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Request Information. The major role of known microRNA is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression during proliferation and differentiation in eukaryotic cells. The involvement of microRNAs in mechanisms responsible for switching genes on and off has been shown to modulate expression patterns of protein-coding genes and can therefore be used to monitor different cell states e.

Today it is a major challenge to identify those microRNA and better understand their regulatory functions in normal and pathological cells. This is because in contrast to early identified ubiquitous and abundant ncRNA, such as the snRNA of the spliceosome, most of the newly identified microRNA for example have low, spatial and temporal expression patterns in accordance to their main function. On top of this, they are small in size and possess no evident conserved sequence or structure motif that would characterize them as microRNA.

MicroRNAs: Biogenesis and Molecular Functions - Liu - - Brain Pathology - Wiley Online Library

Variations of this method achieve absolute or relative quantification. The locked conformation of LNA results in enhanced hybridization properties and increases sensitivity and selectivity, making it ideal for detection of short miRNA. High-throughput quantification of miRNAs is error prone, for the larger variance compared to mRNAs that comes with methodological problems.

Just as miRNA is involved in the normal functioning of eukaryotic cells, so has dysregulation of miRNA been associated with disease. A manually curated, publicly available database, miR2Disease, documents known relationships between miRNA dysregulation and human disease.

A mutation in the seed region of miR, causes hereditary progressive hearing loss. A mutation in the seed region of miR, causes hereditary keratoconus with anterior polar cataract.

microRNA formation and function

The first human disease known to be associated with miRNA deregulation was chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Many other miRNAs also have links with cancer and accordingly are sometimes referred to as " oncomirs ". Another role for miRNA in cancers is to use their expression level for prognosis. Furthermore, specific miRNAs may be associated with certain histological subtypes of colorectal cancer. For instance, expression levels of miR and miR have been shown to be increased in mucinous colorectal cancers and mucin-producing Ulcerative Colitis-associated colon cancers, but not in sporadic colonic adenocarcinoma that lack mucinous components.

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Hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation may arise from miR interaction with MAP2K3, a tumor repressor gene. Those with a rapid response to initial treatment may benefit from truncated treatment regimens, showing the value of accurate disease response measures. Cell-free miRNA are highly stable in blood, are overexpressed in cancer and are quantifiable within the diagnostic laboratory. In classical Hodgkin lymphoma , plasma miR, miR, and miR are promising disease response biomarkers. They can be performed at each consultation to assess disease response and detect relapse. MicroRNAs have the potential to be used as tools or targets for treatment of different cancers.


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A significant number of cervical cancer samples were found to have downregulated expression of miR Additionally, miR works to promote apoptosis of cervical cancer cells, through its direct target hedgehog pathway transcription factor, Gli3. DNA damage is considered to be the primary underlying cause of cancer.

Such damage can cause mutational errors during DNA replication due to error-prone translesion synthesis. Accumulated damage can also cause epigenetic alterations due to errors during DNA repair. HMGA expression is almost undetectable in differentiated adult tissues, but is elevated in many cancers. Human neoplasias, including thyroid, prostatic, cervical, colorectal, pancreatic and ovarian carcinomas, show a strong increase of HMGA1a and HMGA1b proteins.

The global role of miRNA function in the heart has been addressed by conditionally inhibiting miRNA maturation in the murine heart. This revealed that miRNAs play an essential role during its development. Murine microRNA is a potential biomarker i. These findings were observed in ligated carotid arteries of mice to mimic the effects of d-flow.

Within 24 hours, pre-existing immature miR formed mature miR suggesting that miR is flow-sensitive. Arterial ECM is mainly composed of collagen and elastin fibers, providing the structural support and recoil properties of arteries.


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Consistent with these findings, inhibition of pre-miR increases expression of TIMP3 in cells, even when exposed to turbulent flow. When tested, d-flow decreased the expression of XRN1 in humans as it did in mice endothelial cells, indicating a potentially common role of XRN1 in humans. Targeted deletion of Dicer in the FoxD1 -derived renal progenitor cells in a murine model resulted in a complex renal phenotype including expansion of nephron progenitors, fewer renin cells, smooth muscle arterioles , progressive mesangial loss and glomerular aneurysms.

Using a lineage tracing approach followed by Fluorescent-activated cell sorting , miRNA profiling of the FoxD1-derived cells not only comprehensively defined the transcriptional landscape of miRNAs that are critical for vascular development, but also identified key miRNAs that are likely to modulate the renal phenotype in its absence. Consistent with the profiling results, ectopic apoptosis was observed in the cellular derivatives of the FoxD1 derived progenitor lineage and reiterates the importance of renal stromal miRNAs in cellular homeostasis. The vital role of miRNAs in gene expression is significant to addiction , specifically alcoholism.

Another class of miRNAs that regulate insulin resistance , obesity , and diabetes , is the let-7 family. Let-7 accumulates in human tissues during the course of aging. Not only could let-7 inhibition prevent obesity and diabetes, it could also reverse and cure the condition.

When the human genome project mapped its first chromosome in , it was predicted the genome would contain over , protein coding genes. However, only around 20, were eventually identified. Hence, miRNAs play a key role in host—virus interactions and pathogenesis of viral diseases. It is of key importance to identify the miRNA targets accurately. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Conventional miRNA Detection Strategies

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