This study has some pedagogical implications which can bring fruitful results for language teachers and learners and material developers. Toggle navigation. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Journal Metrics Google-based Impact Factor : 3. Contact Diana Xu Editorial Assistant ijel ccsenet. The Cultural Review, 4 36 , Children's pragmatic competence: A case study of English speech acts performed by American children. The Cultural Review, 3 38 , Thornbury, S. How to teach speaking. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education. Valcarcel, D.
Action research essentials. Willis, D. Doing task-based teaching. I invite you to answer this questionnaire whose aim is to explore your learning interests and needs.
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Your answers will help me improve the development and content of my classes. Feel free to write your opinions and experiences in detail. It is important to note that your responses will be treated anonymously. This is the guideline to participate in a group interview that aims to explore the difficulties that you find when doing oral productions. This interview was designed based on your responses to a questionnaire developed in a previous session. I invite you to complete the self-assessment format below and then participate in the discussion. Your contributions will help me better understand your learning interests and needs.
The interview will be recorded, transcribed, and then analyzed, but your personal information will be always treated anonymously. Please evaluate your speaking skills from 1 to 5, where 1 represents low mastery of skill and 5 total dominance. This is a one-question questionnaire that aims to identify the language function that you use the most when interacting with your students in situations different from the class. What are language functions? Speakers produce language with a communicative intention. That intention or purpose is called function.
There are many language functions such as greeting, thanking, suggesting, comforting, apologizing, etc. A function can be expressed through different utterances. For instance, the expressions "You are very kind", "I am very thankful", "Thank you for Appendix 6: Sample of the Corpus About Comforting. Appendix 7: Sample of a Video Recording Transcription. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Article. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail.
Received: July 17, Accepted: February 22, Introduction This paper describes a research study conducted with a group of in-service school teachers in different content areas who were studying English to enrich their professional performance.
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Identification of Participants' Learning Needs Identifying the learning needs of participants was relevant in order to set their learning objectives and decide on an action plan. Two questionnaires and a focus group were used to explore participants' linguistics, affective, and cognitive needs as follows: Through Questionnaire 1 Appendix 1 and focus group Appendix 2 , participants reported that they had difficulties producing oral language, especially in spontaneous situations that entail interacting with others.
This was interpreted as their linguistic need. Through the Questionnaire 2 Appendix 3 , participants reported that comforting students who were having problems or were going through difficult circumstances, was the most common communicative situation that they faced in their work as schoolteachers when interacting with their students outside the classroom context. This suggested that their affective need had to do with establishing rapport with their students by supporting them.
Through Questionnaire 1, participants also reported that the class time was not enough for practicing and improving their English. This suggested that their cognitive need had to do with developing autonomous learning skills that would allow them to extend their language practice beyond the face-to-face classes. Strategies Proposed to Address Participants' Needs To attend to participants' cognitive need, two peer-assessment strategies checklist [ Appendix 4 ] and Plus, minus, and what's next? Literature Review Peer Assessment for Developing Oral Skills The teacher-researcher contrasted three studies in which PA to foster the development of speaking skills in English language learners was used.
Teaching Through Prefabricated Chunks Chu and Wang review the role that the lexical chunk method, which consists of teaching learners prefabricated lexical chunks, has had on the development of the oral and written competences of Chinese students who learn English as a foreign language. Research Design The study followed the qualitative approach, which according to Creswell and McMillan and Schumacher is characterized by in-setting participation and observation, and highly descriptive data. Participants and Context This study was conducted with 14 adults, from 26 to 50 years old, who worked as schoolteachers in different content areas Christian education, mathematics, music, physics, Spanish, social science, accounting, biology, and pre-school education at a private nonprofit school located in the northeast of Bogota, Colombia.
Pedagogical Intervention The pedagogical intervention was carried out in 11 lessons of two hours each 22 hours. Therefore, they moved from no comment in the checklists to at least two comments, which are shown in Excerpt 1 below: 1 Excerpt 1. Emergence of Participants' Comments S10 and S9: very good! S4: can be better. Checklist Although these comments do not evidence deep reflection, they show participants' willingness to reflect on their peers' performances.
Excerpt 2 shows examples of participants identifying specific problems in their peers' performance: 2 Excerpt 2. Identification of Peers' Mistakes and Difficulties Don't clear the situation. In my opinion he should calm when has a conversation. The conversation breakdown. PMWN There were also positive comments that showed that participants identified good performances, too.
Excerpt 3 evidences this: Excerpt 3.
Identification of Peers' Good Performances The time was apropiate. Talk with good volume. She have a good pronunciation. PMWN In the PMWN, there were even some comments in which participants did not only establish if the performance was good or bad, but they went beyond by providing reasons that explain their judgment.
Excerpt 4 shows examples of this: Excerpt 4. Emergent Argumentation Relevance: Is necessary that the situation is punctual. Organization: The sentences she used has clear and logical. Variety: He use a variety of vocabulary. He used pre-fabricated sentences in the performance. PMWN In the first one, the participant did not consider his peers' utterances relevant because the situation that framed the conversation was not well established. The teacher-researcher reflected on this phenomenon in the journal as can be seen in Excerpt 5: Excerpt 5.
Use of Strategies to Ensure Interaction An important aspect of their spoken productions was that participants were able to interact in the conversation.
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Most of them were able to adapt their speech to the emerging unexpected situations such as when the partner did not produce the exact sentence that was planned or when a classmate from the audience made a joke. Teacher-researcher's journal The teacher-researcher found that to overcome emerging challenges in communication, participants used what Thornbury called compensatory strategies. This can be seen in Excerpts 6 and 7: Excerpt 6.
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I lost five subjects. I lost math, I lost English, I lost chemistry, I lost biology and religion. Video-recording transcription Excerpt 6 shows S14's use of the approximation strategy. Excerpt 7 evidences a combination of three compensatory strategies, namely, omission three spaced dots , avoidance italics , and approximation in L2 underline : Excerpt 7. I have 10 years I remember when I was a child I have a dog and now he.
Video-recording transcription In Excerpt 7, S7 started conveying a message omitting the unknown words. Besides, participants' comments in the PMWN evidenced that the corpus fostered language variety as can be seen in Excerpt 8: Excerpt 8. Expansion of Participants' Vocabulary Range She know the diferents words. He has much vocabulary and your conversation is very expensive. He used many words for the conversation. The "no" marks appeared in the last checklists, by the end of the pedagogical intervention.
Evidence of this was found in the journal where the teacher-researcher wrote: Excerpt 9. Assessment of "Fluency" in the Journal Participants need to practice the corpus because they have not acquired the expressions yet.
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They still require support to use the expressions. Teacher-researcher's journal Although the corpus helped participants expand their vocabulary range, it limited their spontaneity and fluency. Limitations Although this research study presented interesting results, a number of limitations were evident. Conclusions As a result of the data analysis process, the teacher-researcher could answer the research question that guided the development of the study.
In this sense, the teacher-researcher found that the PA and corpus influenced the development of participants' SIS in the following twoways: On the one hand, PA and corpus encouraged participants to develop three strategies to enhance their SIS productions, namely, willingness to improve, use of compensatory strategies, and construction of a personalized version of the corpus. References Ahangari, S. Dear participants, I invite you to answer this questionnaire whose aim is to explore your learning interests and needs.
Estimated time of development: 5 min.
Which skill have you developed the most in your process of learning English? Which skill have you developed the least in your process of learning English? The relatively new field of corpus linguistics has much to offer language teachers, says Federica Barbieri. Over the past few decades, the field of applied linguistics has been enriched by a new way of doing linguistic analysis: corpus linguistics. In a nutshell, corpus linguistics is an approach to the study of language that relies on the use of computer-assisted techniques to analyze large, principled databases of naturally occurring language corpora.
Corpus-based analysis is interested in the language actually used in naturally occurring texts rather than in what is theoretically possible. To obtain descriptions of language use that represent the way language behaves in real life, corpus linguists base their analysis on large collections of texts stored on a computer. First, a corpus should be large. If it is too small, it will not include enough examples of the feature you are trying to study.
How large is large enough depends on the targeted linguistic features and on the goals of the analysis. Size, however, isn't everything. A corpus must be representative of the language variety i. For example, a corpus of research articles would not be suitable for the study of the use of tag questions in casual conversation. Corpus linguistics has been applied to three domains of language teaching practice and research: 1 the development of instructional materials, 2 the analysis of learner language, and 3 classroom instruction. These studies challenge textbook descriptions and suggest that teaching materials design could greatly benefit from the empirical information about language use provided by corpus linguistics.
Since the early s, corpus linguists have been compiling corpora of mostly written learner language with a view to analyzing these corpora to investigate second language acquisition and interlanguage. Recently, corpus linguists have used learner corpora in other areas, including classroom teaching, language teaching materials, and language teacher training.
The program then presents every instance of that word or phrase occurring in the corpus in key-word-in-context KWIC format--that is, in the centre of the screen, surrounded by the words that come before and after the searched word. By looking at corpus instances of the searched word or phrase in the form of concordance lines, you can observe patterns of use that would go unnoticed otherwise.
Corpus linguists have been exploring other ways of using corpora in the classroom. In discovery learning, learners browse large corpora in open-ended, exploratory ways. Through enhanced materials development, analysis of learner language, and discovery learning, corpus linguistics can enrich language teaching and research. The following resources are good places to begin exploring corpus linguistics.
Biber, D. Conrad, and R. Corpus linguistics: Investigating language structure and use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aston, G.