Shared Representations. The representation of product information that supports sharing forms the fundamental cornerstone of any collaborative engineering or collaborative product development application. This product information should include not only the geometric data corresponding to the physical parts and their relationships, but it should include non-geometric information such as material characteristics, function, behavior, and design intent as well.
The current focus on product families supports this shared representation requirement for distributed design. Support should be provided for dealing with multiple levels of functional abstraction, geometric representation, constraints, and for generating multiple functional views through the entire product life cycle. In the recent past, various groups within industry, academia, and government have been developing sharable and reusable information models known as ontologies. All ontologies consist of a vocabulary along with some specification of the meaning or semantics of the terminology within the vocabulary.
In doing so, ontologies aid in sharing information and facilitating interoperability by providing a common vocabulary with a shared semantics. Engineering repositories are the electronic substitute for and successor of the traditional file cabinets where information on past designs is stored. Design repositories store descriptions of past designs in a form suitable for browsing and retrieval for direct use and reuse in the active design process.
Various knowledge-based extensions to design repositories can be made to document general knowledge about design and the product development process, design rationale, design rules, ontologies and taxonomies, catalogs of successful designs, etc. Manufacturing repositories contain manufacturing process knowledge and can aid the designer in avoiding costly downstream errors. Currently, proprietary repositories are maintained in an ad-hoc fashion by individual organizations. Hence, in order to fully leverage the shared representations described above, there is a need for the development of standardized knowledge capture, storage, and retrieval methods, including case-based reasoning.
These knowledge stores can further aid in the automated generation of new engineering knowledge. Constraint Management. In a large class of engineering problems, much of the associated knowledge can be represented by a set of mathematical relations between symbols or real-valued quantities. Maintaining these relationships, which can be viewed as constraints, and performing inferences on these relationships is the realm of constraint management or satisfaction techniques. The general problem of constraint satisfaction involves the following: given a set of variables and a set of constraints, find a set of assignments for each variable consistent with the set of constraints.
The variables may be discrete or continuous. Constraint solvers can be broadly classified into numerical constraint solvers and symbolic constraint solvers. In general, the constraint satisfaction problem is NP-complete non-deterministic polynomial time. Various heuristic algorithms and techniques that exploit certain characteristics of a domain, e.
Coordination and Transaction Management. Collaborative engineering environments necessitate a powerful and flexible transaction management framework to temporally coordinate the concurrent activities of multiple users. Design decision-making assignments and records must be implicitly captured within the transaction management framework. Negotiation and Conflict Mitigation. Conflicts due to differing perspectives among designers or among participants in different stages of the product realization process often lead to expensive designs, delays in product development, or undesirable compromises in the final product.
One reason for conflicts is the lack of information that designers have about other designers' or stakeholders' objectives, and reasons for rejecting or accepting a given alternative. Other reasons, such as self-enrichment and the need to achieve an upper hand, contribute to conflicts. Hence, effective negotiation and conflict management techniques are crucial for mitigating conflicts. Taxonomies of design conflicts and design rationale encoding would greatly facilitate conflict mitigation strategies. Additionally, techniques developed in economics, mathematics, and political science should provide knowledge that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of negotiation approaches.
Organizational Issues. Collaborative engineering CE activities can be classified into minute task-level , small project-level , large program-level , and mega enterprise-wide. Minute CE involves two to three individuals working on a small unit e. In all these activities, managing engineering requirements is of paramount importance.
Efficient allocation of tasks task decomposition , smooth workflow management, and effective product development supply chain management could result in considerable benefits to the collaborative design enterprise. Finally, there is a need to conduct empirical studies of designers performing real world collaborative design, along with assessing the effectiveness of various tools and techniques. Virtual Reality and Collaborative Design Issues. While traditional CAD computer-aided design systems provide comprehensive tools for generating geometric forms, which encourages designers to come up with a form first and think about function later i.
In distributed design, the application of virtual reality methods that allow exploration of the design space and the visualization of alternatives by stakeholders across the organization and throughout the supply chain could accelerate the design process with benefit to the overall time to market. Decision-based Design Issues. The principles and methods developed from game theory, decision and risk analysis, and utility models are incorporated into the design process for complex systems, where consistency is necessary at all levels of decision making in order to resolve conflict and intransivity, and to facilitate negotiation and optimization.
Papers in this Special Issue. This issue contains nine full length papers and three technical notes. Below we discuss how these papers address the collaborative engineering research issues described earlier. Some of these papers address more than one issue, as we note in our discussions. The paper by Su et al. The proposed architecture uses a multi-level decomposition method that hierarchically subdivides graphics content, which is in the scalable vector graphics SVG format, and distributes the information at the appropriate level needed.
This obviates the need for transferring all the information across the internet.
The current prototype deals with two-dimensional graphics and plans are underway to extended to it other multimedia content, e. This paper falls in the categories Architectural frameworks and Shared representation. Many of the techniques in vogue today for building ontologies are fairly ad-hoc. Nanda et al. They utilize a method called Formal Concept Analysis FCA , which has been successfully applied in computational linguistics. They use FCA to identify the common features of various engineering objects and then classify them accordingly into a concept lattice. This concept lattice is mapped into an OWL web ontology language representation, making it amenable to semantic web applications.
This paper falls in the category Shared representation. Features have been the subject of study for over a decade. Chen et al. A related approach, where shared features and relationships are stored in a table, is described by Bouikini et al. An implementation of their model is provided in RDF resource description framework.
This work describes the development of a hierarchical assembly model that associates client-IDs with leaf nodes, enabling any changes in the part leaf-node to be propagated to the appropriate designer. Papers discussed in this paragraph also fall in the category Shared representation. For many problems in computer-aided design, the spatial relationships between objects result in sets of non-linear equations. Geometric operations, such as moving, applied to these objects involves the solution of these equations. Algebraic techniques, such as the Newton-Raphson method, are computationally very expensive.
Geometric reasoning techniques, which reason symbolically about geometry, provide efficient solution methods for such problems. A framework that involves a geometry-based master model that supports client views and change propagation from clients is presented. The paper discusses theoretical underpinnings of such an approach.
This paper falls in the category Constraint management. In order to support security for nested transactions, which allow hierarchical subdivision of design effort and provide smaller units of control for various transaction management facilities, Wang et al. As data is shared at different levels of granularity, the advantages are similar to the SVG-based approach described by Su et al.
This paper falls in the category Coordination and transaction management. Most of the papers on computer-supported collaborative engineering in the engineering literature focus on technical aspects of the problem. That is, the Joint Manager software tracks the specific component part was used. There are lots of cases when a part number will be used numerous times in an assembly bolts, washers, nuts etc. Couple this with the ability to control the order of joints being listed and a user can readily build a kitting system that allows planners to order components joint-by-joint without double ordering.
ProductView data is a 3-D rendition of the SimpRep models that can be manipulated and cut through to view the joints either alone or in the context of the product assembly.
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Current capabilities of the ProductView tool do not provide the ability to automatically generate joint visualization on a per-joint basis. An interim solution uses ProductView to navigate through the 3D rendered version of the Installation Container and uses two different custom per-joint visualization tools. Both the ProductView data export and the visualization creation functions are automated. Single-button-push solutions provide the designer with optimum automation and data integrity.
In order for the designer to control joint visualization, views must be created and saved in the Installation Container. The views must be named the same as the Joint SimpRep. If a Joint SimpRep name is changed, the view name must be changed as well. JointManager automatically creates a saved view of the current screen and names it the same as the active SimpRep.
The end users are typically those who use current assembly and installation drawings for those who must know how to assembly the components, but don't require, or are not authorized to receive, proprietary information about those components. One such example is a technician end user about to join a turbine inlet duct to a pipeline and its mounting flange. The technician needs to understand how the joint goes together and what components are required.
The end users are now, however, provided with 3D model-based definition engineering drawings which are based directly on the 3D design model as opposed to being a separately created drawing. It should be understood that although a particular component arrangement is disclosed in the illustrated embodiment, other arrangements will benefit from the instant invention.
Although particular step sequences are shown, described, and claimed, it should be understood that steps may be performed in any order, separated or combined unless otherwise indicated and will still benefit from the present invention. The foregoing description is exemplary rather than defined by the limitations within. Many modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. The disclosed embodiments of this invention have been disclosed, however, one of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that certain modifications would come within the scope of this invention.
It is, therefore, to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described. For that reason the following claims should be studied to determine the true scope and content of this invention. A computer-implemented method of defining installation and assembly requirements for a product comprising the steps of: A generating a 3D design model having a multiple of component parts which define the product;.
B defining at least one joint between at least two of the multiple of component parts;. C annotating the at least one joint to create a simplified representation of the at least one joint; and. D exporting the simplified representation in a data format different than that of said step A.
The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein said step A further comprises: a annotating at least one of the multiple of component parts with a component annotation. The method as recited in claim 3 , wherein said step a further comprises: 1 including a component part alternate as the component annotation. The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein said step B further comprises: a defining a joint between every two of the multiple of component parts. The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein said step C further comprises: a annotating the at least one joint with a text based annotation.
The method as recited in claim 6 , wherein said step a further comprises: 1 selecting the text based annotation from a library of pre-approved notes. The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein said step C further comprises: a annotating the at least one joint with a graphical based annotation.
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The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein said step C further comprises: a cutting a non-planar section of the at least one joint to render an image included in the simplified representation. The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein said step D further comprises: a exporting the simplified representation as a zip file readable by an end-user-application. The method as recited in claim 10 , wherein said step a further comprises: 1 displaying the simplified representation as HTML data through the end-user-application. The method as recited in claim 10 , wherein said step a further comprises: 1 displaying the simplified representation as database data through the end-user-application.
The method as recited in claim 10 , wherein said step a further comprises: 1 displaying the simplified representation as a manipulatable 3D mode data through the end-user-application. The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein said step D further comprises: a exporting the simplified representation without proprietary data included in the 3D design model. A computer-readable medium having stored thereon instructions for causing a computer to perform operations comprising: A displaying a simplified representation of a 3D design model having a multiple of component parts which define the product in a data format different than that which created the 3D design model, the simplified representation having at least one joint between at least two of the multiple of component parts.
The computer-readable medium as recited in claim 15 , wherein said step A further comprises: a viewing the simplified representation through an end-user-application. The computer-readable medium as recited in claim 16 , wherein said step a further comprises: a displaying the simplified representation as HTML data through the end-user-application.
The computer-readable medium as recited in claim 16 , wherein said step a further comprises: a displaying the simplified representation as database data through the end-user-application. The computer-readable medium as recited in claim 16 , wherein said step a further comprises: a displaying the simplified representation as an annotated manipulatable 3D model data through the end-user-application.
The computer-readable medium as recited in claim 20 , further comprising the step of: B exporting the simplified representation without proprietary data included in the 3D design model prior to said step A.
Key Technologies of Digital Pre-Assembly in Networked Collaborative Design and Manufacturing
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Method of preparing aldehydes by hydroformylation with a rhodium catalyst and recovery of the rhodium catalyst by extraction. Apparatus, system, and method for simplifying annotations on a geometric surface. Methods and apparatus for transmission and rendering of complex 3D models over networks using mixed representations.
Source information adapter and method for use in generating a computer memory-resident hierarchical structure for original source information. Automatic transfer and expansion of application-specific data for display at a website. Method and apparatus for predicting a characteristic of a product attribute formed by a machining process using a model of the process.
System and method for producing an assembly by directly implementing three-dimensional computer-aided design component definitions. Methods, apparatus and computer program products for automatically generating nurbs models of triangulated surfaces using homeomorphisms.
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Three-dimensional virtual assembling method, computer program and system, wiring harness designing method, computer program and system. McKinney et al. Myung et al. Knowledge-based parametric design of mechanical products based on configuration design method. EPB1 en. Vanlande et al. JPB2 en. Shyamsundar et al. Internet-based collaborative product design with assembly features and virtual design spaces. Faraj et al. Method of geometric information sharing and parametric consistency maintenance in a collaborative design environment. Da Xu et al.
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