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Until now, we've looked at IK from the point of view of a 3D modeling program; we manually pose our character in the 3D modeler with the help of IK, then export the results to meshes which we then animate in our program.

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A more comprehensive approach, and one which has started to become more common in recent years, is actually to do the IK calculations in real time in the 3D program itself. Essentially, you need to create a hierarchical data structure to store the limbs in an IK chain, and a system of solving for all intermediate positions and orientations of the intermediate joints given the position of the base and the effector. Indeed, Blender itself must perform exactly such a computation to position the Ikas.

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The techniques unfortunately go beyond the scope of this book, and are sometimes combined with physically based simulation so that movement of the character's joints obeys the physical Newtonian laws of motion. Creating animations in this manner can create very realistic, non-repetitive animations; with a key frame approach, all animations are pre-recorded and appear the same whenever they are played back within the program.

However, physically based systems also give less control over exactly what sort of motion appears, since it is automatically calculated; this can be disadvantageous if you want to model specific nuances of motion. Another reason for programming IK into the 3D application program itself is to allow more sophisticated ways of handling the appearance of polygons at joints.

With IK under program control, we can dynamically create smoothing polygons at the joints, depending on the position of the limbs, so that elbows and knees don't appear to be two separate sticks glued together, but instead smoothly flow into one another, like real skin on top of bones.

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We can also cause other dynamic position-based effects, such as bulging muscles when an arm is flexed. Essentially, computing the IK beforehand makes the 3D program simpler and allows for easier control of the exact appearance of the motion, but computing the IK in the program allows you more opportunities to interact with the IK computation and its effects on the mesh.

The availability of good tools is the key to combining the advantages of precomputed and program-controlled IK. Even without programming a complete IK system, you can still program a simple limb-based or bone-based, depending on your terminology system quite easily, for the sole purpose of saving memory [LUNS98].

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Consider that for each frame of our IK-generated animations, we export the entire mesh data, with positions of all vertices. Thus, for each frame of animation, we store the positions of all vertices in a vertex list in memory. For large animations, this can be a lot of memory. We can save memory by recognizing that the model is not a loose collection of unrelated vertices, but is instead a grouping of limbs which just happen to be combined into one mesh for convenience.

Thus, even if all vertices move from one frame to the next, certain relationships among the vertex positions remain constant—specifically, all vertices belonging to a limb remain in the same position relative to one another.


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It is only the position of the limbs relative to one another that changes from frame to frame. Thus, a limb-based animation system stores each limb as a set of vertices in memory, and stores the movement data in terms of the movement of the limb which is one transformation matrix applied to every vertex of the mesh associated with the limb instead of in terms of explicit vertex positions for all vertices in the limb.

My goal is for a beginner of Graphics on Linux should get some nice idea to get a Path and the compoenents he may have to look into. Once Graphics HW completes processing the inputs It will write the rendering content in to " frame-buffer", and sends an Interrupt to the software stack. Windowing system like X11, FB, DRM will pick the "frame-buffer" , make the necessary blending based on Z-order and push it to the display panel.


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  6. This should give you a good explanation of the different components in a generic Linux based graphics stack and how they interact with each other. Note that these may not be specific to ARM or Mali, but should be a good enough starting point for you. Roughly speaking, your 4 point description is close to the reality, so I think you have a good overview already.

    Hi Michael,.

    3D Graphics and Animation Programming Tutorial in C/Linux #06 - Plotting a Graph

    Thanks for your reply. With all these together , If a user has written an Application. How These components come in to picture.

    c++ - Which way to go in Linux 3D programming? - Stack Overflow

    Let the reader go deep after understanding the high level flow and components involved, we can discuss more about the internal architecture of components and their intefaces, then even deeper with internal implementation. I would like to make this discussion more useful for all. Kindly please keep adding.

    Ravinder Are. View all questions in Graphics and Gaming forum. Site Search User. Graphics and Gaming. Can we prepare a nice presentation which can capture good explanation of Linux Graphics?


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