-step examples using standard structural systems, such as beams, trusses, frames, and arches, are also presented in this practicalguide. Using the proven methods in this book, all types of fires can be addressed in the design process. Coverage includes: Overview of current practice Structural fire load and computer models Differential equations and assumptions Simplifications of differential equations Fire load and severity of fires Structural analysis and design show more.
Table of contents Ch.
Introduction Ch. Overview of Current Practice Ch. Differential Equations and Assumptions Ch.
About This Item
Simplifications of Differential Equations Ch. Structural Fire Loads bridges the gap between prescriptive and performance-based methods for the design of fire-resistant buildings. The book streamlines complex computer analyses so that an approximate analytical expression can be easily used in structural fire load analysis and design. Simplified versions of energy, mass, and momentum equations are provided in dimensionless form with their solutions in tabular form.
Step-by-step examples using standard structural systems, such as beams, trusses, frames, and arches, are also presented in this practical guide. Using the proven methods in this book, all types of fires can be addressed in the design process.