The CPM method offers tremendous advantages over other design methods because it is generalized and not constrained to a particular piece of equipment. Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps enables readers to understand, analyze, and design distillation structures to solve common distillation problems, including distillation by simple columns, side rectifiers and strippers, multiple feed columns, and fully thermally coupled columns.
In addition, the book presents advanced topics such as reactive distillation, membrane permeation, and validation of thermodynamic models. For all these processes, the authors set forth easy-to-follow design techniques, solution strategies, and insights gained using CPMs. With its many examples and step-by-step tutorials, Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps is recommended for students in chemical engineering in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses. The book also provides new practical techniques that can be immediately applied by chemical engineering professionals in industry.
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He is actively involved inseparations research as well as innovative waste-to-energyprocesses. Skip to: Content. Log In. My Account. Remember to clear the cache and close the browser window. Search For:. Advanced Search. Understanding distillation using column profile maps. Personal Author:. Beneke, Daniel, Publication Information:. Contrast this to how simulations are performed in a standard process simulator: the number of stages is guessed and the column compositions are iteratively solved and the stage count updated until the desired solution is found.
The operating curves lines for a McCabe-Thiele diagram come from mass and energy balances around the column. This then allows the operating curves to be straight. Figure 4 shows a McCabe-Thiele diagram for an ideal mixture. At a feasible reflux ratio, the two operating lines cross.
If you project the lines to the x-axis, then, when these two projections overlap, there is a feasible design. The part of the rectifying operating line orange and of the stripping operating line red beyond where they overlap are ignored, and you can count the number of equilibrium stages required for the separation. If the reflux ratio is changed, then the whole graph can be re-computed. At minimum reflux Figure 5 and less-than-minimum reflux Figure 6 , the profiles either just touch or do not touch at all.
This can be extended to three-component systems and, with some additional thought, to four and more components , where just the projected operating lines are plotted. Of course, instead of being merely straight lines, they are now curves in two dimensions due to the extra components. The approach, however, is the same using a conceptual design tool, such as Aspen Split :. Like most azeotropes, this one is minimum boiling.
We wish to remove the product acetone and some of the water introduced in the feed, to prevent accumulation in the process. The isopropanol will be recycled to the reactor. Because there is no azeotrope between acetone and isopropanol, you might be tempted to opt for a direct split to remove water as the bottoms stream in a first distillation column, with the acetone and isopropanol separated in a second column.
A stage-to-stage calculation can be performed as previously described. We specify relatively pure water in the bottoms product and, using a mass balance, a small amount of water in the distillate. We also set the reflux ratio at a value of 3.
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The stage-to-stage calculations for these specifications appear in Figure 7. Notice how the operating lines blue and magenta do not cross. This indicates an infeasible separation. If the distillate composition is changed to allow more water to go overhead thus putting the distillate composition in the same distillation region as the feed and the bottoms product , we can repeat the calculations to show that the operating lines do cross Figure 8.
This indicates a feasible separation; there are 7. Another possibility is to instead remove acetone as a pure distillate product and generate an acetone-free bottoms product Figure 9.
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Residue curve maps can help you quickly determine what feed splits that distillation can perform. This technique can be used regardless of whether there are azeotropes and even for relatively ideal systems. This initial analysis provides information and insights for carrying out detailed design calculations with process simulation software.
Raymond E. Rooks is a senior research specialist for the Dow Chemical Co. E-mail him at RERooks Dow. Doherty, M. Barnicki, S. Chemical Processing. Menu Newsletters Subscribe. Newsletters Subscribe.
Understanding Distillation Using Column Profile Maps (Electronic book text, 1st edition)
Follow us on:. Key advantages Residue curves can be used to determine what separations are possible with a distillation column independent of how many stages are required and how much energy is consumed. Figure 1.
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Separation of a mixture of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol follows the appropriate residue curve. Figure 2. Producing the overhead and bottoms products indicated requires sixteen equilibrium stages. Click to enlarge Also notice that the feed, distillate and bottoms compositions are all on a line. Figure 3. Click to enlarge Column at less-than-total reflux Engineers use the well-known McCabe-Thiele diagram to evaluate distillation designs for mixtures with two key components when the feed composition, feed quality liquid, vapor, degree of superheat, etc.