Uncategorized

PDF Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa and the Middle East

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa and the Middle East file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa and the Middle East book. Happy reading Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa and the Middle East Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa and the Middle East at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Managing Water Conflict: Asia, Africa and the Middle East Pocket Guide.

Groundwater — Countries in the region are withdrawing water from underground reservoirs faster than it can be replenished. Pictured here: Crop circles in Saudi Arabia draw on groundwater for irrigation. Groundwater — Libya relies on its subterranean aquifers. Since , the Great Man-Made River -- a network of underground pipes -- has carried groundwater from southern Libya to places like the Ajdabiya reservoir, pictured here, on the northern coast. Desalination — To overcome water scarcity and meet increasing demand, MENA countries have long been producing their own water.

A popular method is to separate salt from seawater in a process called desalination.

Africa's water war: Fighting for survival

Desalination — MENA accounts for nearly half of the world's desalination capacity, according to World Bank calculations , making it the largest desalination market in the world. Desalination is widely practiced in the oil-rich nations of the Gulf, at plants like this one in Qatar.

Desalination — According to the International Desalination Association , more than million people around the world rely on desalinated water for their everyday needs. Desalination — But desalination in the Middle East has a significant environmental cost because it relies on energy-intensive thermal desalination plants. Waste left over from the process is often discharged into the sea and can damage marine ecosystems.

Here, discharge from a plant in Kuwait flows into the Persian Gulf.


  • The Complete Idiots Guide to Back Pain!
  • Assisted Living: Needs, Practices, and Policies in Residential Care for the Elderly: Needs, Practices and Policies in Residential Care for the Elderly?
  • Water Scarcity Challenges in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA);
  • Reward Yourself.
  • Middle East faces water shortages for the next 25 years, study says!
  • Virtual water loss!

Wastewater treatment — Another nonconventional water resource is treated wastewater. Wastewater is typically recycled at treatment plants, like this one in Jordan, for use in irrigation. Wastewater treatment — Physical, chemical and biological processes are used to remove contaminants from wastewater.

Ashok Swain - Google Scholar Citations

Wastewater treatment — However, according to a World Bank report , 57 percent of the wastewater collected in MENA is returned to the environment untreated. Cloud seeding — The United Arab Emirates has invested in another solution to tackle the water problem -- rainfall-enhancing technology called cloud seeding. During cloud seeding missions, aircraft eject salt crystals from flares mounted on their wings to stimulate condensation and the growth of water droplets.

The salts used for seeding are "no more toxic than table salts," she added. Rainwater harvesting — Rainwater harvesting is another low-cost solution in the region whereby rainwater runoff is collected, filtered and stored for use. Such measures have been used for millennia in the region, according to the World Bank. Tanks and cisterns -- such as this one in Yemen -- provide important supply sources for many rural and urban communities. Confronting 'absolute water scarcity'. Water scarcity has been a challenge for hundreds of years in MENA. Today, rapid population and economic growth, shared water supplies across borders, and the effects of climate change including frequent droughts, declining rainfall and high evaporation rates have significantly impacted water supplies in the region, according to the Arab Regional Report.


  • Researching International Pedagogies: Sustainable Practice for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education.
  • Yoga Therapy for Overcoming Insomnia;
  • What is Kobo Super Points?.
  • Emergent collective properties, networks and information in biology!
  • Search form.
  • The Occitan War: A Military and Political History of the Albigensian Crusade, 1209-1218.

A total of 13 countries in the MENA region fell under the benchmark for "absolute water scarcity" in , as per the latest available data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. Countries suffer from absolute water scarcity when their annual water supply from natural sources drops below cubic meters per person to satisfy household, agricultural and industrial needs. Seven of these countries facing absolute scarcity are found in the Arabian Peninsula, known for its fierce desert climate and minimal precipitation.

As a result, some countries are consuming much more water than they can sustain. Related: Is this the Arab world's next 'great city? Unsustainable water use occurs in areas where water is taken from rivers and underground layers of rock saturated with water, known as aquifers, at a rate faster than it is replenished by rain, according to the World Bank report.

Middle East faces water shortages for the next 25 years, study says

Consequently, a small percentage of water diverted from agriculture would yield abundant quantities for all other uses at little cost. Removing ha ac from irrigation would provide 50 litres There is, however, great resistance to the reallocation of agricultural water in most government agencies, particularly those concerned with food production and "food self-sufficiency. In this case the water reallocated from agriculture can be replaced by importing food that would have required considerable irrigation if grown locally. Moving away from water-based sanitation to dry toilets will save considerable amounts of water in the future.

Politics and Conflict

Water losses in municipal systems continue to be very large and could be greatly reduced by better maintenance and management of the systems. Conservation of water in households and industry can also be useful. Finally, pricing of water remains a powerful tool that can be used to help implement the reallocations between water users and to stimulate improved efficiency of water use. Establishment of tradable water rights and markets for water along with privatization of the water-supply utilities would also go a long way toward achieving a less-water-constricted future. The solutions described above are typically characterized as "demand-side" options.

Unfortunately, most of the current proposals are still linked to what are called "supply-side" options. For example, the large-scale Libyan diversions from the Nubian Aquifer are designed to increase the supply to the coastal cities at huge expense without requiring Libyans to face up to the real environmental costs of supplying the water. Apart from additional investment in desalination for urban or industrial users, the era of supply-side development has all but come to an end in the region, and it is unrealistic to expect that any such megaprojects will be economically and environmentally sustainable.

Article Media. Info Print Print.

Navigation menu

Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Potential for Conflict.


  • Water Scarcity: Cooperation or Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa?;
  • Madness and Murder: Implications for the Psychiatric Disciplines?
  • Cross-border water cooperation and peacebuilding in the Middle East | Conciliation Resources.
  • Possible Solutions..
  • Activities for English Language Learners Across the Curriculum.
  • Dubblettcitat.
  • The bodywise woman : reliable information about physical activity and health?

Possible Solutions. Written By: Peter Rogers. See Article History. Originally published in the Britannica Book of the Year. Presented as archival content. Learn more. Unlike most articles on Britannica. Rather, they are presented on the site as archival content, intended for historical reference only. Start Your Free Trial Today.

Recommended For You

History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.