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WTO economists have attempted to quantify the medium-run economic impact of a wider trade conflict in which international cooperation on tariffs breaks down completely and all countries set tariffs unilaterally Bekkers and Teh, forthcoming. Other risks to the trade outlook are more difficult to quantify.

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For example, the effects of Brexit will depend on the nature of any agreement that might be reached between the United Kingdom and the European Union, with impacts mostly confined to these economies. Lower investment in the U. The slowdown in merchandise trade volume growth in was broad based, reflecting weaker import demand in both developed and developing countries, although some regions were more strongly affected than others. Chart 4 shows seasonally-adjusted quarterly merchandise exports and imports by level of development.

Weakness was most evident in the fourth quarter of , when export volumes declined by 0.

Global issues

On the export side, the slowdown was mostly due to reduced shipments from developed countries, which contracted year-on-year in three out of the four quarters of On the import side, developed countries recorded slow growth throughout the year, particularly in the first half. Meanwhile, developing economies saw imports fall sharply Chart 5 shows merchandise export and import volumes by region.

After recording strong increases in , Asia saw its trade growth moderate in Meanwhile, Europe's exports stagnated throughout the year while its imports declined gradually. A major exception to the trend was North America, where a buoyant US economy contributed to strong import growth of 5. South America's trade flows have continued to recover gradually but have been buffeted by weaker external demand and domestic economic shocks.

Heightened trade tensions cannot explain all of the trade slowdown in but they undoubtedly played a significant role as consumers and firms anticipated new trade measures taking effect. Trade and output were also influenced by temporary shocks, including the federal government shutdown in the United States and production problems in the automotive sector in Germany toward the end of the year.

These shocks are more likely to have transitory effects, causing consumers and businesses to postpone purchases and production decisions rather than cancelling them outright. World commercial services trade recorded strong growth in for the second consecutive year.

This is illustrated by Chart 6, which shows growth in the dollar value of services exports by major categories. Goods related services registered the strongest expansion, with an The weakest growth was in transport, which rose by 7.

Sources of long run economic growth

Commercial services overall grew 7. Air freight shipments also started the year on a soft note, with international freight tonne kilometres FTKs down 3.

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A measure of global export orders derived from purchasing managers' indices has also fallen to Taken together, these data point to continued trade weakness in the first half of An index of economic policy uncertainty based on the frequency of phrases related to uncertainty in press accounts is shown in Chart 8. The index has risen consistently over time, peaking at in December , coinciding with the US government shutdown and US trade negotiations with China.

To the extent that economic uncertainty deters investment, it can have a negative impact on trade since capital goods tend to have high import content. Conversely, a lowering of trade tensions would be expected to stimulate both investment and trade. World trade growth should pick up slightly in to 3.

Cyclical recovery in the CIS but South-Eastern Europe sees some slowdown: UN report

Most risks remain firmly on the downside, with upside potential hinging on a relaxation of trade tensions. Download this press release pdf format, 14 pages, KB. Audio: Press Conference. Additionally, the already strong trend of workers migrating abroad is likely to further intensify. That, in turn, will affect the revenues of the National Pension Fund of Ukraine and the state budget, warns Mr.

Outlook for trade in 2018 and 12222

According to the economist, the country could experience an outflow of investment, a decrease in foreign exchange income, as well as significant increases in the prices of imported goods, and consequently also in inflation. One quarter of our consumption depends on imports, so with a devaluation of 10 per cent gives an additional inflationary impulse of 2. Among the main concerns, he lists the increased influence of the law enforcement institutions, which could start seizing lucrative businesses from their owners.

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  8. Kushch notes that in conditions of political instability, business limits its investment and withdraws capital, while consumers reduce their expenses to the basic needs and start saving money. According to his estimates, the total additional outflow of capital from Ukraine could reach a USD1bn in the next several months. Medium-term development trends are determined with the use of models in which the decisions of participants in economic processes are influenced by social and psychological factors, as well as those related to the perception of the situation.

    In his opinion , the introduction of martial law could hurt macroeconomic stability, which private capital does not want to provide, and the state will not be able to provide. This view is confirmed by the representatives of investment companies active in the Ukrainian IT sector, who were interviewed by the Liga. In their opinion, the introduction of martial law will negatively affect the industry.

    The entrepreneurs believe that the increasing tensions will in the first place inhibit the inflow of new investors to Ukraine. Concerned for the feasibility of order fulfilment, foreign customers will submit their orders to the competitors, such as India, which is emerging as an IT powerhouse. It is also possible that entire work teams could be moved abroad. According to Yuri Romanenko from the think-tank Ukrainian Institute for the Future, at the local level martial law could be used as a tool for hostile takeovers of enterprises.

    However, the IMF has already assured that the implementation of the Stand-By Arrangement would be continued, regardless of the imposition of martial law.

    Details on trade developments in 2018

    So far, the current circumstances have affected the privatization process in Ukraine the most.