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These two sites form as such a particular group, distinct from the other fortified settlements we have inventoried so far in Nubra and in Ladakh in general. Shortly before the village, about a kilometre before the bridge, is a large boulder c. This image is the result of the merging of several pictures — there might as such be a bit of geometrical distortion. Behind them, in the direction of the mountain, a small rock promontory bears the remains of a fort. We noticed four shards of ceramic with incised decoration.
On the ridge that links the promontory to the mountain are two bases of square towers. They protect the thin ridge, which is the weakest angle of the fort in case of an attack. A fosse was additionally dug in front of the towers, in order to hinder any approach from this direction. A rampart pierced with loopholes runs along the cliff. It turns in the direction of the promontory on its northern end. On this side, where the rampart faces the plateau, there is another wall built in front, along with a fosse, in order to further protect this weak side. Another weak angle is on the southern end of the promontory.
Unfortunately, because of the current bulldozing of this area, nothing of the rampart is left. The habitations are too ruinous to be described, only depressions on the ground surrounded by piles of stones are to be seen. A long path starting in Udmaru, constructed on the mountain flank, enables its access. Although at the present day there is no permanent monk, a room was recently built for the Rinpoche rin po che.
Behind it are the ruins of several interconnected rooms that are probably the remnants of the original monastic complex. The villagers of Udmaru reused the bricks of this ancient building to build the new room for the Rinpoche. On one of the ruined walls is the painting of a small chorten , perhaps the last witness of more extensive wall paintings.
According to local tradition, the monastery is from the same period as Ensa. As there is almost nothing left from the original building, it is not possible to assess the plausibility of this claim. Turtuk is famous in Ladakh for its arts and crafts, in particular for its stone pots rdo ltok and metal work.
Its old mosque is also noticeable for its woodcarvings. The small cliffs that naturally protect the site prevented us from entering it. However, a few lower buildings are easier to approach. They are built in a schist-like masonry with little mortar. According to it, the Yabgo dynasty originates from Western Turkestan, where it started with a prince called Tung.
His first eleven successors were all from there, and their kingdom was confined to this area. Following the invasion of part of Kashmir, these three sub-kingdoms were located in Pakistan. Our goal here is not to attempt a critical historical study of this material, but merely to raise awareness about its existence, in the hope of seeing it further researched in the future by competent historians. Regarding Protohistory the rock art and funerary sites surveyed provide evidence of cultural links with the steppic world. For the Bronze Age the thousand images documented in Murgi Tokpo display thematic and stylistic similarities with the rock art of Central Asia.
These are reinforced by the existence at Panamik, on the opposite bank of the Siachen river, of graves typologically reminiscent of those of the Central Asian Bronze or Iron Ages. Similar features are found at Deskit. In fact, all the rock inscriptions found in the valley are in Tibetan. The earliest are undoubtedly those documented at Kushuwar and Chomolung, in proximity to the ancient Buddhist compound of Tirisa. Whereas educated guesses are possible in some cases, we completely lack for the time being hard chronological data.
Ota and L. Bruneau, is a four-year research project that aims at specifying the chrono-cultural sequence of the Nubra region. The sites of Tirisa, Sumur-Maral, Deskit Ting gang and Murgi Tokpo were selected for further detailed on-ground studies, test excavations and radiocarbon dating.
A range of specialists takes part in the project ceramologist, funerary anthropologist, geomorphologist, geophysician and prehistorian , and it is hoped that this scientific endeavor, the first of its kind ever undertaken in Ladakh, will improve our understanding of the history of Nubra and of the interactions between the Central Asian and Tibetan worlds. Agrawal, R. Shankar ed. Bellezza, J. Bruneau, L. Bendezu Sarmiento ed. Olivieri, L. Bruneau, M. Bubnova, M. Cunningham, A.
Desroches, J. Devers, Q.
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Fisher, R. Fonia, R. Francke A. Francke, A. Hugues, R. Jamspal, L. Osmaston, N. Recent research on Ladakh. Jamwal S. Kapadia, H. Kozicz, G. Linrothe, R. Luczanits, C. Klimburg-Salter, E.
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Allinger eds. Ninth to fourteenth centuries. PIATS Tibetan studies. Maillard, M. Mani, B. Mumtaz, K. Orofino, G. Poell, H. A hidden jewel of early mediaeval Ladakhi art, in E. Calcutta, Superintendent of Government Printing India , p. Ranov, V. Rizvi, J. Stein, A. Tshangpa, T. Bray, N. Shakspo eds. Academy for Art, Culture and Languages , pp. Urgyan, R. Vohra, R.
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Schuh, M. Wangchok, S.
Bray, E. Wilson, H. Murray , p. Wu Xinhua, Wagner, M. Jahrhunderts v. Zodpa, K. First of all, the Wylie spellings of most places mentioned in this paper are unknown. When they are, more and often than not, there is no agreement on the spelling. The very name of Nubra well illustrates it as the region is either spelled nub ra or ldum ra. Furthermore, the toponyms of the region are not all of Tibetan origin. On the sacred landscapes mountains, lakes, caves, trees and prints of Nubra see also Wangchok The volume dedicated to Nubra is the fourth one of a series of 6 covering the whole of Ladakh.
The publication of volumes 5 and 6 is still pending. According to him, such sites derive from a tradition that probably originates from the times of the so-called Zhang Zhung entity mentioned in the texts. Brick dimensions are given in the format length x width x thickness. Contiguous to some very large rocks, and partly excavated under them, these might be the remains of tombs.
The area has obviously been reused as a cremation ground for a significant period of time and these activities, involving some minor masonry work, have much altered the ancient remains. Intelligence Branch India , p. Dieter Schuh who kindly provided a detailed reading on the 12th of May We thank him very much for his precious help. The dates of his lifetime are unknown. In the Nubra, the earliest stage of construction of Charasa, as described below in the article, seems also characterised by an important use of bricks.
The upper body of an archer is identifiable as well as the feet of another anthropomorphic figure and the bodies of three animals. The path of the arrow shot by the archer is depicted and could suggest a Bronze Age date. The boulder or the rock from which these two fragments originated could not be found in the area. Believers plunge their hands in one of the hole and the content of the dirt they extract predicts the gender of their forthcoming child and its fate.
In Nubra he is said to have founded the monasteries of Ensa and Deskit. See also Bruneau in press.
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It should be noted that, in Ladakh, bayuls are not strictly linked to Padmasambhava in the same way they usually are in other Himalayan regions. The origin and identity of the bayuls we documented in Ladakh in relation to archaeological ruins are rather unclear and local traditions are not unanimous. There was already a natural vertical distance between the buildings and the outer ground down below.
In these, some stylistic and iconographic elements lotus petals of the main deities and armbands of their assistant bodhisattvas remind those on the murals of the Tashi Sumtsek in Wanla or of the Lhakhang Soma in Alchi, thus suggesting a dating from c. Then, the dead rose again, becoming rolangs ro lang or rising-dead. Some other people came and killed these rolangs once for all and buried them in these two constructions, which they then destroyed.
Both these practices testifying of the important role, beyond the architectural one, of the column ka and the beliefs associated with it. Only one photograph of the temple was published but none of the carving itself. As such, the chronological order of the three temples could be either , , or As stated by Vohra , p. Nonetheless Vohra tentatively dates the inscriptions from the 16th century.
The use of such siege engines might be an indication of the place where the battle took place. Indeed, the fortified settlement in Hundar is bordered by high cliffs on the north, i. Catapults could probably have been successfully set for an attack from the south, i. The latter can be safely crossed-out as its location is incompatible with the use of catapults. The two remaining ones, Charasa and Deskit, are both plausible candidates for such siege. The fortified settlement of Charasa is set on a low hill with flat open ground on all sides, leaving plenty of options to set catapults up at will.
As we saw earlier, its shuttered-mud walls bear the marks of important damage, which in some parts was inflicted only in the upper part of the elevations —this type of destruction suits the action of catapults. At Deskit, though the fort is highly situated making the use of catapults from the valley floor unlikely, it faces a plateau on the other side of the torrent that is just as high.
The distance between the fort and the plateau is reduced, less than a hundred meters. As such, it is conceivable that catapults could have been set there and successfully used against the fort. Furthermore, only few bits of shuttered-mud walls are still standing suggesting that heavy destruction took place. Therefore either Charasa or Deskit fit the description of being the chief fort of Nubra and to have faced catapults. We can further notice that as Elias and Ross ibid. This story has been confirmed to us by villagers in According to Vohra, earlier the rock was seen standing but during a Mongol invasion, the leader of the army, having failed to capture the fort had, in his anger, the rock knocked down so that the image now lies on its back.
Vohra reports the local name of the fort as being Brogpai Khar pp. Indeed, a chorten built on the roof of a private temple belonging to the Onpo family, Onpa Gonpa, stands on four short cribbage columns. It is the western-most expression of this type of architecture we have noticed in the Nubra. Cunningham , pp.
For comments on the lineage see also Francke , p. Emerson S Tibet, , brass inlaid with gold, silver, turquoise and pigment, 40x Quentin Devers wrote a thesis on the fortifications of Ladakh. In the course of a series of extensive surveys he has adopted an approach of built archaeology, analyzing all built remains such as ruined settlements and ruined Buddhist monuments. An important component of his research is the study of sites in a spatial perspective, aiming at understanding ancient route networks and the evolution of territorial dynamics over time.
Kalantari eds. Laurianne Bruneau specializes in the archaeology and the arts of South and Central Asia. Her researches aim at understanding the artistic and cultural relationships between these two regions. Martin Vernier is an independent archaeologist and tibetologist based in Switzerland. Since he has focused on the historical and archaeological heritage of Ladakh.
Laureate of a research grant, he spent two years exploring and systematically documenting the petroglyphs of the region. He created the first electronic database and published the first monograph on Ladakhi rock art. He now conducts research on the stone Buddhist steles and reliefs. Tibetica miscellanea. Plan Introduction. Buddhist carving and ruined Buddhist complex. Ruined chorten and related remains.
Fortified settlement and petroglyphs. View of the confluence of the Siachen and Shyok rivers from the top tower complex between Sumur and Maral looking southwest Agrandir Original jpeg, 92k.
On the sacred landscapes mountains, lakes, caves, trees and prints of Nubra see also The volume dedicated to Nubra is the fourth one of a series of 6 covering the whole of Maps of the main archaeological sites surveyed along the Siachen river between Sumur and Panamik, and along the Shyok river between Tirit and Udmaru Agrandir Original jpeg, k. The only mention of The fosse can be seen on the left of the rampart, along with the second outpost tower straight below Agrandir Original jpeg, k.
He also r The dates of his lif Birth giving scene Agrandir Original jpeg, k. The following remains are listed at Tiris In the Nubra, t Schuh who provided a reading on t There was already a natural vertical di In these, On the mythic lore of Charasa village Only one photograph of the templ The petroglyphs reported under On the palat The close-up view of the tower is taken from the southwest Agrandir Original jpeg, k. However, there is According to Vohra, earlier the rock was seen standing but durin The Bodhisattva is 1. Vohra reports the local name of Indeed, a chorten built on the roof of a private temple belonging to t For pictur Accession number of the Bibliographie Agrawal, R.
There was already a natural vertical distance between the buildings and the outer ground down below 62 NIRLAC , p. Haut de page. Suivez-nous Flux RSS. Type of remains. Ruined enclosure. Save for Later. About this Item Fast Dispatch. Expedited UK Delivery Available. Excellent Customer Service. Previous owners inscription. Store Description Bookbarn International has been finding new ways to connect a global community of book lovers with their next favourite read since the year from our? We are a top rated seller supported by fantastic feedback ratings and a speedy delivery service. We house a vast range of titles spanning thousands of topics from favourite authors and bestsellers to academic textbooks and classics.
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