A person who creates choreography is called a choreographer. Related: Emily Roysdon. Sense and Sense. Der Triumph des Willens Triumph of the Will. Kristina Talking Pictures. Trio A. Photographs made from a positive color transparency or a negative. The color is achieved in the print by the layering of silver salts sensitized to the three primary colors: red, yellow, and blue.
After each emulsified layer has been exposed, colors emerge in a chemical development process. The person who sets up both camera and lighting for each shot in a film, the cinematographer has a major influence over the look and feel of a shot or scene, and is often as highly esteemed as the director. Cinematography is the art of positioning a camera and lighting a scene. Related: Barbara Kopple. Harlan County U. An individual who helps guide and shape the future development of a community.
A city planner considers environmental and social issues, and what kinds of resources are needed to improve the quality of life for the community residents, particularly in terms of what types of new building projects may be necessary. The principles embodied in the styles, theories, or philosophies of the art of ancient Greece and Rome.
Related: Earle Dickson. Merz Picture 32 A. The Cherry Picture. Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale. Yayoi Kusama. Accumulation of Stamps, The perceived hue of an object, produced by the manner in which it reflects or emits light into the eye. Also, a substance, such as a dye, pigment, or paint, that imparts a hue.
Related: Adolph Gottlieb. Man Looking at Woman. Map of the World. Mapping the Internet. Street, Dresden. Interior, Mother and Sister of the Artist. Map of America. Hans Tietze and Erica Tietze-Conrat. Modern Landscapes Vasily Kandinsky. Paintings of large areas of color, typically with no strong contrasts of tone or obvious focus of attention. A decorative or structural feature, most often composed of stone, typically having a cylindrical or polygonal shaft. Related: Robert Rauschenberg. Related: Alighiero Boetti.
Colors located opposite one another on the color wheel. When mixed together, complementary colors produce a shade of gray or brown. When one stares at a color for a sustained period of time then looks at a white surface, an afterimage of the complementary color will appear. Related: Henri Matisse. Interior with a Young Girl Girl Reading. The arrangement of the individual elements within a work of art so as to form a unified whole; also used to refer to a work of art, music, or literature, or its structure or organization.
Horses Resting. My Pacific Polynesian Culture. Pablo Picasso. To Lift. Vincent van Gogh. Art that emerged in the late s, emphasizing ideas and theoretical practices rather than the creation of visual forms. Related: Daniel Buren. Cut Piece. Pitcher and Creamer. Vermelha Chair.
Developed by the Russian avant-garde at the time of the October Revolution of Declaring that a post-Revolutionary society demanded a radically new artistic language, Constructivist artists, led by Aleksandr Rodchenko, aimed to strip their works of subjective emotional character, eventually even rejecting painting as an individualist bourgeois form. The Constructivist artist was recast as an engineer of a new society, whose practice served a greater social or utilitarian purpose. Specter of the Gardenia. Related: Ana Mendieta. Nile Born. Paris, June—July Documentary and Propaganda.
In photography, the range of light to dark areas in the composition. An image with high contrast will have a greater variability in tonality while a photograph with low contrast will have a more similar range of tones. General agreement on or acceptance of certain practices or attitudes; a widely used and accepted device or technique, as in drama, literature, or visual art. Related: Bruce Nauman. A steel alloy that develops a rust-like appearance when exposed to weather for several years, eliminating the need for repainting. Because of this quality, it is also called weathering steel. Related: Barnett Newmann.
Broken Obelisk. In photography, editing, typically by removing the outer edges of the image. This process may happen in the darkroom or on a computer. Originally a term of derision used by a critic in , Cubism describes the work of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and those influenced by them. Working side by side, they developed a visual language whose geometric planes and compressed space challenged what had been the defining conventions of representation in Western painting: the relationship between solid and void, figure and ground.
Traditional subjects—nudes, landscapes, and still lifes—were reinvented as increasingly fragmented compositions. Related: Georges Braque. Man with a Guitar. A person, symbol, object, or place that is widely recognized or culturally significant to a large group of people. Related: Celebrity. The customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group. Map of an Englishman. Avenue des Acacias, Paris. Montroig, July —winter Juan Downey. Houses at Night.
Blow Inflatable Armchair. Modern Landscapes Wifredo Lam. An artistic and literary movement formed in response to the disasters of World War I —18 and to an emerging modern media and machine culture. Dada artists sought to expose accepted and often repressive conventions of order and logic, favoring strategies of chance, spontaneity, and irreverence. Dada artists experimented with a range of mediums, from collage and photomontage to everyday objects and performance, exploding typical concepts of how art should be made and viewed and what materials could be used. Related: El Lissitzky.
Kurt Schwitters. Dada Movement. Montroig, July —winter Johannes Baader. A daguerreotype uses a silver or silver-coated-copper plate to develop an image in a camera obscura. The image is formed when the light-sensitive plate is exposed to light through a camera lens. A daguerreotype was a unique, direct positive image that could not produce copies. Related: Carrie Mae Weems. Untitled Mother and Daughter. A term describing the abstraction pioneered by the Dutch journal De Stijl The Style , founded in by the painter and architect Theo van Doesburg.
This international group of artists working in all mediums renounced naturalistic representation in favor of a stripped-down formal vocabulary principally consisting of straight lines, rectangular planes, and primary color. In a response to the devastation wreaked by World War I, de Stijl artists aimed to achieve a visual harmony in art that could provide a blueprint for restoring order and balance to everyday life.
A term used to describe the design and aesthetics of functional objects with an emphasis on unique and hand-crafted forms often available in limited quantity. Paris, June—July Design. Formed in in Munich as an association of painters and an exhibiting society led by Vasily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. Using a visual vocabulary of abstract forms and prismatic colors, Blaue Reiter artists explored the spiritual values of art as a counter to [what they saw as] the corruption and materialism of their age. The group, which published an influential almanac by the same name, dissolved with the onset of World War I.
Related: Franz Marc. Related: Hector Guimard. The affiliated artists often turned to simplified or distorted forms and unusually strong, unnatural colors to jolt the viewer and provoke an emotional response. Related: Erich Heckel. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. A method of documentary filmmaking developed in the late s and early s in the US and Canada, in which filmmakers sought to capture their subjects as directly as possible.
Reducing equipment and crews to bare essentials, they used handheld cameras and attempted to make themselves unobtrusive, allowing life to unfold before the camera. Pennebaker, and brothers Albert and David Maysles. A photographic term referring to a positive image made directly by exposure to light and by development without the use of a negative. In a direct positive print an image is produced on a surface and then treated chemically to imitate the tonal range of nature.
Related: William J. A genre encompassing nonfiction films intended to capture some aspect of reality, often for the purposes of instruction, education, or the development of a historical record. Related: Dorothea Lange. Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California.
In photography and filmmaking, a technique in which film is exposed twice to capture and merge two different images in a single frame. A person who draws plans or designs, often of structures to be built; a person who draws skillfully, especially an artist. Related: Edvard Munch. Paris, June—July Wifredo Lam. Glenn Ligon. Untitled from the Runaways. Paris, June—July Richard Prince. The Black Factory Archive.
An intaglio printmaking technique that creates sharp lines with fuzzy, velvety edges. A diamond-pointed needle is used to incise lines directly into a bare metal printing plate, displacing ridges of metal that adhere to the edges of the incised lines. This displaced metal is called burr. Inking fills the incised lines and clings to the burr. Damp paper is placed on the plate and run through a press, picking up the ink from the incised lines and the burr, resulting in a characteristically fuzzy line.
Related: Max Beckmann. The Grenade Die Granate. Related: Aluminum Company of America. Outboard Propeller. Artistic manipulation of the natural landscape, typically though not exclusively enacted on a large scale. A combination of two or more liquids that do not blend easily on their own, such as oil and water. For example, painters can use egg yolk to emulsify oil paint and water. A type of paint made from very fine pigments and resin that form a glossy surface. Also, the application of this paint to a material in order to create a smooth and glossy surface.
A photographic print that is bigger than the original negative. Because enlargements can be made, cameras can remain small and portable yet photographers can still produce big photographic prints. Before the development of enlargement techniques, the size of a photograph was determined by the size of its negative. Transitory written and printed matter receipts, notes, tickets, clippings, etc. Related: Johannes Baader.
An intaglio printmaking technique that creates thin, fluid lines whose effects can vary from graceful and serpentine to tight and scratchy. An etching needle, a fine-pointed tool, is used to draw on a metal plate that has been coated with a thin layer of waxy ground, making an easy surface to draw though.
After removing the coating, the plate is inked, filling only the incised lines. Damp paper is placed on the plate and run through a press, forcing the paper into the incised lines to pick up the ink. Related: Grayson Perry. Otto Dix. The War Der Krieg. Subway Portrait. A facial aspect indicating an emotion; also, the means by which an artist communicates ideas and emotions. Untitled Film Stills.
Untitled boy with hand to head. Vertical Roll. Fresh Widow. May 6, Sol LeWitt. Encompasses varying stylistic approaches that emphasize intense personal expression. Renouncing the stiff bourgeois social values that prevailed at the turn of the 20th century, and rejecting the traditions of the state-sponsored art academies, Expressionist artists turned to boldly simplified or distorted forms and exaggerated, sometimes clashing colors.
As Expressionism evolved from the beginning of the 20th century through the early s, its crucial themes and genres reflected deeply humanistic concerns and an ambivalent attitude toward modernity, eventually confronting the devastating experience of World War I and its aftermath. Related: Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. A game in which each participant takes turns writing or drawing on a sheet of paper, folds it to conceal his or her contribution, then passes it to the next player for a further contribution. The game gained popularity in artistic circles during the s, when it was adopted as a technique by artists of the Surrealist movement.
Courtyard, 22 rue Quincampoix. A style of painting in the first decade of the 20th century that emphasized strong, vibrant color and bold brushstrokes over realistic or representational qualities. Central among the loose group of artists were Henri Matisse and Andre Derain. Art seeking to challenge the dominance of men in both art and society, to gain recognition and equality for women artists, and to question assumptions about womanhood. While many of the debates inaugurated in these decades are still ongoing, a younger generation of feminist artists takes an approach incorporating intersecting concerns about race, class, forms of privilege, and gender identity and fluidity.
Both feminism and feminist art continue to evolve. Related: Clyfford Still. Star Doll for Parkett No.
Color space and its divisions: color order from antiquity to the present
Armorial Bearings from No Parking Anytime. A series of moving images, especially those recorded on film and projected onto a screen or other surface noun ; 2. A sheet or roll of a flexible transparent material coated with an emulsion sensitive to light and used to capture an image for a photograph or film noun ; 3. To record on film or video using a movie camera verb. MOV File. Steamboat Willie. A photograph taken during the production of a film that shows a particular moment or scene. These photographs are often used as advertisements or posters for the film.
A specific size and style of a typeface design for example, Arial 12pt bold, or Times New Roman 10pt italics. The term is often confused with typeface, which is a particular design of type. The area of an image—usually a photograph, drawing, or painting—that appears closest to the viewer. Bridge over the Riou. Montroig, July —winter Paul Gauguin. Untitled Stack. Repetition Nineteen III. Bell and Navels. Montroig, July —winter Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. The Artist Is Present. One Ton Prop House of Cards. Measuring the Universe.
Related: David Wark Griffith. Paris, June—July Robert Morris. An object—often utilitarian, manufactured, or naturally occurring—that was not originally designed for an artistic purpose, but has been repurposed in an artistic context. The method by which information is included or excluded from a photograph, film, or video.
A photographer or filmmaker frames an image when he or she points a camera at a subject. A technique that involves rubbing pencil, graphite, chalk, crayon, or another medium onto a sheet of paper that has been placed on top of a textured object or surface. The process causes the raised portions of the surface below to be translated to the sheet.
Related: Max Ernst. An Italian movement in art and literature catalyzed by a manifesto published in a newspaper by Italian poet F. The text celebrated new technology and modernization while advocating for a violent and decisive break from the past. Working in the years just before World War I, the Futurists portrayed their subjects—often humans, machines, and vehicles in motion—with fragmented forms and surfaces that evoke the energy and dynamism of urban life in the early 20th century.
Related: Lorraine O'Grady. A black-and-white photographic print made by exposing paper, which has been made light-sensitive by a coating of gelatin silver halide emulsion, to artificial or natural light; a photographic process invented by Dr. Richard Leach Maddox in A water-based matte paint, sometimes called opaque watercolor, composed of ground pigments and plant-based binders, such as gum Arabic or gum tragacanth. The opacity of gouache derives from the addition of white fillers, such as clay or chalk, or a higher ratio of pigment to binder.
Related: Mona Hatoum. Related: Hong Hao. Characterized by ludicrous, repulsive, or incongruous distortion, as of appearance or manner; ugly, outlandish, or bizarre, as in character or appearance. A performance, event, or situation considered as art, especially those initiated by the artists group Fluxus in the early s. Such events are often planned, but involve elements of improvisation, may take place in any location, are multidisciplinary, and frequently involve audience participation.
Related: Participation and Audience Involvement. An African American literary, artistic, and intellectual flowering, centered in the New York City neighborhood of Harlem and spanning the s to the mids. Considered one of the most creative periods in American history, it fostered a new African American cultural identity.
A pictographic communication system, closely associated with the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are stylized, recognizable pictures of the things and ideas represented. Related: Georges-Pierre Seurat. Having the character of an icon, i. April Hong Hao. Subject matter in visual art, often adhering to particular conventions of artistic representation, and imbued with symbolic meanings.
Montroig, July —winter Leni Riefenstahl. The Dream. Hito Steyerl. The Hat Makes the Man. May 6, Richard Prince. Rejecting established styles, the Impressionists began experimenting in the early s with a brighter palette of pure unblended colors, synthetic paints, sketchy brushwork, and subject matter drawn from their direct observations of nature and of everyday life in and around Paris. They worked out of doors, the better to capture the transient effects of sunlight on the scenes before them.
With their increased attention to the shifting patterns of light and color, their brushwork became rapid, broken into separate dabs that better conveyed the fleeting quality of light. In , they held their first group exhibition in Paris. From this criticism, they were mockingly labeled Impressionists. They continued exhibiting together until , at which point many of the core artists were taking their work in new directions.
The act of improvising, that is, to make, compose, or perform on the spur of the moment and with little or no preparation. A flat slanting surface, connecting a lower level to a higher level. Examples include slides, ramps, and slopes. A field of design concerned with the aesthetics, form, functionality, and production of manufactured consumer objects. The period beginning around characterized by a shift away from traditional industry and noted for the abundant publication, consumption, and manipulation of information, especially by computers and computer networks.
Related: Hito Steyerl. A form of art, developed in the late s, which involves the creation of an enveloping aesthetic or sensory experience in a particular environment, often inviting active engagement or immersion by the spectator. Related: Carolee Schneemann. Bleeding Takari II. One and Three Chairs. An art term describing the systematic inquiry into the practices and ethos surrounding art institutions such as art academies, galleries, and museums, often challenging assumed and historical norms of artistic theory and practice. It often seeks to make visible the historically and socially constructed boundaries between inside and outside and public and private.
A general term for metal-plate printmaking techniques, including etching, drypoint, engraving, aquatint, and mezzotint. The practice of designing digital environments, products, systems, and services for human interaction. A discipline of design that focuses on the functional and aesthetic aspects of indoor spaces.
A style of architecture that appeared from to and favored boxy structures, lack of decoration, and the use of materials such as steel, concrete, and glass. The period in American history between World Wars I and II, particularly the s, characterized especially by the rising popularity of jazz and by the open pursuit of social pleasures. It was electrically powered and worked with celluloid film, which was advanced through the camera via a system of sprockets. A peephole at the top of the Kinetoscope allowed people to view moving pictures as the celluloid rolled past.
Related: Donald Judd. London Bridge. Montroig, July —winter Max Ernst. Related: Barrett Lyon, the Opte Project. The Birth of the World. Montroig, late summer—fall Man Ray. Paris, June—July Rirkrit Tiravanija. A printmaking technique that involves drawing with greasy crayons or a liquid called tusche, on a polished slab of limestone; aluminum plates, which are less cumbersome to handle, may also be used. The term is derived from the Greek words for stone litho and drawing graph.
When the greasy image is ready to be printed, a chemical mixture is applied across the surface of the stone or plate in order to securely bond it. This surface is then dampened with water, which adheres only to the blank, non-greasy areas. Damp paper is placed on top of this surface and run through a press to transfer the image. In addition to the traditional method described here, other types of lithography include offset lithography, photolithography, and transfer lithography. Apparatus used to project an image, usually onto a screen. In use from the 17th to the early 20th century, it is a precursor of the modern slide projector.
A transparent slide containing the image was placed between a source of illumination and a set of lenses to focus and direct the image. Related: Shahzia Sikander. Related: Meret Oppenheim. Paris, Surrealism Yvonne Rainer. The production of large amounts of standardized products through the use of machine-assembly production methods and equipment. Side Chair model DCW. Related: Joseph Cornell.
Taglioni's Jewel Casket. Bicycle Wheel. New York, third version, after lost original of Max Ernst. Senga Nengudi. The materials used to create a work of art, and the categorization of art based on the materials used for example, painting [or more specifically, watercolor], drawing, sculpture. Modern Portraits Tino Sehgal. A drama, such as a play, film, or television program, characterized by exaggerated emotions, stereotypical characters, and interpersonal conflicts; 2.
Behavior or occurrences having melodramatic characteristics. A term invented by the artist Kurt Schwitters to describe his works made from scavenged fragments and objects. Transcending physical matter or the laws of nature. Metaphysics refers to the branch of philosophy that studies that fundamental nature of being and knowing. A primarily American artistic movement of the s, characterized by simple geometric forms devoid of representational content. Relying on industrial technologies and rational processes, Minimalist artists challenged traditional notions of craftsmanship, using commercial materials such as fiberglass and aluminum, and often employing mathematical systems to determine the composition of their works.
Simone Forti. A technique involving the use of two or more artistic media, such as ink and pastel or painting and collage, that are combined in a single composition; 2. A designation for an artist who works with a number of different artistic media. Related: Howardena Pindell.
A detailed three-dimensional representation, usually built to scale, of another, often larger, object. In architecture, a three-dimensional representation of a concept or design for a building; 2. A person who poses for an artist. Related: Carl Elsener. Victorinox Swiss Officers' Knife Champion no. Indestructible Object. Modern can mean related to current times, but it can also indicate a relationship to a particular set of ideas that, at the time of their development, were new or even experimental. April Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.
An assembly of images that relate to one another in some way to create a single work or part of a work of art. A montage is more formal than a collage, and is usually based on a theme. The Lovers. Le Perreux-sur-Marne, Rirkrit Tiravanija. A term referring to small-scale, three-dimensional works of art conceived and produced in relatively large editions, and often issued by the same individuals or organizations that publish prints.
Turkey Shopping Bag. Related: Paul Gauguin. Related: Man Ray. Paris, Paris, June—July Paul Gauguin. Related: Zarina. A previously exposed and developed photographic film or plate showing an image that, in black-and-white photography, has a reversal of tones for example, white eyes appear black. In color photography, the image is in complementary colors to the subject for example, a blue sky appears yellow.
The transfer of a negative image to another surface results in a positive image. Related: August Sander. Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century El Lissitzky. Led by the example of Georges Seurat, the Neo-Impressionists renounced the spontaneity of Impressionism in favor of a measured painting technique grounded in science and the study of optics. Neo-Impressionists came to believe that separate touches of pigment result in a greater vibrancy of color than is achieved by the conventional mixing of pigments on the palette.
A representative style of art that was developed in the s in Germany by artists including Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, and George Grosz. Artworks in this style were often satirical in nature, sending a critical eye upon contemporary taste and the postwar society of Germany. In both content and style, artists of this movement directly challenged and broke away from the traditions of the art academies they had attended. A term referring to the islands of the southern, western, and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Paris, June—July Expressionism.
A distinguished European artist of the period from about to the early s, especially one of the great painters of this period, e. In computer software, open source refers to source code that is freely available and may be modified. Open-source software is often developed publicly and collaboratively. Having characteristics of a biological entity, or organism, or developing in the manner of a living thing. Accessories, decoration, adornment, or details that have been applied to an object or structure to beautify its appearance.
Related: Simple Machines Expressionism. Montroig, late summer—fall John Baldessari. Paris, Pablo Picasso. Georges Braque. Marilyn Monroe, I. Montroig, July —winter John Baldessari. Oskar Kokoschka. Le Perreux-sur-Marne. Vasily Kandinsky. The range of colors used by an artist in making a work of art; 2. A thin wooden or plastic board on which an artist holds and mixes paint. Henri Matisse. A flexible, thin blade with a handle, typically used for mixing paint colors or applying them to a canvas.
To pivot a movie camera along a horizontal plane in order to follow an object or create a panoramic effect. Related: Hans Bellmer. A soft and delicate shade of a color adjective ; a soft drawing stick composed of finely ground pigment mixed with a gum tragacanth binder noun. Pastel sticks are often applied to a textured paper support. The pastel particles sit loosely on the surface of the paper and can be blended using brushes, fingers, or other soft implements. Pastels can also be dipped into water to create a denser mark on the paper or ground into a powder and mixed with water to create a paint that can be applied by brush.
Because pastel drawings are easily smudged they are sometimes sprayed with fixative, a thin layer of adhesive. A term that emerged in the s to describe a diverse range of live presentations by artists, including actions, movements, gestures, and choreography. Performance art is often preceded by, includes, or is later represented through various forms of video, photography, objects, written documentation, or oral and physical transmission. Technique used to depict volumes and spatial relationships on a flat surface, as in a painted scene that appears to extend into the distance.
A photographic print made by placing objects and other elements on photosensitive paper and exposing it to light. An image, especially a positive print, recorded by exposing a photosensitive surface to light, especially in a camera. Related: Alexander Gardner. Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century Barbara Kopple. April Howardena Pindell. Untitled c. Related: Frances Benjamin Johnston. A machine that makes quick duplicate positive or negative copies directly on the surface of prepared paper.
Also, the resulting copies. An international style of photography in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by the creation of artistic tableaus and photographs composed of multiple prints or manipulated negatives, in an effort to advocate for photography as an artistic medium on par with painting.
The virtual, illusionary plane created by the artist, parallel to the physical surface of a two-dimensional work of art; the physical surface of a two-dimensional work of art, e. Related: Mark Rothko. A substance, usually finely powdered, that produces the color of any medium. When mixed with oil, water, or another fluid, it becomes paint.
A scale drawing or diagram showing the structure or organization of an object or group of objects. Related: Dan Flavin. Monument 1 for V. A term applied to many natural and synthetic materials with different forms, properties, and appearances that are malleable and can be molded into different shapes or objects.
Related: Arthur Young. BellD1 Helicopter. A term broadly applied to all the visual arts to distinguish them from such non-visual arts as literature, poetry, or music. Related: Wifredo Lam. Any of a group of substances that are used in the manufacture of plastics or other materials to impart flexibility, softness, hardness, or other desired physical properties to the finished product.
In printmaking, the flat surface onto which the design is etched, engraved, or otherwise applied. A material made of thin layers of wood that have been heated, glued, and pressed together by a machine. Related: Charles Eames and Ray Eames. A painting technique developed by French artists Georges-Pierre Seurat and Paul Signac in which small, distinct points of unmixed color are applied in patterns to form an image. One of the most common forms of plastic known for being tough, light, and flexible. Made of synthetic materials, polyethylene is commonly used in plastic bags, food containers, and other packaging.
Related: Earl S. A movement comprising initially British, then American artists in the s and s. Pop artists borrowed imagery from popular culture—from sources including television, comic books, and print advertising—often to challenge conventional values propagated by the mass media, from notions of femininity and domesticity to consumerism and patriotism. Their often subversive and irreverent strategies of appropriation extended to their materials and methods of production, which were drawn from the commercial world.
Related: Deborah Kass. Cultural activities, ideas, or products that reflect or target the tastes of the general population of any society. A representation of a particular individual, usually intended to capture their likeness or personality. Gilles Peress. Mathew B. Paul Strand, Charles Sheeler. May 6, Richard Pettibone. Retrospective Bust of a Woman. Philip-Lorca diCorcia. In photography, images capable of being produced in multiples that result from the transfer of a negative image to another surface, such as a photographic print on paper. Though each of these artists developed his own, distinctive style, they were unified by their interest in expressing their emotional and psychological responses to the world through bold colors and expressive, often symbolic images.
Post-Impressionism can be roughly dated from to Related: Expressionism Vincent van Gogh. In art, postmodernism refers to a reaction against modernism. It is less a cohesive movement than an approach and attitude toward art, culture, and society. Its main characteristics include anti-authoritarianism, or refusal to recognize the authority of any single style or definition of what art should be; and the collapsing of the distinction between high culture and mass or popular culture, and between art and everyday life.
Postmodern art can be also characterized by a deliberate use of earlier styles and conventions, and an eclectic mixing of different artistic and popular styles and mediums. Related: Yvonne Rainer. When the cylinder spins, a mirror fixed in its center reflects the images and makes them appear animated. Related: Advent of Cinema. Montroig, late summer—fall A term initially used to refer to the arts of all of Africa, Asia, and Pre-Columbian America, later used mostly to refer to art from Africa and the Pacific Islands.
By the late 20th century the term, with its derogatory connotations, fell out of favor. A work of art on paper that usually exists in multiple copies. It is created not by drawing directly on paper, but through a transfer process. The artist begins by creating a composition on another surface, such as metal or wood, and the transfer occurs when that surface is inked and a sheet of paper, placed in contact with it, is run through a printing press.
Four common printmaking techniques are woodcut, etching, lithography, and screenprint. Willem de Kooning. Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century. Any systematic, widespread dissemination or promotion of particular ideas, doctrines, practices, etc. Propaganda may take many different forms, including public or recorded speeches, texts, films, and visual or artistic matter such as posters, paintings, sculptures, or public monuments.
Related: Leni Riefenstahl. Polyvinyl chloride, abbreviated PVC, is a common type of plastic often used in clothing, upholstery, electrical cable insulation, and inflatable products. A term invented by Man Ray to describe what is conventionally known as a photogram, or photographic print made by placing objects and other elements on photosensitive paper and exposing it to light. A term coined by Marcel Duchamp in to describe prefabricated, often mass-produced objects isolated from their intended use and elevated to the status of art by the artist choosing and designating them as such.
Related: Marcel Duchamp. New York, third version, after lost original of Marcel Duchamp. In Advance of the Broken Arm. Body parts or personal belongings of saints and other important figures that are preserved for purposes of commemoration or veneration. Related: Adrian Piper. What Will Become of Me. A term meaning rebirth or revival; applied to a period characterized by the humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning, originating in Italy in the fourteenth century and later spreading throughout Europe and lasting through the sixteenth century.
Related: Richard Pettibone. A style of art, particularly in architecture and decorative art, that originated in France in the early s and is marked by elaborate ornamentation, including, for example, a profusion of scrolls, foliage, and animal forms. A genre of visual art that uses humor, irony, ridicule, or caricature to expose or criticize someone or something.
The ratio between the size of an object and its model or representation, as in the scale of a map to the actual geography it represents. The Palace at 4 a. Self Portrait with Cropped Hair. Max Ernst. Killing of the Banquet Roast. Rise of the Modern City Thomas Demand. A loosely defined affiliation of international artists living and working in Paris from until about , who applied a diversity of new styles and techniques to such traditional subjects as portraiture, figure studies, landscapes, cityscapes, and still lifes. A stencil-based printmaking technique in which the first step is to stretch and attach a woven fabric originally made of silk, but now more commonly of synthetic material tightly over a wooden frame to create a screen.
Areas of the screen that are not part of the image are blocked out with a variety of stencil-based methods. A squeegee is then used to press ink through the unblocked areas of the screen, directly onto paper. Screenprints typically feature bold, hard-edged areas of flat, unmodulated color. Also known as silkscreen and serigraphy. One who produces a three-dimensional work of art using any of a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials. A three-dimensional work of art made by a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials.
Related: Alberto Giacometti. Sleeping Figure, II. Paris, Mike Kelley. Johannes Baader. Paula Modersohn-Becker. The person responsible for arranging the furnishings, drapery, lighting fixtures, artwork, and many other objects that together constitute the setting for scenes in television and film. Montroig, late summer—fall Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Sol LeWitt. A short film. Today, any film running for 40 minutes or less and therefore not considered long enough to be a feature-length film.
A mechanical device for controlling the aperture, or opening, in a camera through which light passes to the film or plate. By opening and closing for different amounts of time, the shutter determines the length of the photographic exposure. A rendering of the basic elements of a composition, often made in a loosely detailed or quick manner. Sketches can be both finished works of art or studies for another composition.
Related: Constructing Gender. A substance capable of dissolving another material. In painting, the solvent is a liquid that thins the paint. Sounds that are most often added during editing, rather than recorded at the time of filming. Sound effects take a number of different forms. Related: Walt Disney, Ub Iwerks. A sound technology, first developed in the early 20th century, that became commercially viable in the late s. In this system, music and dialogue were recorded on waxed records that were played in sync with the film via a turntable connected to a film projector through an interlocking mechanism.
A sound technology, initially developed in the early 20th century, that became commercially viable in the late s and eventually supplanted the sound-on-disc system. In sound-on-film, sound waves were converted into light waves that were then photographically inscribed onto the film itself. This allowed for a single strip of film to carry both pictures and the soundtrack, which was imprinted alongside the pictures and read by special projectors.
Related: Experimentation with Sound. In artistic contexts, paint thinned by a considerable amount of solvent.
Stains are absorbed into the canvas, rather than remaining on its surface. An impervious material perforated with letters, shapes, or patterns through which a substance passes to a surface below. Related: Philip-Lorca diCorcia. To represent in or make conform to a particular style, especially when highly conventionalized or artistic rather than naturalistic. Related: Simone Forti. In popular writing about psychology, the division of the mind containing the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc. Montroig, late summer—fall Louise Bourgeois.
Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century Cindy Sherman. Le Perreux-sur-Marne, Richard Avedon. Awe-inspiring or worthy of reverence. In philosophy, literature, and the arts, the sublime refers to a quality of greatness that is beyond all calculation. A term coined by Russian artist Kazimir Malevich in to describe a new mode of abstract painting that abandoned all reference to the outside world.
His new style claimed "the supremacy of pure feeling or perception in the pictorial arts" and rejected the deliberate illusions of representational painting. Montroig, July —winter Joseph Cornell. Paris, June—July Philippe Halsman. A form, sign, or emblem that represents something else, often something immaterial, such as an idea or emotion. April Hito Steyerl. New York City , February 28, In our present era of convulsive changes, a prophet must be bold, indeed, to predict anything more definite than a mere trend in events, but the study of the past is the one safe guide in forecasting the future.
A consideration of their early relations and of the history of the Nordic race, since its first appearance three or four thousand years ago, tends strongly to sustain and justify his conclusions. For such a consideration we must first turn to the map, or, better, to the globe.
True Africa, or rather Ethiopia, lies south of the Sahara Desert and has virtually no connection with the North except along the valley of the Nile. This Eurasiatic continent has been, perhaps, since [Pg xii] the origin of life itself, the most active centre of evolution and radiation of the higher forms. Confining ourselves to the mammalian orders, we find that a majority of them have originated and developed there and have spread thence to the outlying land areas of the globe.
All the evidence points to the origin of the Primates in Eurasia and we have every reason to believe that this continent was also the scene of the early evolution of man from his anthropoid ancestors. The impulse that inaugurated the development of mankind seems to have had its basic cause in the stress of changing climatic conditions in central Asia at the close of the Pliocene, and the human inhabitants of Eurasia have ever since exhibited in a superlative degree the energy developed at that time. This energy, however, has not been equally shared by the various species of man, either extinct or living, and the survivors of the earlier races are, for the most part, to be found on the other continents and islands or in the extreme outlying regions of Eurasia itself.
In some cases, as in Mexico and Peru, the outlying races developed in their isolation a limited culture of their own, but, for the most part, they have exhibited, and [Pg xiii] continue to this day to exhibit, a lack of capacity for sustained evolution from within as well as a lack of capacity to adjust themselves of their own initiative to the rapid changes which modern times impose upon them from without.
In Eurasia itself this same inequality of potential capacity is found, but in a lesser degree, and consequently, in the progress of humanity, there has been constant friction between those who push forward and those who are unable to keep pace with changing conditions. Owing to these causes the history of mankind has been that of a series of impulses from the Eurasiatic continent upon the outlying regions of the globe, but there has been an almost complete lack of reaction, either racial or cultural, from them upon the masses of mankind in Eurasia itself.
There have been endless conflicts between the different sections of Eurasia, but neither Amerinds, nor Austroloids, nor Negroes, have ever made a concerted attack upon the great continent. Without attempting a scientific classification of the inhabitants of Eurasia, it is sufficient to describe the three main races.
The first are the yellow-skinned, straight black-haired, black-eyed, round-skulled Mongols and Mongoloids massed in central and eastern Asia north of the Himalayan system. To the west of them, and merged with them, lie the Alpines, also characterized by dark, but not straight, [Pg xiv] hair, dark eyes, relatively short stature, and round skulls. These Alpines are thrust like a wedge into Europe between the Nordics and the Mediterraneans, with a tip that reaches the Atlantic Ocean. Those of western Europe are derived from one or more very ancient waves of round-skulled invaders from the East, who probably came by way of Asia Minor and the Balkans, but they have been so long in their present homes that they retain little except their brachycephalic skull-shape to connect them with the Asiatic Mongols.
South of the Himalayas and westward in a narrow belt to the Atlantic, and on both sides of the Inland Sea, lies the Mediterranean race, more or less swarthy-skinned, black-haired, dark-eyed, and long-skulled. On the northwest, grouped around the Baltic and North Seas, lies the great Nordic race. It is characterized by a fair white skin, wavy hair with a range of color from dark brown to flaxen, light eyes, tall stature, and long skulls.
These races show other physical characters which are definite but difficult to describe, such as texture of skin and cast of features, especially of the nose. The contrast of mental and spiritual endowments is equally definite, but even more elusive of definition. It is with the action and interaction of these three groups, together with internal civil wars, that recorded history deals. While, so far as we know, these three races have occupied their present relative positions from the [Pg xv] beginning, there have been profound changes in their distribution.
The two essential phenomena, however, are, first, the retreat of the Nordic race westward from the Grasslands of western Asia and eastern Europe to the borders of the Atlantic, until it occupies a relatively small area on the periphery of Eurasia. The second phenomenon is of equal importance, namely, the more or less thorough Nordicizing of the westernmost extensions of the other two races, namely, the Mediterranean on the north coast of the Inland Sea, who have been completely Aryanized in speech, and have been again and again saturated with Nordic blood, and the even more profound Nordicization in speech and in blood of the short, dark, round-skulled inhabitants of central Europe, from Brittany through central France, southern Germany, and northern Italy into Austrian and Balkan lands.
So thorough has been this process that the western Alpines have at the present time no separate race consciousness and are to be considered as wholly European. As to the Alpines of eastern and central Europe, the Slavs, the case is somewhat different. East of a line drawn from the Adriatic to the Baltic the Nordicizing process has been far less perfect, although nearly complete as to speech, since all the Slavic languages are Aryan.
Throughout these Slavic lands, great accessions of pure Mongoloid blood have been introduced within relatively recent centuries. East of this belt of imperfectly Nordicized Alpines [Pg xvi] we reach the Asiatic Alpines, as yet entirely untouched by western blood or culture. These groups merge into the Mongoloids of eastern Asia. So we find, thrust westward from the Heartland, a race touching the Atlantic at Brittany, thoroughly Asiatic and Mongoloid in the east, very imperfectly Nordicized in the centre, and thoroughly Nordicized culturally in the far west of Europe, where it has become, and must be accepted as, an integral part of the White World.
As to the great Nordic race, within relatively recent historic times it occupied the Grasslands north of the Black and Caspian Seas eastward to the Himalayas. During the second millennium before our era successive waves of Nordics began to cross the Afghan passes into India until finally they imposed their primitive Aryan language upon Hindustan and the countries lying to the east. In Turkestan the newly discovered Tokharian language, an Aryan tongue of the western division, seems to have persisted down to the ninth century. Such blond traits as are still found in western Asia are relatively unimportant, and for the last two thousand years these countries must be regarded as lost to the Nordic race.
North of the Caspian and Black Seas the boundaries of Europe receded steadily before Asia for nearly a thousand years after our era opened, but we have scant record of the struggles which resulted in the eviction of the Nordics from their homes in Russia, Poland, the Austrian and east German lands. South of the Caspian and Black Seas, after the first swarming of the Nordics over the mountains during the second millennium before Christ, the East pressed steadily against Europe until the strain culminated in the Persian Wars. On the whole, however, from the time of Alexander the elimination of European blood, classic culture, and, finally, of Christianity, went on relentlessly.
By later Roman times the Aryan language of the Persians, Parthians, and people of India together with some shreds of Greek learning were about all the [Pg xix] traces of Europe that were to be found east of the oscillating boundary along the Euphrates. The Roman and Byzantine Empires struggled for centuries to check the advancing tide of Asiatics, but Arab expansions under the impulse of the Mohammedan religion finally tore away all the eastern and southern coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, while from an Arabized Spain they threatened western Europe. Attila and his Huns were the first to break through into Nordic lands as far as the plains of northern France.
None of the later hordes were able to force their way so far into Nordic territories, but spent their strength upon the Alpines of the Balkans and eastern Europe. Whether the occupation of Teutonic lands by the Wends and Slavs in eastern Europe was an infiltration or a conquest is not known, but the conviction is growing that, like other movements which preceded and followed, it was caused by Mongoloid pressure. That the western Slavs or Wends had been long Nordicized in speech is indicated by the thoroughly Aryan character of the Slavic languages. They found in the lands they occupied an underlying Teutonic population.
They cannot be regarded as the [Pg xx] original owners of Poland, Bohemia, Silesia, or other Wendish provinces of eastern Germany and Austria. Pomerania and the Prussias were the home of Teutonic Lombards, Burgunds, Vandals, and Suevi, while the Crimea and the northwestern coast of the Black Sea were long held by the Nordic Goths, who, just before our era, had migrated overland from the Baltic by way of the Vistula.
No doubt some of this Nordic blood remained to ennoble the stock of the later invaders, but by the time of Charlemagne, in the greater part of Europe east of the Elbe, the Aryan language was the only bond with Europe. When the Frankish Empire turned the tide and Christianized these Wendish and Polish lands, civilization was carried eastward until it met the Byzantine influences which brought to Russia and the lands east of the Carpathians the culture and Orthodox Christianity of the Eastern or Greek Empire.
The nucleus of Russia was organized in the ninth century by Scandinavian Varangians, the Franks of the East, who founded the first civilized state amid a welter of semi-Mongoloid tribes.
Color Space And Its Divisions Color Order From Antiquity To The Present
How much Nordic blood they found in the territories which afterward became Russia we have no means of knowing, but it must have been considerable because we do know that from the Middle Ages to the present time there has been a progressive increase in brachycephaly or [Pg xxi] broad-headedness, to judge from the rise in the percentage of round skulls found in the cemeteries of Moscow and elsewhere in Russia.
Such was the condition of eastern Europe when a new and terrible series of Mongoloid invasions swept over it, this time directly from the centre of Asia. The effect of these invasions was so profound and lasting that it may be well to consider briefly the condition of eastern Europe after the elimination of the Nordics and its partial occupation by the so-called Slavs. Beginning with Attila and his Huns, in the fourth century, there was a series of purely Mongoloid tribes entering from Asia in wave after wave.
Similar waves ultimately passed south of the Black and Caspian Seas, and were called Turks, but these were long held back by the power of the Byzantine Empire, to which history has done scant justice. In the north these invaders, called in the later days Tatars, but all essentially of central Asiatic Mongol stock, occupied Balkan lands after the expansion of the south Slavs in those countries.
They are known by various names, but they are all part of the same general movement, although there was a gradual slowing down of the impulse. Prior to Jenghiz Khan the later hordes did not reach quite as far west as the earlier ones. All of these tribes forced their way over the Carpathians and the Danube, and much of their blood, notably in that of the Bulgars and Magyars, is still to be found there.
Most of them adopted Slavic dialects and merged in the surrounding population, but the Magyars retain their Asiatic speech to this day. Other Tatar and Mongoloid tribes settled in southern and eastern Russia. Chief among these were the Mongol Chazars, who founded an extensive and powerful empire in southern and southeastern Russia as early as the eighth century. It is interesting to note that they accepted Judaism and became the ancestors of the majority of the Jews of eastern Europe, the round-skulled Ashkenazim.
Into this mixed population of Christianized Slavs and more or less Christianized and Slavized Mongols burst Jenghiz Khan with his great hordes of pure Mongols. All southern Russia, Poland, and Hungary collapsed before them, and in southern Russia the rule of the Mongol persisted for centuries, in fact the Golden Horde of Tatars retained control of the Crimea down to Many of these later Tatars had accepted Islam, but entire groups of them have retained their Asiatic speech and to this day profess the Mohammedan religion. The most lasting result of these Mongol invasions was that southern Poland and all the countries east and north of the Carpathians, including Rumania and the Ukraine, were saturated anew with Tatar blood, [Pg xxiii] and, in dealing with these populations and with the new nations founded among them, this fact must not be forgotten.
The conflict between the East and the West—Europe and Asia—has thus lasted for centuries, in fact it goes back to the Persian Wars and the long and doubtful duel between Rome and Parthia along the eastern boundary of Syria. As we have already said, the Saracens had torn away many of the provinces of the Eastern Empire, and the Crusades, for a moment, had rolled back the East, but the event was not decided until the Seljukian and Osmanli Turks accepted Islam.
If these Turks had remained heathen they might have invaded and conquered Asia Minor and the Balkan States, just as their cousins, the Tartars, had subjected vast territories north of the Black Sea, but they could not have held their conquests permanently unless they had been able to incorporate the beaten natives into their own ranks through the proselytizing power of Islam.
Even in Roman times the Greek world had been steadily losing, first its Nordic blood and then later the blood of its Nordicized European population, and it became in its declining years increasingly Asiatic until the final fall of Constantinople in Byzantium once fallen, the Turks advanced unchecked, conquering the Alpine Slav kingdoms of the Balkans and menacing Christendom itself.
In these age-long conflicts between Asia and Europe the Crusades seem but an episode, although [Pg xxiv] tragically wasteful of Nordic stock. The Nordic Frankish nobility of western Europe squandered its blood for two hundred years on the desert sands of Syria and left no ethnic trace behind, save, perhaps, some doubtful blond remnants in northern Syria and Edessa. If the predictions of Mr. The Nordicized Alpines of eastern Europe and the Nordicized Mediterraneans of southern Europe have proved too feeble to hold back the Asiatic hordes, Mongol or Saracen. It was not until the realms of pure Nordics were reached that the invaders were turned back.
This is shown by the fact that the Arabs had quickly mastered northern Africa and conquered Spain, where the Nordic Goths were too few in number to hold them back, while southern France, which was not then, and is not now, a Nordic land, had offered no serious resistance. It was not until the Arabs, in , at Tours, dashed themselves to pieces against the solid ranks of heavy-armed Nordics, that Islam receded. Here, in , he was beaten, not by the Romanized Gauls but by the Nordic Visigoths, whose king, Roderick, died on the field.
These two [Pg xxv] victories, one against the Arab south and the other over the Mongoloid east, saved Nordic Europe, which was at that time shrunken to little more than a fringe on the seacoast. How slender the thread and how easily snapped, had the event of either day turned out otherwise! Never again did Asia push so far west, but the danger was not finally removed until Charlemagne and his successors had organized the Western Empire. Christendom, however, had sore trials ahead when the successors of Jenghiz Khan destroyed Moscovy and Poland and devastated eastern Europe.
The victorious career of the Tatars was unchecked, from the Chinese Sea on the east to the Indian Ocean on the south, until in , at Wahlstatt in Silesia, they encountered pure Nordic fighting men. Then the tide turned. Though outnumbering the Christians five to one and victorious in the battle itself, the Tatars were unable to push farther west and turned south into Hungary and other Alpine lands.
Some conception of the almost unbelievable horrors that western Europe escaped at this time may be gathered from the fate of the countries which fell before the irresistible rush of the Mongols, whose sole discernible motive seems to have been blood lust. The destruction wrought in China, central Asia, and Persia is almost beyond conception. In twelve years, in China and the neighboring states, Jenghiz Khan and his lieutenants slaughtered more than 18,, human beings. Similar fates befell every city of importance in central Asia, and to this day those once populous provinces have never recovered.
The cities of Russia and Poland were burned, their inhabitants tortured and massacred, with the consequence that progress was retarded for centuries. Almost in modern times these same Mongoloid invaders, entering by way of Asia Minor, and calling themselves Turks, after destroying the Eastern Empire, the Balkan States, and Hungary, again met the Nordic chivalry of western Europe under the walls of Vienna, in , and again the Asiatics went down in rout.
On these four separate occasions the Nordic race and it alone saved modern civilization. The half-Nordicized lands to the south and to the east collapsed under the invasions. Unnumbered Nordic tribes, nameless and unsung, have been massacred, or submerged, or driven from their lands. The survivors had been pushed ever westward until their backs were against the Northern Ocean.
There the Nordics came to bay—the tide was turned. Few stop to reflect that it was more than sixty years after the first American legislature sat at Jamestown, Virginia, that Asia finally abandoned the conquest of Europe. With the recession of the Turkish flood, modern Europe emerges and inaugurates a counter-attack on Asia which has placed virtually the entire world under European domination.
Here for three thousand years the Nordics were the aggressors, and, although these wars were terribly destructive to their numbers, they were the medium through which classic civilization was introduced into Nordic lands. As to the ethnic consequences, northern barbarians poured over the passes of the Balkans, Alpines, and Pyrenees into the sunny lands of the south only to slowly vanish in the languid environment which lacked the stimulus of fierce strife with hostile nature and savage rivals. Nevertheless, long before the opening of the Christian era the Alpines of western Europe were thoroughly Nordicized, and in the centuries that followed, the old Nordic element in Spain, Italy, and France has been again and again strongly reinforced, so that these lands are now an integral part of the White World.
In recent centuries Russia was again superficially Nordicized with a top dressing of Nordic nobility, chiefly coming from the Baltic provinces. Along with this process there was everywhere in Europe a resurgence among the submerged and forgotten Alpines and [Pg xxviii] among the Mediterranean elements of the British Isles, while Bolshevism in Russia means the elimination of the Nordic aristocracy and the dominance of the half-Asiatic Slavic peasantry. All wars thus far discussed have been race wars of Europe against Asia, or of the Nordics against Mediterraneans.
The wars against the Mongols were necessary and vital; there was no alternative except to fight to the finish. But the wars of northern Europe against the south, from the racial point of view, were not only useless but destructive. Bad as they were, however, they left untouched to a large extent the broodland of the race in the north and west. Another class of wars, however, has been absolutely deadly to the Nordic race.
Rome, after she emerged triumphant from her struggle with the Carthaginians, of Mediterranean race, plunged into a series of civil wars which ended in the complete elimination of the native Nordic element in Rome. The losses [Pg xxix] of that ten-year conquest fell far more heavily upon the Nordic Celts in Gaul and Britain than on the servile strata of the population. In the same way the Saxon conquest of England destroyed the Nordic Brythons to a greater degree than the pre-Nordic Neolithic Mediterranean element.
From that time on all the wars of Europe, other than those against the Asiatics and Saracens, were essentially civil wars fought between peoples or leaders of Nordic blood. To what extent the present war has fostered this tendency, time alone will show, but Mr. Stoddard has pointed out some of the immediate and visible results. The backbone of western civilization is racially Nordic, the Alpines and Mediterraneans being effective precisely to the extent in which they have been Nordicized and vitalized.
If this great race, with its capacity for leadership and fighting, should ultimately pass, with it would pass that which we call civilization. It would be succeeded by an unstable and bastardized population, where worth and merit would have no inherent right [Pg xxx] to leadership and among which a new and darker age would blot out our racial inheritance.
Such a catastrophe cannot threaten if the Nordic race will gather itself together in time, shake off the shackles of an inveterate altruism, discard the vain phantom of internationalism, and reassert the pride of race and the right of merit to rule. The Nordic race has been driven from many of its lands, but still grasps firmly the control of the world, and it is certainly not at a greater numerical disadvantage than often before in contrast to the teeming population of eastern Asia. It has repeatedly been confronted with crises where the accident of battle, or the genius of a leader, saved a well-nigh hopeless day.
It has survived defeat, it has survived the greater danger of victory, and, if it takes warning in time, it may face the future with assurance. Fight it must, but let that fight be not a civil war against its own blood kindred but against the dangerous foreign races, whether they advance sword in hand or in the more insidious guise of beggars at our gates, pleading for admittance to share our prosperity.
If we continue to allow them to enter they will in time drive us out of our own land by mere force of breeding. The great hope of the future here in America lies in the realization of the working class that competition of the Nordic with the alien is fatal, whether the latter be the lowly immigrant from southern or eastern Europe or whether he be the more obviously dangerous [Pg xxxi] Oriental against whose standards of living the white man cannot compete. In this country we must look to such of our people—our farmers and artisans—as are still of American blood to recognize and meet this danger.
Our present condition is the result of following the leadership of idealists and philanthropic doctrinaires, aided and abetted by the perfectly understandable demand of our captains of industry for cheap labor. To-day the need for statesmanship is great, and greater still is the need for thorough knowledge of history. All over the world the first has been lacking, and in the passions of the Great War the lessons of the past have been forgotten both here and in Europe.
The establishment of a chain of Alpine states from the Baltic to the Adriatic, as a sequel to the war, all of them organized at the expense of the Nordic ruling classes, may bring Europe back to the days when Charlemagne, marching from the Rhine to the Elbe, found the valley of that river inhabited by heathen Wends. Beyond lay Asia, and his successors spent a thousand years pushing eastward the frontiers of Europe. Now that Asia, in the guise of Bolshevism with Semitic leadership and Chinese executioners, is organizing an assault upon western Europe, the new states—Slavic-Alpine in race, with little Nordic blood—may prove to be not frontier guards of western Europe but vanguards of Asia in central Europe.
None of the earlier Alpine states have held firm against Asia, and it is more [Pg xxxii] than doubtful whether Poland, Bohemia, Rumania, Hungary, and Jugo-Slavia can face the danger successfully, now that they have been deprived of the Nordic ruling classes through democratic institutions. Democratic ideals among an homogeneous population of Nordic blood, as in England or America, is one thing, but it is quite another for the white man to share his blood with, or intrust his ideals to, brown, yellow, black, or red men.
This is suicide pure and simple, and the first victim of this amazing folly will be the white man himself. Judged by accepted canons of statecraft, the white man towered the indisputable master of the planet. Beside the enormous area of white settlement or control, the regions under non-white governance bulked [Pg 4] small indeed. In other words, of the 53,, square miles which excluding the polar regions constitute the land area of the globe, only 6,, square miles had non-white governments, and nearly two-thirds of this relatively modest remainder was represented by China and its dependencies.
Since the world has been convulsed by the most terrible war in recorded history. This war was primarily a struggle between the white peoples, who have borne the brunt of the conflict and have suffered most of the losses. At this point the reader is perhaps asking himself why this book was ever undertaken. The answer is: the dangerous delusion created by viewing world affairs solely from the angle of politics. The late war [Pg 5] has taught many lessons as to the unstable and transitory character of even the most imposing political phenomena, while a better reading of history must bring home the truth that the basic factor in human affairs is not politics, but race.
The reader has already encountered this fundamental truth on every page of the Introduction. If this portion of Asia, the former seat of mighty white empires and possibly the very homeland of the white race itself, should have so entirely changed its ethnic character, what assurance can the most impressive political panorama give us that the present world-order may not swiftly and utterly pass away?
The force of this query is exemplified when we turn from the political to the racial map of the globe. What a transformation! Instead of a world politically nine-tenths white, we see a world of which only four-tenths at the most can be considered predominantly white in blood, the rest of the world being inhabited mainly by the other primary races of mankind—yellows, browns, blacks, and reds.
Speaking by continents, Europe, North America to the Rio Grande, the southern portion of South America, the Siberian part of Asia, and Australasia constitute the real white world; while the bulk of Asia, virtually the whole of Africa, and most of Central and South [Pg 6] America form the world of color.
The respective areas of these two racially contrasted worlds are 22,, square miles for the whites and 31,, square miles for the colored races. Furthermore it must be remembered that fully one-third of the white area notably Australasia and Siberia is very thinly inhabited and is thus held by a very slender racial tenure—the only tenure which counts in the long run.
Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present
The statistical disproportion between the white and colored worlds becomes still more marked when we turn from surveys of area to tables of population. The total number of human beings alive to-day is about 1,,, Of these ,, are white, while 1,,, are colored. The colored races thus outnumber the whites more than two to one.
Another fact of capital importance is that the great bulk of the white race is concentrated in the European continent. In the population of Europe was approximately ,, The late war has undoubtedly caused an absolute decrease of many millions of souls. As to the 1,,, of the colored world, they are divided, as already stated, into four primary [Pg 7] categories: yellows, browns, blacks, and reds. The yellows are the most numerous of the colored races, numbering over ,, Their habitat is eastern Asia. Nearly as numerous and much more wide-spread than the yellows are the browns, numbering some ,, The browns spread in a broad belt from the Pacific Ocean westward across southern Asia and northern Africa to the Atlantic Ocean.
The blacks total about ,, Their centre is Africa south of the Sahara Desert, but besides the African continent there are vestigial black traces across southern Asia to the Pacific and also strong black outposts in the Americas. Such is the ethnic make-up of that world of color which, as already seen, outnumbers the white world two to one.
That is a formidable ratio, and its significance is heightened by the fact that this ratio seems destined to shift still further in favor of color. There can be no doubt that at present the colored races are increasing very much faster than the white. Treating the primary race-stocks as units, it would appear that whites tend to double in eighty years, yellows and browns in sixty years, blacks in forty years.
The whites are thus the slowest breeders, and they will undoubtedly become slower still, since section after section of the white race is revealing that lowered birth-rate [Pg 8] which in France has reached the extreme of a stationary population. On the other hand, none of the colored races shows perceptible signs of declining birth-rate, all tending to breed up to the limits of available subsistence.
Such checks as now limit the increase of colored populations are wholly external, like famine, disease, and tribal warfare. But by a curious irony of fate, the white man has long been busy removing these checks to colored multiplication. The greater part of the colored world is to-day under white political control. Wherever the white man goes he attempts to impose the bases of his ordered civilization. He puts down tribal war, he wages truceless combat against epidemic disease, and he so improves communications that augmented and better distributed food-supplies minimize the blight of famine.
In response to these life-saving activities the enormous death-rate which in the past has kept the colored races from excessive multiplication is falling to proportions comparable with the death-rate of white countries. The consequence is a portentous increase of population in nearly every portion of the colored world now under white political sway. Now what must be the inevitable result of all this? Remember that these homelands are already populated up to the available limits of subsistence. Of course present limits can in many cases be pushed back by better living conditions, improved agriculture, and the rise of modern machine industry such as is already under way in Japan.
Nevertheless, in view of the tremendous population increases which must occur, these can be only palliatives. Where, then, should the congested colored world tend to pour its accumulating human surplus, inexorably condemned to emigrate or starve? The answer is: into those emptier regions of the earth under white political control. But many of these relatively empty lands have been definitely set aside by the white man as his own special heritage. The upshot is that the rising flood of color finds itself walled in by white dikes debarring it from many a promised land which it would fain deluge with its dusky waves.
Thus the colored world, long restive under white political domination, is being welded by the most fundamental of instincts, the instinct of self-preservation, into a common solidarity of feeling against the dominant white man, and in the fire of a common purpose internecine differences tend, for the time at least, to be burned away. Before the supreme fact of white political world-domination, antipathies within the colored world must inevitably recede into the background.
For, no race, however inferior it may be, will consent to famish slowly in order that other people may fatten and take their ease, especially if it has a good chance to make a fight for life. This white statement of the colored thesis is an accurate reflection of what colored men say themselves. In Australia, South Africa, Canada, and the United States, there are vast tracts of unoccupied territory awaiting settlement, and although the citizens of the ruling Powers refuse to take up the land, no yellow people are permitted to enter.
Thus the white races seem ready to commit to the savage birds and beasts what they refuse to intrust to their brethren of the yellow race. Surely the arrogance and avarice of the nobility in apportioning to themselves the most and the best of the land in certain countries is as nothing compared with the attitude of the white races toward those of a different hue. You are heaping up material for a Jehad, a Pan-Islam, a Pan-Asia Holy War, a gigantic day of reckoning, an invasion of a new Attila and Tamerlane—who will use rifles and bullets, instead of lances and spears. You are deaf to the voice of reason and fairness, and so you must be taught with the whirring swish of the sword when it is red.
Of course in these statements there is nothing either exceptional or novel. The colored races never welcomed white predominance and were always restive under white control. Down to the close of the nineteenth century, however, they generally accepted white hegemony as a disagreeable but inevitable fact. For four hundred years the white man had added continent to continent in his imperial progress, equipped with resistless sea-power and armed with a mechanical superiority that crushed down all local efforts at resistance. In time, therefore, the colored races accorded to white supremacy a fatalistic acquiescence, and, [Pg 12] though never loved, the white man was usually respected and universally feared.
During the closing decades of the nineteenth century, to be sure, premonitory signs of a change in attitude began to appear. The yellow and brown races, at least, stirred by the very impact of Western ideas, measured the white man with a more critical eye and commenced to wonder whether his superiority was due to anything more than a fortuitous combination of circumstances which might be altered by efforts of their own.
The upshot was the Russo-Japanese War of , an event the momentous character of which is even now not fully appreciated. Of course, that war was merely the sign-manual of a whole nexus of forces making for a revivified Asia. But it dramatized and clarified ideas which had been germinating half-unconsciously in millions of colored minds, and both Asia and Africa thrilled with joy and hope. Above all, the legend of white invincibility lay, a fallen idol, in the dust.
That supremacy was no longer acquiesced in as inevitable and hopes of ultimate success were confidently entertained, but the process was usually conceived as a slow and difficult one. Fear of white power and respect for white civilization thus remained potent restraining factors. The colored world suddenly saw the white peoples which, in racial matters had hitherto maintained something of a united front, locked in an internecine death-grapple of unparalleled ferocity; it saw those same peoples put one another furiously to the ban as irreconcilable foes; it saw white race-unity cleft by political and moral gulfs which white men themselves continuously iterated would never be filled.
The white world was tearing itself to pieces. White solidarity was riven and shattered. And—fear of white power and respect for white civilization together dropped away like garments outworn. The chorus of mingled exultation, hate, and scorn sounded from every portion of the colored world. Chinese scholars, Japanese professors, Hindu pundits, Turkish journalists, and Afro-American editors, one and all voiced drastic criticisms of white civilization and hailed the war as a well-merited Nemesis on white arrogance and greed.
Oh, that they might eat one another up! The Afro-American author, W. Then they are going to fight, and the War of the Color Line will outdo in savage inhumanity any war this world has yet seen. For colored folk have much to remember and they will not forget. My recent western journey confirmed me that the so-called dynamic western civilization was all against the Asiatic belief.
And when one does not respect the others, [Pg 15] there will be only one thing to come, that is, fight, in action or silence. To be sure, no great explosions occurred during the war years, albeit lifting veils of censorship reveal how narrowly such explosions were averted. Nevertheless, Asia and Africa are to-day in acute ferment, and we must not forget that this ferment is not primarily due to the war.
The war merely accelerated a movement already existent long before However, had the white race and white civilization been spared the terrific material and moral losses involved in the Great War and its still unliquidated aftermath, the process of racial readjustment would have been far more gradual and would have been fraught with far fewer cataclysmic possibilities.
Had white strength remained intact it would have acted as a powerful shock-absorber, taking up and distributing the various colored impacts. Such violent breaches as did occur might have been localized, and anything like a general race-cataclysm would probably have been impossible. But it was not to be. The heart of the white world was divided against itself, and on the fateful 1st of August, , the white race, forgetting ties of blood and culture, heedless of the growing pressure of the colored world without, locked in a battle to the death.
An ominous cycle opened whose end no man can foresee. The white world to-day lies debilitated and uncured; the colored world views conditions which are a standing incitement to rash dreams and violent action. The analysis of the specific elements in that complex problem will form the subject of the succeeding chapters. Here the group of kindred stocks usually termed Mongolian have dwelt for unnumbered ages. Down to the most recent times the yellows lived virtually a life apart. Sundered from the rest of mankind by stupendous mountains, burning deserts, and the illimitable ocean, the Far East constituted a world in itself, living its own life and developing its own peculiar civilization.
Only the wild nomads of its northern marches—Huns, Mongols, Tartars, and the like—succeeded in gaining direct contact with the brown and white worlds to the West. The ethnic focus of the yellow world has always been China. Since the dawn of history this immense human ganglion has been the centre from which civilization has radiated throughout the Far East.
To all these peoples China was the august preceptor, sometimes chastising their presumption, yet always instilling the principles of its ordered civilization. However diverse may have been [Pg 18] the individual developments of the various Far Eastern peoples, they spring from a common Chinese foundation. The age-long seclusion of the yellow world, first decreed by nature, was subsequently maintained by the voluntary decision of the yellow peoples themselves.
The great expansive movement of the white race which began four centuries ago soon brought white men to the Far East, by sea in the persons of the Portuguese navigators and by land with the Cossack adventurers ranging through the empty spaces of Siberia. Yet after a brief acquaintance with the white strangers the yellow world decided that it wanted none of them, and they were rigidly excluded.
This exclusion policy was not a Chinese peculiarity; it was common to all the yellow peoples and was adopted spontaneously at about the same time. The yellow world instinctively felt the white man to be a destructive, dissolving influence on its highly specialized line of evolution, which it wished to [Pg 19] maintain unaltered. For three centuries the yellow world succeeded in maintaining its isolation, then, in the middle of the last century, insistent white pressure broke down the barriers and forced the yellow races into full contact with the outer world.
As an Australian writer, J. The instinct of the Asiatic in desiring isolation and separation from other forms of civilization was much more correct than our craze for imposing our forms of religion, morals, and industrialism upon them. It is not race-hatred, nor even race-antagonism, that is at the root of this attitude; it is an unerring intuition, which in years gone by has taught the Asiatic that his evolution in the scale of civilization could best be accomplished by his being allowed to develop on his own lines.
Pernicious European compulsion has led him to abandon that attitude. Let us not be ashamed to confess that he was right and we were wrong. However, rightly or wrongly, the deed was done, and the yellow races, forced into the world-arena, proceeded to adapt themselves to their new political environment and to learn the correct methods of survival under the [Pg 20] strenuous conditions which there prevailed.
In place of their traditional equilibrated, self-sufficient order, the yellow peoples now felt the ubiquitous impacts of the dynamic Western spirit, insistent upon rapid material progress and forceful, expansive evolution. Indeed, the full significance of the lesson was not immediately grasped, and the power of New Japan was still underestimated. The whites settled in Australia, so thought these officers, are like the dog in the manger. Some one will have to take a good part of Australia to develop it, for it is a pity to see so fine a country lying waste.
If any ill-feeling arose between the two countries, it would be a wise thing to send some battleships to Australia and annex part of it. The echoes of that yellow triumph over one of the great white Powers reverberated to the ends of the earth and started obscure trains of consequences even to-day not yet fully disclosed. Its effect upon the Far East is our present concern. And the well-nigh unanimous opinion of both natives and resident Europeans was that the war signified a body-blow to white ascendancy. With the exception of Austria, all European countries have implicated themselves in the great effort to conquer Asia, which has now been going on for two centuries, but which, as this author thinks, must now terminate The disposition, therefore, to edge out intrusive Europeans from their Asiatic possessions is certain to exist even if it is not manifested in Tokio, and it may be fostered by a movement of which, as yet, but little has been said.
No one who has ever studied the question doubts that as there is a comity of Europe, so there is a comity of Asia, a disposition to believe that Asia belongs of right to Asiatics, and that any event which brings that right nearer to realization is to all Asiatics a pleasurable one.
Japanese victories will give new heart and energy to all the Asiatic nations and tribes which now fret under European rule, will inspire in them a new confidence in their own power to resist, and will spread through them a strong impulse to avail themselves of Japanese instruction. It will take, of course, many years to bring this new force into play; but time matters nothing to Asiatics, and they all possess that capacity for complete secrecy which the Japanese displayed.
That Meredith Townsend was reading the Asiatic mind aright seems clear from the pronouncements of [Pg 23] Orientals themselves. For example, Buddhism , of Rangoon, Burmah, a country of the Indo-Chinese borderland between the yellow and brown worlds, expressed hopes for an Oriental alliance against the whites. The West has justified—perhaps with some reason—every aggression on weaker races by the doctrine of the Survival of the Fittest; on the ground that it is best for future humanity that the unfit should be eliminated and give place to the most able race.
The decade which elapsed between the Russo-Japanese and European Wars saw in the Far East another event of the first magnitude: the Chinese Revolution of The huge empire, with its ,, of people, one-fourth the entire human race, [Pg 24] seemed at that time plunged in so hopeless a lethargy as to be foredoomed to speedy ruin. The partition of China, however, never came off.
First attempts at reform were blocked by the Dowager Empress, but her reactionary lurch ended in the Boxer nightmare and the frightful Occidental chastisement of This time the lesson was learned. China was at last shaken broad awake. The Bourbon Manchu court, it is true, wavered, but popular pressure forced it to keep the upward path. Every year after saw increasingly rapid reform—reform, be it noted, not imposed upon the country from above but forced upon the rulers from below. When the slow-footed Manchus showed themselves congenitally incapable of keeping step with the quickening national pace, the rising tide of national life overwhelmed them in the Republican Revolution of , and they were no more.
Even with the Manchu handicap, the rate of progress during those years was such as to amaze the wisest foreign observers. Should he return a decade hence he will feel almost as much out of place as Rip Van [Pg 25] Winkle, if the recent rate of progress continues. The stream of Western innovation flowed at a vastly accelerated pace into every Chinese province.
The popular masses were for the first time awakened to genuine interest in political, as distinguished from economic or personal, questions. Lastly, the semi-religious feeling of family kinship, which in the past had been almost the sole recognized bond of Chinese race-solidarity, was powerfully supplemented by those distinctively modern concepts, national self-consciousness and articulate patriotism.
Here was the Far Eastern situation at the outbreak of the Great War—a thoroughly modernized, powerful Japan, and a thoroughly aroused, but still disorganized, China. How Japan proceeded to buttress this supremacy by getting a strangle-hold on China, every one knows. But it is not altogether pleasing to contemplate a neighbor of ,, population with modern armament and soldiers trained on the modern plan.
The awakening of China means all this and a little more which we of the present are not sure of. Japan cannot forget that between this nightmare of armed China and herself there is only a very narrow sea. We can only await with apprehension the results of such ignorance united with unbounded pride as characterize the Chinese youth of to-day. May our empire, like a sleeping tiger suddenly awakened, spring roaring into the arena of combats.
Chinese national feeling is to-day genuinely aroused against Japan, and resentment over Japanese encroachments is bitter and wide-spread. Nevertheless, Japan feels that the game is worth the risk and believes that both Chinese race-psychology and the general drift of world affairs combine to favor [Pg 28] her ultimate success. She knows that China has in the past always acquiesced in foreign domination when resistance has proved patently impossible.
She also feels that her aspirations for white expulsion from the Far East and for the winning of wider spheres for racial expansion should appeal strongly to yellow peoples generally and to the Chinese in particular. It would increase her effective force manyfold and would open up almost limitless vistas of power and glory. Nor are the Chinese themselves blind to the advantages of Chino-Japanese co-operation. Winnowed by ages of grim elimination in a land populated to the uttermost limits of subsistence, the Chinese race is selected as no other for survival under the fiercest conditions of economic stress.
Accordingly, when removed to the easier environment of other lands, the Chinaman brings with him a working capacity which simply appalls his competitors. They are industrious, intelligent, and orderly. They can work under conditions that would kill a man of less hardy race; in heat that would kill a salamander, or in cold that would please a polar bear, sustaining their energies through long hours of unremitting toil with only a few bowls of rice.
The Australian thinker, Charles H. They do not need even the accident of a man of genius to develop their magnificent future. As regards the Japanese, John Chinaman has proved it to the hilt. Wherever the two have met in economic competition, John has won hands down. Even in Japanese colonies like Korea and Formosa, the Japanese, with all the backing of their government behind them, have been worsted. After all, Chinese and Japanese are fundamentally of the same race and culture. They may have their very bitter family quarrels, but in the last analysis they understand each other and may arrive at surprisingly sudden agreements.
One thing is certain: both these over-populated lands will feel increasingly the imperious need of racial expansion. For all these reasons, then, the present political tension between China and Japan cannot be reckoned as permanent, and we would do well to envisage the possibility of close Chinese co-operation in the ambitious programme of Japanese foreign policy. This Japanese programme looks first to the prevention of all further white encroachment in the Far East by the establishment of a Far Eastern Monroe Doctrine based on Japanese predominance and backed [Pg 31] if possible by the moral support of the other Far Eastern peoples.
The next stage in Japanese foreign policy seems to be the systematic elimination of all existing white holdings in the Far East. Thus far practically all Japanese appear to be in substantial agreement. Although Japanese plans and aspirations have broadened notably since , their outlines were well defined a decade earlier. Immediately after her victory over Russia, Japan set herself to strengthen her influence all over eastern Asia.
Special efforts were made to establish intimate relations with the other Asiatic peoples. Asiatic students were invited to attend Japanese universities and as a matter of fact did attend by the thousand, while a whole series of societies was formed having for their object the knitting of close cultural and economic ties between Japan and specific regions like China, Siam, the Pacific, and even India.
Some of the facts regarding these societies, about which too little is known, make [Pg 32] interesting reading. To-day the prosperity or decadence of a nation depends on its power in the Pacific: to possess the empire of the Pacific is to be the Master of the World. As Japan finds itself at the centre of that Ocean, whose waves bathe its shores, it must reflect carefully and have clear views on Pacific questions.
The Asiatics have the same claim to be called men as the Europeans themselves. It is therefore quite unreasonable that the latter should have any right to predominate over the former. They have commenced to boycott European merchandise. If, therefore, the Japanese let the chance slip by and do not go to India, the Indians will [Pg 33] be disappointed.
From old times, India has been a land of treasure. Alexander the Great obtained there treasure sufficient to load a hundred camels, and Mahmoud and Attila also obtained riches from India. Why should not the Japanese stretch out their hands toward that country, now that the people are looking to the Japanese? The Japanese ought to go to India, the South Ocean, and other parts of the world. Exactly how much these Japanese propagandist efforts accomplished is impossible to say.
Certain it is, however, that during the years just previous to the Great War the white colonies in the Far East were afflicted with considerable native unrest. In French Indo-China, for example, revolutionary movements during the year necessitated reinforcing the French garrison by nearly 10, men, and though the disturbances were sternly repressed, fresh conspiracies [Pg 34] were discovered in and Much sedition and some sharp fighting also took place in the Dutch Indies, while in the Philippines the independence movement continued to gain ground.
In years past the solidarity of the Far East was largely in point of view, while in other matters the powerful nations of the West played the game according to their own rules. To-day the solidarity of mental outlook still maintains, while in addition there is rapidly coming about a solidarity of political and material interests which in time will reduce Western participation in Far Eastern affairs to that of a comparatively unimportant factor. It might truly be said that this point is already reached, and that it only needs an application of the test to prove to the world that the Far East would resent Western interference as an intolerable impertinence.
The alliance was universally popular in Japan. It was directed specifically against Russia and represented the common apprehensions of both the contracting parties. By , however, the situation had radically altered. In Japan also there was considerable protest. German wealth and industry are gradually creeping upward to that of Great Britain and America, and the efficiency of the German army and navy is a model for the world. Her lease of the territory of Kiaochow Bay brings her into contact with us, and her ambition to exploit the coal-mines of Shantung lends her a community of interest with us.
It is not too much to say that German interests in China are greater than those of any other European Power. If the alliance with England should ever be abrogated, we might be very glad to shake hands with Germany. The outbreak of the European War gave Japan a golden opportunity of which she was not slow to take advantage to eliminate one of the white Powers from the Far East. Here Japan stopped and politely declined all proposals to send armies to Europe or western Asia. Her sphere was the Far East; her real objectives were the reduction of white influence there and the riveting of her control [Pg 37] over China.
Japanese comment was perfectly candid on these matters. Not only will Japan try to erase the ambitions of Russia and Germany; it will also do its best to prevent England and the United States from touching the Chinese cake. The solution of the Chinese problem is of great importance for Japan, and Great Britain has little to do with it. The English forget that Japan has, by her alliance, rendered them signal services against Russia in and in the present war by assuring security in their colonies of the Pacific and the Far East.
If Japan allied herself with England, it was with the object of establishing Japanese preponderance in China and against the encroachments of Russia. To-day the English seem to be neglecting their obligations toward Japan by not supporting her cause. Let England beware!