A recent review of alternative energy density functions for interface tracking applications has proposed a modified form of the double-obstacle function which avoids the spontaneous drop shrinkage phenomena and limits on mobility,  with comparative results provide for a number of benchmark simulations using the double-well function and the VOF sharp interface technique. A phase field model can be constructed to purposely reproduce a given interfacial dynamics as represented by a sharp interface model. In such a case the sharp interface limit i.
These expansions are performed both in the interfacial region inner expansion and in the bulk outer expansion , and then are asymptotically matched order by order. The result gives a partial differential equation for the diffusive field and a series of boundary conditions at the interface, which should correspond to the sharp interface model and whose comparison with it provides the values of the parameters of the phase field model.
For example, this technique has permitted to cancel kinetic effects,  to treat cases with unequal diffusivities in the phases,  to model viscous fingering  and two-phase Navier—Stokes flows,  to include fluctuations in the model,  etc. In multi-phase field models, microstructure is described by set of order parameters, each of which is related to a specific phase or crystallographic orientation. This model is mostly used for solid state phase transformations where multiple grains evolve e. Besides allowing the description of multiple grains in a microstructure, multi-phase field models especially allow for consideration of multiple thermodynamic phases occurring e.
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