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EcoAdapt's Climate Adaptation Starter Kit EcoAdapt's collection of various resources that can help practitioners navigate climate change vulnerability through to adaptation. The Adaptation Starter Kit is divided into six parts: Vulnerability Assessment - resources for climate change vulnerability, risk and impact assessment; Adaptation Frameworks - processes to guide the development of climate change adaptation strategies; Adaptation Portals and Tools - a sampling of climate adaptation portals, tools, and resources; Examples of Adaptation Projects - climate change adaptation case studies; Getting Started - where to begin, working with what you already have, and avoiding maladaptation; Evaluation and Monitoring - on how adaptation programs are succeeding.

Ecological Subregions of the United States This resource provides biophysical descriptions for ecological units of the United States. Ecological Subregions of the United States. Ecological Systems of the United States Nearly terrestrial ecological systems in the United States, southern Alaska, and adjacent areas of Mexico and Canada are summarized in this report, which introduces and outlines the conceptual basis for a mid-scale classification unit: the ecological system.

Ecological Systems of the United States. Effects of climate on occurrence and size of large fires in a northern hardwood landscape: historical trends, forecasts, and implications for climate change in Temiscamingue, Quebec Effects of climate on occurrence and size of large fires in a northern hardwood landscape. Forest Sector. Energy saving potentials and air quality benefits of urban heat island mitigation Energy saving potentials and air quality benefits of urban heat island mitigation.

First-year seedlings and climate change: species-specific responses of 15 North American tree species First-year seedlings and climate change: species-specific responses of 15 North American tree species. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species. Forest Types of the United States. Guidelines for Implementing Assisted Migration of Plants on Agency Lands The Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Lands Team appointed a group to review information on the climate change adaptation strategy known as assisted migration and present recommendations for implementing on lands owned and managed by the Agency of Natural Resources.

How fast and far might tree species migrate in the eastern United States due to climate change? Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest Impacts of climate change on fire activity and fire management in the circumboreal forest. Impacts of future climate change on soil frost in the midwestern United States Impacts of future climate change on soil frost in the midwestern United States.

Influence of climate model biases and daily-scale temperature and precipitation events on hydrological impacts assessment: A case study of the United States. Learning modules - Climate Change Primers The USDA Forest Service has created comprehensive climate change education modules to help land managers better understand the basic climate change science, the effects of climate change on forest and grassland ecosystems, how we can respond to climate change with management and forest carbon science, policy, and management. Start here to learn about climate change, how it may influence land management, and what options are open to natural resource managers for responding to these changes.

Long-term integrated studies show complex and surprising effects of climate change in the northern hardwood forest Long-term integrated studies show complex and surprising effects of climate change in the northern hardwood forest. It is not intended as a comprehensive revision of all aspects of the original report. This update focuses on highlights of our understanding in of past, present, and future trends in key indicators of a changing climate specific to Maine, and recent examples of how Maine people are experiencing these changes. Even if a coordinated response succeeds in eliminating excess greenhouse gas emissions by the end of the century, something that appears highly unlikely today, climate change will continue because the elevated levels of carbon dioxide CO2 can persist in the atmosphere for thousands of years to come.

Massachusetts Climate Change Adaptation Report The Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs EEA convened an advisory committee to develop a report, analyzing strategies for adapting to the predicted changes in climate. Massachusetts Climate Change Adaptation Report. It was developed for local decision-makers, conservation practitioners, large landowners, and community leaders across the state.

Massachusetts Wildlife Climate Action Tool. We are bringing together a team of federal, state, and tribal land management organizations, conservation organizations and private forest owners. Org site. National Climate Assessment - Ecosystems Chapter 8 of the NCA addresses climate change impacts on natural ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services across the United States. National Climate Assessment - Ecosystems. National Climate Assessment - Forestry. National Climate Assessment - Northeast. National Climate Assessment — Adaptation.

National Climate Assessment — Alaska. National Climate Assessment — Great Plains. National Climate Assessment — Midwest. National Climate Assessment — Northeast. National Climate Assessment — Northwest. National Climate Assessment — Southeast. National Climate Assessment — Southwest. National Climate Assessment — Water. New York Climate Change Science Clearinghouse This website serves as a regional gateway to data and information relevant to climate change adaptation and mitigation across New York State. It provides climate science data, maps, tools, documents, websites, and other resources for policy makers, practitioners, researchers, and the public, to support scientifically sound and cost-effective decision making.

Sharing Solutions: Mitigating Climate Change

The vision is a dynamic site where users can find information in multiple ways, including through interactive tools that use data from different sources. It contains two new interactive tools: a Climate Data Grapher, which allows users to generate time-series graphs of observed and projected climate data, and an interactive Map and GIS Viewer with data layers applicable to a range of sectors. Northeast habitat guides: A companion to the terrestrial and aquatic habitat maps. Northwest Climate Toolbox The Northwest Climate Toolbox contains a collection of useful tools to display and compare climate projections for the continental United States.

You can explore future data with a Climate Mapper tool, a boxplot tool, or a future time series. You can also display climate normals in the Climate Mapper tool, or through graphs and charts. Northwest Climate Toolbox. Past and future changes in climate and hydrological indicators in the US Northeast Past and future changes in climate and hydrological indicators in the US Northeast.

Probabilistic 21st and 22nd century sea-level projections at a global network of tide-gauge sites Probabilistic 21st and 22nd century sea-level projections at a global network of tide-gauge sites. Projected changes in drought occurrence under future global warming from multi-model, multi-scenario, IPCC AR4 simulations Projected changes in drought occurrence under future global warming from multi-model, multi-scenario, IPCC AR4 simulations.

Projected future temperature and precipitation extremes in Chicago Projected future temperature and precipitation extremes in Chicago. Recovery dynamics and climate change effects to future New England forests Recovery dynamics and climate change effects to future New England forests. Regional climate change projections of streamflow characteristics in the Northeast and Midwest US.

Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U. National Climate Assessment - Alaska. National Climate Assessment - Climate of the U. Great Plains. National Climate Assessment - Northwest. National Climate Assessment - Southeast. National Climate Assessment - Southwest. Regional climate trends and scenarios for the U. This document is one of series of regional climate descriptions designed to provide input that can be used in the development of the National Climate Assessment NCA. There are two components of these descriptions.

One component is a description of the historical climate conditions in the region. The other component is a description of the climate conditions associated with two future pathways of greenhouse gas emissions based on IPCC emission scenarios. National Climate Assessment: Northeast U. Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience Response diversity, ecosystem change, and resilience.

Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in the forests of northeastern North America: What can we predict? Responses of insect pests, pathogens, and invasive plant species to climate change in the forests of northeastern North America. Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change Running to stand still: adaptation and the response of plants to rapid climate change.

Scanning the Conservation Horizon - A guide to climate change vulnerability assessment Scanning the Conservation Horizon - A guide to climate change vulnerability assessment. Snow occurrence changes over the central and eastern United States under future warming scenarios Snow occurrence changes over the central and eastern United States under future warming scenarios. The effect of urbanization on floods of different recurrence interval The effect of urbanization on floods of different recurrence interval.

The impacts of climate change on Connecticut agriculture, infrastructure, natural resources, and public health. Climate change assessment for the state of Connecticut, with some description of natural resource concerns. The influence of land use and climate change on forest biomass and composition in Massachusetts, USA The influence of land use and climate change on forest biomass and composition in Massachusetts, USA. The road to a thoughtful street tree master plan The road to a thoughtful street tree master plan.

Caribbean EcoAdapt report is to provide a brief overview of key climate change impacts and a review of the prevalent work occurring on climate change adaptation in the Southeastern United States and Puerto Rico and the U. Caribbean region. This report focuses on water resources. The vulnerabilities of fish and wildlife in the Northeast to climate change This project completed three assessments of the vulnerability of terrestrial, aquatic, and coastal habitats ecosystems to climate change, including sea level rise.

Tangible and intangible aspects of vulnerability converge in the phenomenon of place. From this perspective, if climate change results in a loss of access to significant places there will be some action that can make affected populations whole, through relocation or by other means gaining an equivalent level of ecosystem services.

But often such losses and displacements cannot be made good: there may be no equivalents to the territory with important mythic associations, the fishery that supported culturally salient livelihoods, or simply the sense of place that provided an emotional and spiritual foundation for multiple generations.

In assessing differential vulnerability to climate change, this is critical and is strongly connected to how people know and understand their environments. Knowledge and information intersect with vulnerability to climate change in myriad ways, directly and indirectly shaping peoples' adaptive capacity, exposure, and sensitivity. However, different types and sources of information and modes of knowledge transmission affect how people understand, perceive, and act on information.

In addition to processes of governance and culture reviewed in the previous sections , the ability to mitigate vulnerability is also affected by various aspects and types of knowledge, including knowledge transmission, social memory, traditional ecological knowledge, deep time knowledge, and knowledge coproduction.

Information about weather forecasts and climate predictions is communicated, received, and interpreted through multiple channels, including interpersonal communication, television, radio, the Internet, and social media Morss et al. Social networks importantly help people access, personalize, and perceive the relevance of information.

When Hurricane Sandy approached the U. Perception of risk within social networks also plays a critical role in vulnerability mitigation, linking information transmission, social context, and the cultural factors that contribute to risk perception. Perception affects the application of information to mitigate harm and reduce vulnerability, of oneself or others. The importance of such factors is well illustrated by the case of Cyclone Gorky, which caused , deaths in Bangladesh in Ribot, Such social memory, however, may also contribute to vulnerability reduction.

Humans must learn their environments: knowledge of environmental cycles and hazards is not innate Rockman, This case demonstrates how a single event can generate a useful memory that outlasts a single lifetime and can help shape public response to hazards.

Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 2nd edition

The pace of environmental learning depends on both environmental cycles and a community's capacity for remembering risks and responses. In other cases, economic or political factors may disrupt or override the use of established environmental knowledge. Drought management strategies that arose during the Dust Bowl, for instance, were abandoned after only a few decades. Such social memory shapes not only communities' exposure to hazards but also their sensitivity to those exposures and their ability to mitigate vulnerability.

Intracommunity processes of knowledge production and dissemination may privilege certain types of knowledge, such as scientific knowledge, or official discourses may be imposed; both tendencies may reduce or prevent transmission of local, environmentally relevant knowledge Gilmartin, In Puerto Rico, local environmental knowledge about hurricanes or tsunamis has traditionally been sustained via oral transmission within families and other networks.

However, local knowledge has been eroded by outmigration and the failure to record and preserve the older generation's memories Duany, Moreover, social memory plays a critical role in shaping local knowledge. Collected over generations, and continuously refined through transmission, TEK withstands the test of time. Indigenous communities are often the first and most drastically affected by climate change due to their displacement to marginal environments and their limited political power. Such communities may have systematic environmental knowledge, including knowledge of processes that can enhance their adaptive capacity.

Collaborative analysis of combined TEK and mainstream science can yield critical insights into climate change and adaptation Bennett et al. Collaborations must be based on relationships of trust; follow cultural, ethical, and legal protocols; and recognize that TEK is embodied in cultural practices and beliefs that are inseparable from deep cultural contexts Maldonado et al.

TEK that is based on individual and collective experience, and employs indicators based on direct observation, is an important element of weather and climate forecasting. One such indicator is the parhelia, or sundogs, that are produced by humid air at high altitudes; these are often considered signs that storms will arrive within a day or two. For example, the Navajo Nation's adaptation efforts are hindered by a severe shortage of meteorological data and other scientific observations that could supplement traditional knowledge.

To provide additional information and promote adaptive responses that would be consistent with cultural priorities, more than 50 Navajo elders shared their observations about changing environmental conditions Redsteer et al. In addition to TEK, archeological studies can also provide routes to mitigate vulnerability via accessing deep time knowledge about climate change transitions.

That information can be particularly useful for recovering detailed, locally relevant examples of past climate impacts and corresponding human responses. Climate change, however, threatens the archaeological record as environmental change increases erosion rates and intensifies or accelerates the effects of flooding, wildfires, invasive species, and drought e. After storms destroyed approximately half the recorded area of the site in , a salvage excavation team collected samples the next year, but additional sections of the site were eroded away shortly after the team's visit Kintisch, Many types of cultural heritage including archaeological sites, historic structures, and cultural landscapes across multiple ecosystems are now being damaged or destroyed at a greater rate than in the past Hollesen et al.

Knowledge production, with overlapping local and scientific forms Agrawal, , is an iterative process that engages local stories, narratives, and formal and informal institutions. The project team created chains of boundary organizations that linked GLISA to local social networks via multiple community partner organizations that were working in four Saint Paul neighborhoods Phadke et al.

This approach facilitated trust and built on existing social networks that included community partners and local residents. Because of climate change and its proximity to the Cascadia Subduction Zone, the village is highly vulnerable to tsunamis, storm surge, and riverine flooding Quinault Indian Nation, a. In planning for climate change, village leaders drew on not only climate change projections provided by the State of Washington but also a variety of other information sources, including community perspectives, before proposing to relocate to a higher location inland Environmental Protection Agency, n.

Global Change Research Program, n. While uncertainty over future climate change may constrain government action, this example shows that climate change predictions are only one of several sources of knowledge that guide adaptation measures. Populations are not uniformly vulnerable to climate change. Access to resources is one critical factor that shapes communities' ability to plan for and respond to the impacts of climate change.

Climate change presents both acute and chronic challenges for effective governance. The successful examples of environmental governance discussed here demonstrate the benefits of partnerships among governments, social movements, and organizations. Cultural systems shape how people understand environmental change, while at a local or regional scale culture and history may constrain the feasible responses to climate change threats.

Valid and timely information about weather and climate are necessary but not sufficient to promote effective action at a community scale. Putting into practice an iterative process in which researchers and community residents jointly shape the availability, dissemination, and use of knowledge increases the likelihood that the information will meaningfully contribute to adaptive responses to climate change.

Stemming from this review, we identify three promising areas of research on differential vulnerability: mobility, uncertainty, and incremental change. Regarding uncertainty , climate change predictions are only one of several sources of knowledge guiding adaptation. Despite uncertainty over climate change predictions, which may constrain governmental action, effective adaptation planning is nonetheless feasible. Additional research on the most effective frameworks for fostering effective adaptation decisions, that are interpretable by different populations, in the face of uncertainty will benefit planning.

While the threat of pulse events can prompt governments to reallocate resources from routine activities to vulnerability reduction, gradual environmental change, though equally serious, less often provokes a significant response. Identifying strategies that can promote more effective engagement around the press aspects of climate change offers an important topic for interdisciplinary work. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. This working group was facilitated by Susan Goodwin Department of the Interior.

Explaining differential vulnerability to climate change: A social science review. Global Change Research Program or any other U. Robert Winthrop has been updated. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Climate Change. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change. Published online Dec 7. Kimberley Thomas , 1 R.

Warner , 9 and Robert Winthrop Dean Hardy. Timmons Roberts. Benjamin P. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Kimberley Thomas, Email: ude. Corresponding author. Email: ude. Abstract The varied effects of recent extreme weather events around the world exemplify the uneven impacts of climate change on populations, even within relatively small geographic regions.

Keywords: access, culture, governance, knowledge, vulnerability. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Power differentials The ability to influence or coerce different groups—social power—is derived from and reproduces the social hierarchies that create inequalities in access to resources, which in turn engender differential vulnerability among communities.

Public and private governance Vulnerability reduction is a necessary goal of most organizations as they seek, on behalf of themselves and the populations they serve, to avoid threats of harm, to lessen damage if harm arrives, and to improve their response to threats. Civil society engagement In addition to public and private institutions, civil society often comprises a third dimension of governance. CULTURE Culture—the shared and patterned meanings held by members of social groups—is vital to understanding climate change vulnerability. Tangible and intangible factors Social vulnerabilities to climate change are both tangible and intangible.

Risk and culture A shifting climate heralds changes to the hazardscapes in which people dwell. The project recorded personal observations such as recollections that, Clothes worn on the first days of school indicate changes in summer and fall weather. Transmission of environmental knowledge Information about weather forecasts and climate predictions is communicated, received, and interpreted through multiple channels, including interpersonal communication, television, radio, the Internet, and social media Morss et al.

Social memory Humans must learn their environments: knowledge of environmental cycles and hazards is not innate Rockman, Knowledge coproduction Knowledge production, with overlapping local and scientific forms Agrawal, , is an iterative process that engages local stories, narratives, and formal and informal institutions. The impact of sea level rise on developing countries: A comparative analysis.

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Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (Second Edition) | Oceanography

Wisdom sits in places: Landscape and language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Indigenous peoples, lands, and resources. Washington, DC: U. Global Change Research Program; Sacred ecology: Traditional ecological knowledge and resource management. Understanding uncertainty and reducing vulnerability: Lessons from resilience thinking. Natural Hazards , 41 2 , — Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management.

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New York, NY: Routledge. Climate change and social vulnerability: Toward a sociology and geography of food insecurity. Global Environmental Change , 4 1 , 37— Disaster impact and recovery: A comparison of black and white victims. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters , 4 1 , 35— Assessing the impacts of local knowledge and technology on climate change vulnerability in remote communities. Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review , 62 3 , — Vulnerabilities and displacements: Adaptation and mitigation to climate change as a new development mantra.

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In Proceedings of the 3rd U. Gullapalli P. Heterogenous encounters: Colonial histories and archaeological experiences In Liebmann M. Plymouth, England: Altamira Press. Boundary organizations in environmental policy and science: An introduction. An exploration of the link between development, economic growth, and natural Risk. Haraway D. Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective.

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Flood management in the Mekong region. Asian Journal of Environment and Disaster Management , 1 1 , 23— Climate change and poverty: Vulnerability, impacts, and alleviation strategies. Moving climate information off the shelf: Boundary chains and the role of RISAs as adaptive organizations. Weather, Climate, and Society , 6 2 , — Linking development to climate adaptation: Leveraging generic and specific capacities to reduce vulnerability to drought in NE Brazil.

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Smong: How an oral history saved thousands on Indonesia's Simeulue Island during the December and March tsunamis. Earthquake Spectra , 22 S3 , S—S Comparing two measures of social movement identity: The environmental movement as an example. Social Science Quarterly , 96 2 , — Environmental Research Letters , 11 3 , Expanding vulnerability assessment for public lands: The social complement to ecological approaches. Climate Risk Management , 16 , — The cultural theory of risk for climate change adaptation. Weather, Climate, and Society , 6 , — Disasters by design: A reassessment of natural hazards in the United States.

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