Cow protection to me is one of the most wonderful phenomena in human evolution. Calf mortality in semi-domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus in a Scottish herd: the impact of maternal age and individual differences between cow. Contributor s :: Jorgensen, M. High calf mortality rate is a significant problem facing semi-domestic reindeer Rangifer tarandus production around the world.
This study examined the influence of quantifiable Daily grazing time of dairy cows is recorded accurately using the Lifecorder Plus device. Accurate estimation of daily grazing time and nycthemeral grazing pattern in ruminant nutrition research may result in a better understanding of sward-animal interactions and of the behavioural constraints affecting daily intake at pasture. Portable devices which automatically record grazing Effects of sounds of different quality on the behaviour and heart beat parameters of goats. In alpine regions, bells are used to relocate free-ranging grazers like cows and goats.
Considering that goats have a well-developed hearing capacity, sounds e. The aim of this study was to test whether a non-uniform The effect of physical contact between dairy cows and calves during separation on their post-separation behavioural response. Contributor s :: Johnsen, J. Premature breaking of the maternal bond between a cow and her calf triggers a strong behavioural response which renders separation and weaning major welfare challenges in suckling systems. Fence-line separation and weaning allowing physical contact has been evaluated for beef cattle and is A continuous recording approach to qualitative behaviour assessment in dairy buffaloes Bubalus bubalis.
Contributor s :: Napolitano, F. In order to develop a method suitable for a continuous qualitative evaluation of animal behaviour while it changes during the observation period, two recently described techniques, the Qualitative Behaviour Assessment QBA and the Temporal Dominant Behavioural Expression TDBE , derived by the Head partitions at the feed barrier affect behaviour of goats. Contributor s :: Nordmann, E. Space allowance at the feeding places often forces goats to feed in close proximity, that is, less than their individual distances. In consequence, agonistic behaviour may increase as well as stress and injuries, while access to feed may decrease, especially in low-ranking goats.
Effect of feed allowance at pasture on lying behaviour and locomotory ability of dairy cows. In temperate climates where cows are primarily managed at pasture shortages of grass could result in nutritional deficits for the cow and thus pose a challenge to her welfare. This study investigated the effect of daily herbage allowance DHA on dairy cow lying behaviour, locomotory ability, and Influences of various factors on cows' entrance order into the milking parlour.
Contributor s :: Polikarpus, A. This study investigates the stability of the milking order of cows entering into the milking parlour of a commercial dairy herd, and changes to this order consequent to a change in health status and a change in the membership of the group of cows being milked. In large herds it is difficult for Does temperament affect learning in calves? Contributor s :: Webb, L. The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object NOT , novel environment NET , social isolation SIT , and social isolation with a novel environmental This paper discusses the archaeozoological evidence from Neolithic Ulucak Hoyuk Izmir, ca.
BC in light of current debates on early dairy technologies. The paper aims to add new dimension to the current understanding of the role western Anatolia played in the evolution of early Cows, milk and religion: the use of dairy produce in early societies. This review of documentary sources, particularly from Early Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and Europe seeks to show how the range of dairy products varied in different areas and to demonstrate that in many societies, cows and dairying played an important role in early religious practice.
The range of The anthropozoology of domestication for milk productionAnthropozoologie de la domestication laitiere. Milk draws its substance from a living being of flesh and blood and from plant matter full of scents, through a two-cycle digestive system and fermentation in vivo, that of ruminants, which are also animals that provide meat "you drink my milk, you eat my meat". The pig, the "outlaw" of Effects of the stockperson on dairy cow behaviour and milk yield.
Contributor s :: Hanna, D. Effectiveness of "natural stockmanship" training in cattle. Contributor s :: Abramowicz, P. Dairy Farms. Analyzing the process of domestication: Hagoshrim as a case study. Auditing nature, enacting culture: rationalisation as disciplinary purification in early twentieth-century British dairy farming. Cattle people. Mythical origins and ritual process in East Africa.
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The problem metaphor: tropic logic in cattle-killing prophecies and their afterlives. Problems with using osteological materials of wild animals for comparisons in archaeozoology. El rodeo de Dan Juan de Viscas. Where the wild things are: aurochs and cattle in England. Quiha rock shelter, Ethiopia :implications for domestication.
Rethinking [cattle cults] in early Egypt: towards a prehistoric perspective on the Narmer Palette. Hokkaido's frontiers blurred embodiments, shared affects and the evolution of dairy farming's animal-human machine. The cultural ecology of India's sacred cattle [with comments and reply; first publ "Curr Anthrop" ].
Sound of words, the voice of sounds: on the culture of communication with working oxen in Slovenia. Kine as kin: the dynamics of the relationship between dairymen and cattle. Cattle, sheep, and goats south of the Sahara : an archaeozoological perspective. Building 'cowshed cultures': A cultural perspective on the promotion of stockmanship and animal welfare on dairy farms. Contributor s :: Burton, Rob J. Comparison of locomotion scoring for dairy cows by experienced and inexperienced raters using live or video observation methods. Contributor s :: Schlageter-Tello, A. Lameness is considered a major problem in dairy production.
Lameness is commonly detected with locomotion scores assigned to cows under farm conditions, but raters are often trained and assessed for reliability and agreement by using video recordings. The aim of this study was to evaluate intra Effectiveness of animal health and welfare planning in dairy herds: a review.
Maintaining and promoting animal health and welfare are important but challenging goals in livestock farming. Animal health and welfare planning aims to contribute to improvements in the herd through interventions in a structured way. This review provides an overview of current scientific Young Blond d'Aquitaine, Angus and Limousin bulls differ in emotional reactivity: relationships with animal traits, stress reactions at slaughter and post-mortem muscle metabolism. Contributor s :: Bourguet, C. The present study investigated relationships between reactivity during tests, stress reactions at slaughter and animal traits in young Blond d'Aquitaine BA , Limousin LI and Angus AN bulls.
Behavioural and physiological reactivity of animals was evaluated during rearing using a "Human test" Density-dependent diet selection and body condition of cattle and horses in heterogeneous landscapes. For some decades, grazing by cattle and horses is used as a management tool to achieve different nature management goals. For managers there are still questions to be answered about the effects of herbivore densities on their performance, vegetation development and biodiversity.
This study Dairy calves are often separated from the cow soon after birth and prevented from nursing, but little is known about the effects of nursing on the development of the cow-calf bond. This study evaluated the effect of nursing on affiliative behaviours between the dam and her calf including Wintertime use of natural versus artificial shelter by cattle in nature reserves in temperate areas.
Contributor s :: Laer, E. The current study contributes scientific observation to the ongoing debate about whether and when artificial shelter man-made , in addition to natural shelter vegetation , should be provided to cattle grazing in nature reserves during temperate winters. In several year-round grazing projects in Comparison of the effects of weaning and castration when conducted separately or in combination on the behaviour of crossbred beef cattle. Contributor s :: Lambertz, C. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural effects of Burdizzo castration of crossbred beef calves when weaned and castrated separately castrated 8 weeks after weaning or in combination.
Effect of pre-partum habituation to milking routine on behaviour and lactation performance of buffalo heifers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect pre-partum habituation in the milking parlour on behaviour and lactation performance of buffalo heifers. Sixteen buffalo heifers in late gestation were used for this study.
The animals, with an age ranging from 30 to 44 months at the start of Can ear postures reliably measure the positive emotional state of cows? Animal welfare science is increasingly concerned with the promotion of positive emotions in animals, yet little is known about how to measure them. We examined whether ear postures in dairy cows were reliable indicators of a low arousal, positive emotional state. We conducted a total of , Effects of growth-promoting technology on feedlot cattle behavior in the 21 days before slaughter. Contributor s :: Stackhouse-Lawson, K.
Previous studies have focused on the effects of implants on aggression, but little work has Acoustic analysis of cattle Bos taurus mother-offspring contact calls from a source-filter theory perspective. Contributor s :: Torre, M. Cattle vocalisations have been proposed as potential indicators of animal welfare. However, very few studies have investigated the acoustic structure and information encoded in these vocalisations using advanced analysis techniques.
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Vocalisations play key roles in a wide range of communication Effects of mother versus artificial rearing during the first 12 weeks of life on challenge responses of dairy cows. Contributor s :: Wagner, K. We investigated the effects of mother versus artificial rearing on the responses to a social and a non-social challenge in adulthood. Rearing of treatment groups only differed during the first 12 weeks of life. Artificially reared animals were separated from their mothers within 24 h after birth What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect behaviour?
Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the 'average calf'. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary The ticking clock: addressing farm animal welfare in emerging countries.
Over the last decade many emerging economies, and in particular Brazil, have established themselves as major players in global food animal production. Within these countries much of the increase in food animal production has been achieved by the adoption of intensive housing systems similar to The ethics of a co-regulatory model for farm animal welfare research. Standards for farm animal welfare are variously managed at a national level by government-led regulatory control, by consumer-led welfare economics and co-regulated control in a partnership between industry and government.
In the latter case the control of research to support animal welfare Animal welfare concerns and values of stakeholders within the dairy industry. Contributor s :: Ventura, B. This paper describes the perspectives of stakeholders within the North American dairy industry on key issues affecting the welfare of dairy cattle. Five heterogeneous focus groups were held during a dairy cattle welfare meeting in Guelph, Canada in October Each group contained between 7 and Mixed-species stocking can foster sound landscape management while offering economic and ecological advantages compared with mono-species stocking.
Producers contemplating a mixed-species enterprise should reflect on several considerations before implementing this animal management strategy Cattle farmers' preferences for disease-free zones in Kenya: an application of the choice experiment method. Management of livestock diseases is important in ensuring food safety to consumers in both domestic and export markets. In order to prevent the spread of trans-boundary Stakeholder attitudes toward farm animal welfare. Contributor s :: Heleski, C. The survey was conducted via For this reason, the role of cattle is examined here in terms of primitive capital accumulation, as a means of social differentiation, and as a catalyst for the Are "pit bulls" different?
An analysis of the pit bull terrier controversy Commenrtary. Dogs that perform best for guarding and herding livestock have different behavioural profiles, as stated by the authors: 'herding dogs are selected to show hunting behaviours, such as eye, stalk, grip or heel. Guarding dogs are selected to show more of the wild ancestor's puppy-like or juvenile Tales about tails: is the mutilation of animals justifiable in their best interests or in ours?
Contributor s :: Edwards, S. Tail docking, involving surgical or non-surgical removal of a portion of the tail, is one of the most widely carried out and contentious mutilations inflicted by humans on animals. To differing extents, this procedure is carried out on farm livestock, draught animals and companion animals.
What the Horse Has Done for Us [book reviews]. Evaluation of microwave energy as a humane stunning technique based on electroencephalography EEG of anaesthetised cattle. Contributor s :: Rault, J. Humane slaughter implies that an animal experiences minimal pain and distress before it is killed. Stunning is commonly used to induce insensibility but can lead to variable results or be considered unsatisfactory by some religious groups.
Microwave energy can induce insensibility in rats, and The major welfare problems of dairy cows in French commercial farms: an epidemiological approach. Animal welfare enhancement requires that problems are reliably identified and ranked in order to prioritise corrective actions. Welfare problems vary with the conditions in which animals are maintained.
The objectives were to highlight major welfare problems for dairy cows on farms in France, and Assessment of key parameters for gunshot used on cattle: a pilot study on shot placement and effects of diverse ammunition on isolated cattle heads. Contributor s :: Schiffer, K. There have been many improvements regarding transport conditions, pre-slaughter handling, and captive-bolt stunning of cattle at commercial abattoirs, but many challenges still exist.
Animals unaccustomed to human-animal contact, such as free-range beef cattle, may be especially difficult to Methods for cross point analysis of double-demand functions in assessing animal preferences. Contributor s :: Engel, B. Cross point analysis of double demand functions provides a compelling way to quantify the strength of animal preferences for two simultaneously presented resources.
During daily sessions, animals have to work to gain access to a portion of either resource, e. Agreement between different sleep states and behaviour indicators in dairy cows. Contributor s :: Ternman, E. Conclusive data regarding behavioural indicators of different sleep states in adult dairy cows are lacking, i. Behavioural estimates for quantifying total sleep time in calves have been developed, Identifying sustainability issues for soymeal and beef production chains.
Contributor s :: Kamali, F. The expansion of livestock production throughout the world has led to increased demand for high protein animal feed. This expansion has created economic benefits for livestock farmers and other actors in the chain, but also resulted in environmental and social side effects.
This study aims to Scientists' assessment of the impact of housing and management on animal welfare. A total of 22 scientists contributed to a consensus-oriented conceptual framework for assessment of farm animal welfare, addressing priority issues in cattle, pigs, and chickens. They used the Delphi method, in which participants contributed anonymously through e-mail. The framework puts welfare Although measures to control bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE had been in force in the United Kingdom for many years and had resulted in a marked decline in clinical cases, the announcement by the Secretary of State for Health on March 20, , that a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Research and teaching of dairy cattle well being: finding synergy between ethology and epidemiology.
Contributor s :: Duffield, T. Epidemiology is a tool used to identify and quantify risk factors that contribute to the state of health or disease. In addition, the maintenance of health and recognition of nonhuman animal welfare are both key principles of health management. Animal welfare and ethology provide important The effects of lameness on social and individual behavior of dairy cows.
Lameness is one of the most important welfare problems in dairy cattle. Most studies on lameness have focused on wide ranging surveys to identify causal factors, but few have considered the welfare implications of this disorder. In this study, we compared the social and individual behaviour of Handling, electric goad, and head restraint: effects on calves' behavior.
Contributor s :: Goonewardene, L. Behaviour responses were measured by 5 incremental Penetrating captive bolt stunning and exsanguination of cattle in abattoirs. Abattoirs commonly use penetrating captive bolt pistols to stun cattle. Humane slaughter requires that an animal immediately becomes unconscious and does not regain consciousness. In this review we consider the concepts of concussion, unconsciousness, and return to consciousness. We conclude that Function of tongue-playing of cattle in association with other behavioral and physiological characteristics.
Contributor s :: Ishiwata, T. To study the function of tongue-playing of cattle, this study observed 71 Japanese Black x Holstein steers after feeding in 2 repetitive experiments. The number of steers who performed tongue-playing did not differ among the 3 levels of environmentally enriched pens. Most Oral behaviors of beef steers in pen and pasture environments. This study observed the behavioral characteristics of steers in eight pens and 1, steers at six pastures. Nonhuman animals kept in pens performed less nutritive oral behaviors and more nonnutritive oral behaviors than animals kept at pasture.
Although these could not be described as Influence of zoo visitor presence on the behavior of captive Indian gaur Bos gaurus gaurus in a Zoological Park. Visitors to zoos can be a source of potential disturbance and stress to some captive, nonhuman animals in the wild. To determine the influence of visitor presence on captive bison Bos gaurus gaurus , the study analysed the behaviour of 4 individuals at the Arignar Anna Zoological Park, India The sizes of elephant groups in zoos: implications for elephant welfare.
This study examined the distribution of Asian elephants Elephas maximus and African elephants Loxodonta africana in zoos, most of which were located in Europe Artificial weaning of calves: benefits and costs. Evidence indicates that allowing beef calves to stay in the maternal herd beyond the age of natural weaning promotes animal welfare and may enhance the cows' natural reproductive potential. Assessing the welfare of dairy cattle. Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium. This article suggests that health problems represent some of the main threats to the welfare of dairy cattle.
Although disagreement often arises about what constitutes the main welfare problems, there is broad agreement that welfare is reduced by health problems. In recent decades, a marked The special issue contains four articles which evaluate animal welfare in livestock production; also, they give a critical appraisal of the food animal industry during this present time.
The first two articles deal mainly on the changing attitudes and public perceptions of animal agriculture in A note on the effect of controlling stable flies Stomxys calcitrans in the resting activity and pen distribution of dairy cows. This study investigated the effect of controlling stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans on the number of dairy cows lying down and their pen distribution. The study randomly assigned 80 Holstein cows to 1 of 2 groups.
The treated group T included cows individually sprayed with insecticide when Spectral analysis of feeding and lying behavior of cattle kept under different feedlot conditions. This study used spectral analysis in 2 separate experiments to examine feeding and lying behavior of Bos taurus steers under 2 housing treatments: a feedlot yard stocked at Welfare assessments based on lifetime health and production data in Danish dairy cows.
The objective of this study was to describe how information about the whole lifetime of the cow can be used when defining nonhuman animal-based criteria of the welfare of animals on the farm. Often measured over a short period, disease occurrence provides information relevant for assessing the Livestock vehicle accidents in Spain: causes, consequences, and effects on animal welfare.
Contributor s :: Miranda-de la Lama, G. Livestock vehicle accidents are rare but involve significant economic, human, and nonhuman farm animal losses. This study obtained information on the characteristics of accidents, the animals involved, and injuries to humans from newspaper reports about livestock vehicle accidents in Spain from Dairy cow behavior and welfare implications of time waiting before entry into the milking parlor. Contributor s :: Dijkstra, C. The objective of this study was to investigate dairy cows' time spent in the possibly stressful waiting area WA of the milking parlor MP and their behavioral patterns while there and thereby investigate comparative effects on their welfare.
The experiments were carried out in 3 loose-housing Handling and welfare of bovine livestock at local abattoirs in Bangladesh. Contributor s :: Murshidul, Ahsan, Hasan, B. The handling and welfare of bovine livestock Bos indicus and Bubalus bubalis were studied in 8 local abattoirs in 5 districts of Bangladesh.
A total of Contributor s :: Barrier, A. Very little is known about the pain experienced by cattle following caesarean section and hence little consideration has been given to managing it. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate activity-related behavioural changes in response to pain, by pre-emptively administering a long Locomotor activity of dairy cows in relation to season and lactation.
Contributor s :: Brzozowska, A. All systems recording activity of cattle measure it independently of environmental and animal factors. Such recordings may hide differences in activity caused by extraneous interferences or may be inaccurately interpreted. The information produced by sensors could be more accurate, if behaviour Instantaneous intake rate of free-grazing cattle as affected by herbage characteristics in heterogeneous tropical agro-pastoral landscapes.
Contributor s :: Chirat, G. Numerous territories of Sub-Saharan Africa are composed of a mosaic of very different landscape units: cropland, forest, and savannah. This spatial, but also temporal heterogeneity leads to complexity in the analysis of cattle intake behaviour. The instantaneous intake rate IIR is generally Dairy calves' adaptation to group housing with automated feeders. Group housing of dairy calves with automated milk feeders has likely welfare and labour saving advantages but delays in the calves adapting to the feeding system may reduce these advantages.
We examined factors that influence calves' adaptation to the feeders. In Exp. Effects of restraint with or without blinds at the feed barrier on feeding and agonistic behaviour in horned and hornless goats. The strict dominance hierarchy in goats bears the risk of low-ranking goats not getting adequate access to feed, especially for goats in small groups. The aim of our study was to test the effect of restraint in headlocks with and without blinds at the feed barrier on feeding and agonistic A comparison of welfare outcomes for weaner and mature Bos indicus bulls surgically or tension band castrated with or without analgesia: 1.
Behavioural responses. Tension-band castration of cattle is gaining favour because it is relatively simple to perform and is promoted by retailers of the devices as a humane castration method. Furthermore, retailers encourage delaying castration to exploit the superior growth rates of bulls compared with steers.
A comparison of welfare outcomes for weaner and mature Bos indicus bulls surgically or tension band castrated with or without analgesia: 2. Responses related to stress, health and productivity. Tension banding castration of cattle is gaining favour because it is relatively simple to perform and is promoted by retailers of the banders as a humane castration method. Two experiments were conducted, under tropical conditions using Bos indicus bulls comparing tension banding Band and Locomotor play of veal calves in an arena: are effects of feed level and spatial restriction mediated by responses to novelty?
When calves are placed in an open arena, they perform locomotor play, which provides a time-efficient means of assessing playfulness. To use this as a method of assessing welfare, we need to relate playfulness to other welfare indicators and understand what factors influence results. The novelty Can stealing cows distort the results of feeding trials? An experiment for quantification and prevention of stealing feed by dairy cows from roughage intake control feeders. Practical experience suggests that stealing behaviour of dairy cows may affect the results in feeding trials, when automated feed troughs are used for measuring and controlling the feed intake.
The objectives of the present study were to analyse the stealing behaviour from the log data of the Rearing substrate and space allowance influences locomotor play behaviour of dairy calves in an arena test. Contributor s :: Sutherland, M. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rearing substrate and space allowance in the home environment on the motivation of dairy calves to perform locomotor play in an arena test.
Operant conditioning of urination by calves. Contributor s :: Vaughan, A. The accumulation of faeces and urine in dairy barns is a cause of cattle and human health concerns and environmental problems. It is usually assumed that cattle are not capable of controlling defecation and urination. We tested whether calves could be taught to urinate in a location using either Are special feed and being brushed judged as positive by calves?
In studies concerning animal welfare, especially on methods to enhance positive welfare, different stimuli are used to create positive situations or "rewards". A positive judgement by the animals, however, cannot be assumed a priori. The aim of this study was to determine by means of preference Perception of the importance of human-animal interactions on cattle flow and worker safety on Minnesota dairy farms.
Proper cattle-handling techniques stockmanship are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to 1 assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and Assessing the human-animal relationship in dairy cows kept in different housing systems.
Contributor s :: Popescu, S. The human-animal relationship HAR represents an important feature of adequate cattle breeding, both for improving the animals' welfare and to facilitate the farm activities. The aim of this study was the comparative assessment of the HAR's quality in dairy farms with tie stalls and loose Interrogation of modern and ancient genomes reveals the complex domestic history of cattle. Contributor s :: David A. Magee, David E. MacHugh, Ceiridwen J. The development of agriculture at the advent of the Neolithic period, circa 13, years before present YBP , is considered to be the most important cultural innovation in human history.
Before this, anatomically modern humans had successfully managed to occupy most habitable and accessible Sacred bull, holy cow a cultural study of civilization's most important animal. Personification as the social emotional behaviors in human and animal interactions. The relationship between responsiveness of first-lactation heifers to humans and the behavioral response to milking and milk production measures. The human-animal relationship can influence how an animal responds to situations involving humans and affect animal well-being and production. The objectives of this research were to 1 determine if there is a relationship between the behavioral reactivity of New Zealand dairy heifers toward Contributor s :: McKendree, M.
To address escalating concerns about livestock animal care and welfare it is necessary to better understand the factors that may predispose people to develop such concerns. It has been hypothesized that experiences with, beliefs about, and emotional connections to animals may influence level of One of the featured objects, a Minoan bronze group of a bull and acrobat, was brought to life Contributor s :: Salamano, G.
Current technical-scientific advances allow a reappraisal of some practices used during religious slaughter without compromising its deep and essential meaning, through to the identification of techniques that limit the nonhuman animal vigilance without causing any lesion that may impair its Encounters on the frontier: Banteng in Australia's Northern Territory. This paper considers the case of an introduced species that resides in what is now a jointly managed national park in the north of tropical Australia.
Banteng Bos javanicus are a peculiar feral nonhuman animal in that they constitute a potential environmental threat within the domestic Re-capturing bovine life: robot-cow relationships, freedom and control in dairy farming. Robotic milking machines are novel technologies that take over the labour of dairy farming and reduce the need for human-animal interactions. Replacing 'conventional' twice-a-day milking managed by people with a system that supposedly allows cows the freedom to be milked automatically whenever Behavioural changes in dairy cows with lameness in an automatic milking system.
Contributor s :: Miguel-Pacheco, G. There is a tendency worldwide for the automation of farms; this has included the introduction of automatic milking systems AMS in the dairy industry. Lameness in dairy cows is highly prevalent and painful. These impacts potentially affect not only animal welfare, but also farm economies. Behavioural mechanisms of intake rate by heifers grazing swards of contrasting structures.
Contributor s :: Mezzalira, J. The relationship between herbage intake by herbivores and herbage available depends on the interaction between sward structure and animal behaviour. This relationship is a crucial component determining the stability, function and productivity of grazing systems. The present study aims at Fear responses to novelty in testing environments are related to day-to-day activity in the home environment in dairy cattle.
Contributor s :: MacKay, J. Behavioural tests for cattle take time to perform and can be stressful for the animals but are currently the only way of assessing behavioural reactions to fear-causing stimuli in a standardised manner. It may be possible to use behavioural data collected remotely in the home pen environment Cattle behaviours and stockperson actions related to impaired animal welfare at Swedish slaughter plants. Contributor s :: Hultgren, J. At a slaughter plant, cattle are sometimes exposed to rough handling which may reduce animal welfare AW.
In an observational study at four Swedish commercial slaughter plants, AW-related behaviours of cattle and actions of abattoir stockpersons handling the same animals were recorded Using qualitative behaviour assessment to explore the link between stockperson behaviour and dairy calf behaviour. Contributor s :: Ellingsen, K. Dairy farming usually implies close and frequent contact between the stockperson and the animals.
A good human-animal relationship HAR is therefore essential for good animal welfare. To fully understand the quality of the HAR both the stockperson behaviour and the animals' reaction to the Dynamics of the access of captive domestic cats to a feed environmental enrichment item. Providing feed enrichment to captive felids that are obligate carnivores is crucial for eliciting natural hunting behaviours. However, studies of the efficacy of enrichment techniques usually analyse the whole group, overlooking the different behaviours of individual animals towards the enriched The use of in-depth interviews to understand the process of treating lame dairy cows from the farmers' perspective.
Contributor s :: Horseman, S. Interventions aimed at improving animal welfare on farms may be more successful if greater attention is paid to the points of view of farmers. For example, understanding how different dairy farmers detect lame cows, decide to treat them, get them to the point of treatment, and how practical Implementing Welfare Quality in UK assurance schemes: evaluating the challenges.
Contributor s :: Heath, C. This paper presents an account of a Welfare Quality assessment of 92 dairy farms carried out by seven experienced assessors. The aim was to evaluate the potential of the Welfare Quality assessment protocol with respect to its uptake by UK farm assurance schemes. Data collection, and measure Can animal-based welfare assessment be simplified? A comparison of the Welfare Quality protocol for dairy cattle and the simpler and less time-consuming protocol developed by the Danish Cattle Federation.
Welfare assessment protocols using primarily animal-based measures are believed to give valid information about the welfare of animals. However, they tend to be time consuming and therefore costly, thus in practice there is often considerable reluctance to use them. In the present study, the Risk factors for unassisted on-farm death in Swedish dairy cows.
Contributor s :: Alvasen, K. Increased on-farm cow mortality ie unassisted death and euthanasia has been demonstrated in Swedish dairy herds during the last decade. Identifying risk factors associated with type of death is needed for future work in reducing cow mortality rates. The objectives of this case-control study While no one could ever say that the conditions for animals and people were ideal in the days of hand milking, the question of animal welfare was less pressing as man was at ease and in balance and harmony with nature.
Only as units became larger, and machine milking took the place of the Sero-epidemiological study of brucellosis was conducted on occupationally exposed humans and dairy cattle in Addis Ababa. A total of human individuals were screened by Rose Bengal Plate Test. Those found to be positive were further subjected to 2-MET. Similarly, sexually matured dairy Anti-schistosoma single-domain antibody-nanoparticles conjugate: a novel tool for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanotechnology has enthused excessive expectations in recent years, particularly in the biology and biomedical fields.
Carbon-coated metallic nanomagnets reveal significant physicochemical properties, which are referred to as superparamagnetism, that when designed appropriately can be utilized to Human-animal relationships at sheep and cattle abattoirs. Human-animal relationships in the Norwegian dairy goat industry: assessment of pain and provision of veterinary treatment Part II. Evaluation of on-farm veal calves' responses to unfamiliar humans and potential influencing factors.
Contributor s :: Leruste, H. Effect of previous handling experiences on responses of dairy calves to routine husbandry procedures. Contributor s :: Stewart, M. Bruises in culled cows: when, where and how are they inflicted? Contributor s :: Strappini, A. Assessment of stun quality at commercial slaughter in cattle shot with captive bolt. Development and testing of an on-farm welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Electromagnetic induction of insensibility in animals: a review. Contributor s :: Small, A. Shrink and mortality of beef cattle during long distance transportation.
Does short-term road transport affect the locomotion score of dairy cows? Assessment time of the Welfare Quality protocol for dairy cattle. Contributor s :: Vries, M. Attitudes of dairy farmers toward cow welfare in relation to housing, management and productivity. Effects of different systems of feeding supplements on time budgets of cows grazing restricted pasture allowances.
Contributor s :: Arachchige, A. The effect of a view to the surroundings and microclimate variables on use of a loafing area in housed dairy cattle. Contributor s :: Haskell, M. Trade-offs between feeding and social companionship in cattle: intra-animal consistency over short and extended periods.
Cattle habitat selection and associated habitat characteristics under free-range grazing within heterogeneous Montane rangelands of Alberta. Contributor s :: Kaufmann, J. Preference of beef cattle for feedlot or pasture environments. Contributor s :: Lee, C. Which measures of acceleration best estimate the duration of locomotor play by dairy calves? Contributor s :: Luu, J. Play behavior as an indicator of animal welfare: disbudding in dairy calves. Contributor s :: Mintline, E. Foraging Eurasian badgers Meles meles and the presence of cattle in pastures.
Do badgers avoid cattle? Automatic registration of grazing behaviour in dairy cows using 3D activity loggers. Influence of gentle touching applied few weeks before slaughter on avoidance distance and slaughter stress in finishing cattle. Contributor s :: Probst, J. Behavioural and physiological responses of heifer calves to acute stressors: long-term consistency and relationship with adult reactivity to milking. Contributor s :: Reenen, C.
Does water or blowing air stimulate cows to defecate? Contributor s :: Robichaud, M. Effective and accurate discrimination of individual dairy cattle through acoustic sensing. Contributor s :: Singh, Yajuvendra, Lathwal, S. Maternal behaviour in beef cows is individually consistent and sensitive to cow body condition, calf sex and weight. Contributor s :: Stehulova, I. Effects of two substrate types on the behaviour, cleanliness and thermoregulation of dairy calves. What is the relationship between level of infection and 'sickness behaviour' in cattle? Can the location of cattle be managed using broadcast audio cues?
Contributor s :: Umstatter, C. Social interactions, cortisol and reproductive success of domestic goats Capra hircus subjected to different animal densities during pregnancy. Contributor s :: Vas, J. Suckling, weaning, and the development of oral behaviours in dairy calves. Mother rearing of dairy calves: reactions to isolation and to confrontation with an unfamiliar conspecific in a new environment. Particularities of the human-animal interactions relevant to the welfare and productivity of dairy cows. Contributor s :: Honorato, L.
Particularidades relevantes da interacao humano-animal para o bem-estar e produtividade de vacas leiteiras. Opinions expressed by cattle breeders on human-animal relations and the conditions in which animals are kept. Contributor s :: Sitkowska, B. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation.
Environmental enrichment and social rank affects the fear and stress response to regular handling of dairy goats. The human-animal interface of domestic livestock management and production and its relationship to brucellosis in the country of Georgia a rapid assessment analysis. Contributor s :: Havas, K. How to handle your cows stress-free and safely? Religious slaughter: data from surveys and spot-check visits in Italy and animal welfare issues. Contributor s :: Cenci-Goga, B. Redesigning the donation box: the effect of animal banks on donations for animal welfare.
Exploring opportunities to do things differently. Veterinary medical ethics. An ethicist's commentary on the treatment of downer animals. Djurens skepnader: Narhet och distans i diskurs och livsvarld. Bred for perfection : shorthorn cattle, collies, and arabian horses since This document contains two introductory articles written by experts in the farm animal welfare field from North America and Europe respectively. Each article ends with a list of references cited by the author.
The second section of this publication consists of an extensive bibliography Contributor s :: Charles F. Nicholson, Lucy Mwangi, Steven J. Staal and Philip K. This study examines the hypothesis that dairy cow ownership improves child nutritional status. Using household data from coastal and highland Kenya, three econometric model formulations are estimated. Positive impacts on chronic malnutrition are observed for coastal Kenya.
No negative effects on My time spent at Cal Poly in the Social Sciences major has made me aware of the issue of sustainability. In my senior Re-integrating crops and livestock in Maine: an economic analysis of the potential for and profitability of integrated agricultural production. This thesis examines the profitability of and sustainability indicators for potato and dairy farms in Maine integrating crops and livestock in two different ways.
The first is inter-farm coupling, where two or more specialized producers are close enough to exchange manure applications for crops Eastern bluebirds eject brown-headed cowbird eggs. Contributor s :: Brian D. Peer, Lyndon R. Hawkins, Edwin P. The relationship between the Brownheaded Cowbird Molothrus ater and its cavitynesting hosts has received little attention because of the assumption that cowbirds rarely parasitize these hosts. We tested the Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis , a host that is sometimes heavily parasitized by Predictive measures of fetal distress in calves during delivery.
The effect of birth stress on tongue color, length, and responsiveness was studied in fifty eight calves. The calves were monitored from stage 2 of parturition until birth. Tongue parameters Tongue color, length, and responsiveness were measured at two minute intervals. Immediately after birth Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida. Contributor s :: T. Olson, K. Euclides Filho, L. Cundiff, M. Koger, W. Butts Jr. A total of F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus Improving beef cattle performance on tall fescue.
The overall goal of the studies described in this dissertation was to improve beef production of cows grazing endophyte infected tall fescue either through management practices or through identifying markers for genetic selection. Experiment 1 investigated differences in spring and fall calving Even though chickens are efficient in converting raw farm product into human food, every locality has some poultry flocks with low production from which little or no profit is obtained.
This is because the owner in most instances fails to recognize and give careful attention to all the factors Effects of sire, dam traits, calf traits, and environment on dystocia and subsequent reproduction of two-year-old heifers. Colburn, Gene H. Deutscher, Merlyn K. Nielsen, Don C. A study was conducted over 3 yr to evaluate effects of sire birth weight EPD, calf birth weight and shape, and heifer pelvic area and weight, individually and in combination, on dystocia and subsequent rebreeding of 2-yr-old heifers.
Climate affects calf birth weights and calving difficulty. The winter of coldest was 11 degrees F colder than the winter of warmest. The coldest winter The efficiency of today's dairy has increased due to the growing number of cows per herd and the production of pounds of milk per cow.
Increased milk production however has resulted in a reduction of conception rates causing a loss of income for the dairy producer since the dairy industry relies Contributor s :: Agenas, S. Comparison of Halal slaughter with captive bolt stunning and neck cutting in cattle: exsanguination and quality parameters.
Contributor s :: Anil, M. Uptake and effectiveness of interventions to reduce claw lesions in 40 dairy herds in the UK.
Contributor s :: Barker, Z. Parturition progress and behaviours in dairy cows with calving difficulty. A method for the economic valuation of animal welfare benefits using a single welfare score. Genetic and non-genetic factors associated with milking order in lactating dairy cows. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of experienced and inexperienced observers for the Qualitative Behaviour Assessment in dairy cattle. Contributor s :: Bokkers, E. Effect of rectal or intravenous tramadol on the incidence of pain-related behaviour after disbudding calves with caustic paste.
Contributor s :: Braz, M. Foraging behaviour of beef heifers and ewes in natural grasslands with distinct proportions of tussocks. The direct assessment of feed efficiency has limitations and alternatives are needed. Small intestine micro-architecture is associated with function and may be related to feed efficiency. The objective was to verify the potential histomorphological differences in the small intestine of animals with divergent feed efficiency.
Methods From a population of 45 feedlot steers, 12 were selected with low-RFI superior feed efficiency and 12 with high-RFI inferior feed efficiency at the end of the finishing period. The animals were processed at Within 1. Tissue fragments were processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Photomicroscopy images were taken under x magnification. For each animal intestinal crypts were imaged, in a cross section view, from each of the two intestinal segments.
The measurements taken were: crypt area, crypt perimeter, crypt lumen area, nuclei number and the cell size was indirectly calculated. Genetic analysis of calf health in Charolais beef cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence calf health and survival in Charolais cattle. Data from 2, calves, originating from 16 French farms and observed from birth until 30 d of age, were analyzed using models that took account of direct genetic, maternal genetic, and common environmental effects.
Both direct and maternal genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight BW , calving ease CE , neonatal vitality NV , survival at 30 d Surv , and umbilical infection and diarrhea at different ages 0 to 5 d: Umb1 and Diar1; 6 to 20 d: Umb2 and Diar2; and 21 to 30 d: Umb3 and Diar3. The heritability values for direct and maternal genetic effects were, 0.
Significant genetic variability in beef cattle was thus revealed for five calf health traits: NV, Surv, Diar1, Umb1, and Umb2. In addition, for three traits Surv, Diar1, and Umb2 , maternal genetic effects clearly contributed more to health performance than direct genetic effects. Estimates of genetic correlation between traits varied markedly from 0 to 1 in absolute values depending on the traits in question, the age for a given trait, and the type direct or maternal of the genetic effects considered.
These results suggest that not all health traits in Charolais cattle can be improved simultaneously, and breeders will therefore have to prioritize certain traits of interest in their breeding objectives. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential utility of collecting and integrating data on calf diseases, NV and survival in future beef cattle breeding programs. To ensure. The comparative study of the chemical composition and biological values of beef produced by hybrids of Angus cattle with wild yaks hybrid beef and pure-bred Angus cattle traditional beef has been carried out.
Longissimus muscle samples were used for analysis. It was observed, that the hybrid beef samples had the practically equal protein content comparing to traditional beef The higher biological value of hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef has been shown. The value of protein-quality index, calculated as the ratio of tryptophan amino acid to oxyprolin and characterizing the ratio of high biological value proteins to low biological value proteins was 8.
The protein of hybrid beef was characterized by the higher content of a number of the essential amino acids: by a factor of 1, 77 for threonin, 1. The amount of the essential amino acids in 1 gram of protein of the hybrid beef was Brazilian beef cattle feedlot manure management: a country survey. No information regarding the management of manure from beef cattle feedlots is available for Brazil.
To fill this knowledge gap, a survey of 73 feedlots was conducted in 7 Brazilian states. In this survey, questions were asked regarding animal characteristics, their diets, and manure handling management from generation to disposal. These feedlots finished , animals in The predominant breed fed was Nellore, with average feeding periods of 60 to d. The most representative manure management practice was the removal of manure from pens only at the end of the feeding period. Subsequently, the manure was stored in mounds before being applied to crop and pasture lands.
Runoff, mainly from rainwater, was collected in retention ponds and used for agriculture. However, the quantity of runoff was not known. Comparison of the prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains O and O26 between beef and dairy cattle in Japan. With the aim of comparing the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli STEC O and O26 between beef and dairy cattle , we collected rectal content samples from beef cattle on 25 beef farms and dairy cows on 25 dairy farms from July through September STEC O26 was isolated from 1 animal each from beef and dairy cattle herds, and therefore, it was not possible to compare statistically the prevalence of STEC O26 in beef and dairy cattle.
Building beef cow nutritional programs with the NRC beef cattle requirements model. Designing a sound cow-calf nutritional program requires knowledge of nutrient requirements, diet quality, and intake.
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- The Behaviour of Beef Suckler Cattle (Bos Taurus) | SpringerLink?
- The Behaviour of Beef Suckler Cattle (Bos Taurus) | SpringerLink!
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Objectives of this paper are to 1 describe a framework in which NRC-applicable data can be generated, 2 describe seasonal changes in nutrients on native range, 3 use the NRC to predict nutrient balance for cattle grazing these forages, and 4 make recommendations for using the NRC for forage-fed cattle. Extrusa samples were collected over 2 yr on native upland range and subirrigated meadow in the Nebraska Sandhills.
Regression equations to predict nutrients were developed from these data. The NRC was used to predict nutrient balances based on the dietary nutrient analyses. Recommendations for model users were also developed. Degradable intake protein DM basis followed trends similar to CP for both native range and subirrigated meadow.
Predicted nutrient balances for spring- and summer-calving cows agreed with reported values in the literature, provided that IVOMD values were converted to DE before use in the model 1. Consequently, efforts should be focused on adequately describing seasonal changes in forage nutrient content. In order to increase use of the NRC, research is needed in the following areas: 1 cost-effective and. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand. Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand.
A total of blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. The antibodies to T. The low prevalence of neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle , including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production.
Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination TAI in beef and dairy cattle.
Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination AI , but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.
The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein MCP in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater cattle fed pulverized and extruded wheat. Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased cattle fed extruded wheat had the lowest concentrations of total VFA and acetate among all treatments.
The relative abundance of , , ciliated protozoa, and was lower in cattle fed the pulverized wheat diet than in the other 3 diets cattle fed extruded wheat compared with cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat 0. Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms. Mineral retention of growing and finishing beef cattle across different production systems.
Calcium, P, Mg, K, and S retention in carcass, offal, and viscera were measured in 2 beef cattle experiments. Seasonal variation in vitamin D status of beef cattle reared in the central United States. The objective was to measure seasonal sunshine associated variation in concentration hydroxyvitamin D 25OHD in beef cattle. Vitamin D is a key modulator of calcium homeostasis, as well as innate and adaptive immunity.
Temperament assessment provides insight into future health and growth performance of beef cattle. Throughout the productive life of beef cattle many stressful events occur e. These stressfull events have been reported to induce secretion of several of the prominant stress-related hormones Laboratory evaluation of surface amendments for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots.
Pen surface amendments for mitigating emissions of greenhouse gases GHGs , such as nitrous oxide N2O , methane CH4 , and carbon dioxide CO2 , from beef cattle feedlots, were evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions.
Amendments were organic residues i. Experimental research on the effects of water application on greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots. The effect of water application e. Ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations at surfaces of simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs. Bedding is used in livestock operations to facilitate manure management and provide comfort for the animal.
The research objective was to determine differences in ammonia NH3 , carbon dioxide CO2 , nitrous oxide N2O and methane CH4 concentrations from simulated beef cattle bedded manure packs Stocking rate and fuels reduction effects on beef cattle diet composition and quality. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of forest fuels reduction on diet quality, botanical composition, relative preference, and foraging efficiency of beef cattle grazing at different stocking rates. A split plot factorial design was used, with whole plots 3 ha being fuel reduced or no treatment control , and split plots 1 ha within whole plots Investigations into the beneficial uses of ash from the combustion of manure from beef cattle feedlots.
The potential for beneficial uses or co-products from the combustion of beef cattle manure were investigated. Phosphate concentrations indicate some potential for use as an agronomic soil amendment, but the phosphate is not freely released. Greenhouse studies suggest that neither good nor harm occur Epidemiology of trace elements deficiencies in Belgian beef and dairy cattle herds. These deficiencies are often associated with diseases. The aim of the study was to assess trace element status in Belgian cattle herds showing pathologies and to compare them to healthy cattle herds.
Eighty-two beef herds with pathologies, 11 healthy beef herds, 65 dairy herds with pathologies and 20 healthy dairy herds were studied during barn period. In milk, I concentration was measured. Data about pathologies and nutrition in the herds were collected. According to defined thresholds, it appeared that a large proportion of deficient herds belonged to "sick" group of herds. This conclusion was supported by the mean value of trace elements and by the fact that a majority of individual values of trace elements was below the threshold. Dairy herds had mean values of trace elements higher than beef herds.
More concentrates and minerals were used in healthy herds versus "sick" herds. These feed supplements were also used more often in dairy herds, compared to beef herds. Trace elements deficiencies are present in cattle herds in Belgium and are linked to diseases. Nutrition plays a major role in the trace elements status. First-order decay rates were calculated for steroid half-lives in compost and ranged from 8 d for androsterone to 69 d for 4-androstenedione.
Other steroid concentration data could not be fit to first-order decay models, which may indicate that microbial processes may result in steroid production or synthesis in composting systems.
The behaviour of beef suckler cattle (Bos taurus)
We demonstrate that composting is an effective strategy to remove steroid hormones from manure. Temporal nitrous oxide emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure following a simulated rainfall event. A pilot-scale, recirculating-flow-through, non-steady-state RFT-NSS chamber system was designed for quantifying nitrous oxide N2O emissions from simulated open-lot beef cattle feedlot pens.
The system employed five 1 square meter steel pans. A lid was placed systematically on each pan and heads Genome-wide association study for carcass traits in a composite beef cattle breed. Improvement of carcass traits is highly emphasized in beef cattle production in order to meet consumer demands. Discovering and understanding genes and genetic variants that control these traits is of paramount importance. Using single nucleotide polymorphism to detect selection signature in Hereford beef cattle.
The objective of this study was to investigate selection signature in 2 sources of purebred Hereford beef cattle. Line 1 Herefords were sampled from a closed line Comparison of Bayesian models to estimate direct genomic values in multi-breed commercial beef cattle. Background Several studies have examined the accuracy of genomic selection both within and across purebred beef or dairy populations.
However, the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values DGVs has been less well studied in crossbred or admixed cattle populations. We used a population of 3, cr Post-extraction algal residue in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle. The effects of post-extraction algal residue PEAR as N source 23 in steam-flaked corn-based SFC beef cattle finishing diets on intake, duodenal flow, digestion, ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal parameters, and blood constituents were evaluated.
Ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers BW Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production. Antimicrobial resistant determinants ARDs can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria.
We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. Over unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers.
This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. Detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infections in young dairy and beef cattle in Poland. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus BRSV is a major contributor to bovine respiratory disease complex in dairy and beef calves, especially during the first year of life.
There is a lack of comprehensive information about the prevalence of infection in cattle herds in Poland as well as in European countries outside the European Union. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRSV infections in young beef and dairy cattle in southeastern Poland, a region that has direct contact with non-EU countries. The study confirmed the presence of BRSV infections in young cattle under 12 months of age from both dairy and beef herds. Findings from this study indicate a high prevalence of BRSV infections in cattle in Poland, which may have a significant influence on health status and animal performance.
The prevalence of infection is similar to that in other parts of Poland and other countries in Europe. Development of strategies to reduce BRSV infections is needed to improve health and productivity. Technical note: Use of a simplified equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate in beef cattle. This study was performed to clarify whether a formula Holstein equation based on a single blood sample and the isotonic, nonionic, iodine contrast medium iodixanol in Holstein dairy cows can apply to the estimation of glomerular filtration rate GFR for beef cattle. Blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and min after the injection, and the GFR was determined by the conventional multisample strategies.
The results indicate that the simplified Holstein equation using iodixanol can be used for estimating the GFR of beef cattle in the same dose regimen as Holstein dairy cows, and provides a practical and ethical alternative. The development in beef cattle manure of Petriedllidium boydii Shear Malloch, a potential pathogen for man and cattle. Petriellidium boydii Allescheria boydii dominated the mycoflora of manure samples form three beef cattle feedlots after incubation at room temperature for 4 months.
The possible dangers associated with this pathogenic fungus, which causes mycotic abortion in livestock, pulmonary allescheriasis in man, and mycetomas in both man and animals, are discussed. This fungus could create a health hazard in feedlots where in situ manure decompostion is encouraged. Study on contribution of local beef cattle enterprise on income of dryland farmers in Kupang Regency was conducted from September to December The study aimed to: 1 determine composition of farm household income in the dry land area of Kupang Regency, Indonesia, 2 analyze contribution of income from local beef cattle enterprise to farm household income.
A survey was done on 56 beef cattle farmers who were purposively selected as respondents. All respondents were interviewed using structured questioners with focus on farm household activities and their income. The results showed that total net income of farm household was Rp 14,, per year, out of this Rp3,, to Rp 5,, equals to To enhance the role of beef cattle enterprise, the owner should improve cattle husbandry management through providing good quality and quantity of feed continuously, as well as empowering livestock extension workers to deliver proper information and technology on beef cattle husbandry to the farmer.
The relationship between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef cattle. The objective was to study the relationships between the carcass characteristics and meat composition of young Simmental beef , classified with regard to conformation and degree of fatness scores, and total lipid content, depending on gender. For this purpose, 90 animals 60 male and 30 female Simmental beef cattle were analysed.
The results of the study showed that gender affected carcass measurement scores and chemical composition of meat through its important effect on overall animal fatness. Referring to correlations, male carcass conformation score was negatively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. On the other hand, slaughter weight, hot and cold carcass weight, dressing percentage and carcass conformation was positively related to fatness score, all of them being significant.
However, female carcass conformation score was positively related to slaughter weight, total lipid content and fatness score. Hot and cold carcass weights of female Simmental beef cattle were positively correlated to slaughter weight, total lipid content and carcass conformation score. Carcass conformation score and fatness score were affected by gender of young Simmental beef cattle. Economic impact of stable flies Diptera: Muscidae on dairy and beef cattle production. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L. Subsequently, several studies of effects of stable flies on beef cattle weight gain and feed efficiency have been published, and stable flies have become increasingly recognized as pests of cattle on pasture and range.
We analyzed published studies and developed yield-loss functions to relate stable fly infestation levels to cattle productivity, and then estimated the economic impact of stable flies on cattle production in the United States. Four industry sectors were considered: dairy, cow-calf, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle.
In studies reporting stable fly infestation levels of individual herds, median annual per animal production losses were estimated to be kg of milk for dairy cows, and 6, 26, and 9 kg body weight for preweanling calves, pastured stockers, and feeder cattle , respectively. The , stable flies emerging from an average sized winter hay feeding site reduce annual milk production of 50 dairy cows by an estimated kg and weight gain of 50 preweanling calves, stockers, or feeder cattle by 58, , or 84 kg.
Excluded from these estimates are effects of stable flies on feed conversion efficiency, animal breeding success, and effects of infested cattle on pasture and water quality. Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle : Large-scale epidemiological study in Estonia.
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from cattle , collected from farms in , for anti-T. Titer of was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution were defined as positive.
The apparent animal-level seroprevalence was At least one seropositive animal was found on The seroprevalence appeared to increase with age until five years months of age, but had no obvious pattern in the older animals. Animals of the local Estonian Red breed had higher odds to test seropositive than did animals of the Estonian Holstein breed.
Whether the farm focused on dairy or beef cattle was not associated with an animal testing T. The odds of finding at least one T. The results indicate that T. Association of bta-miRp with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of , after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, All sera collec The potential for zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp.
The objective of this study was to compare the occurrence and the genotypes and species of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. Pooled manure samples were collected from 45 dairy cattle farms and 30 beef cattle farms. The presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy, while nested-PCR and DNA sequencing were used to determine genotypes and species. However, on dairy cattle farms, G. Most Giardia isolates were identified as either the host-adapted genotype G. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium andersoni were the most frequently identified species in dairy cattle , while the non-zoonotic species Cryptosporidium ryanae and Cryptosporidium bovis were also found.
All Giardia isolates in beef cattle were identified as G. The results of this study indicate that although Giardia and Cryptosporidium were identified in a higher overall percentage of. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in La Pampa, Argentina. Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina La Pampa, province.
An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N. Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.
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Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0. The results revealed that dairy cows had 3. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. The risk of being N. These results reveal the distribution of N. Investigation of bovine tuberculosis outbreaks by using a trace-back system and molecular typing in Korean Hanwoo beef cattle. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic contagious disease responsible for major agricultural economic losses. Abattoir monitoring and trace-back systems are an appropriate method to control bovine tuberculosis, particularly in beef cattle.
In the present study, a trace-back system was applied to bovine tuberculosis cases in Korean native Hanwoo beef cattle. Bovine tuberculosis was detected in three index beef cattle during abattoir monitoring in Jeonbuk Province, Korea, and the original herds were traced back from each index cow. All cattle in each original herd were subjected to tuberculin skin test. The positive rates in the tuberculin skin test were Molecular typing by spoligotyping and the mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat assay revealed the genotype of the M.
The results suggest that tracing back from index cattle to the original herd is an effective method to control bovine tuberculosis in beef cattle. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle : a meta-analysis. Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane CH4 emissions from cattle.
Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Monensin reduced Ym from 5. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows Monensin treatment.
Prospect development of local beef cattle from South Kalimantan as supporting to food sovereignty in Indonesia. Indonesian local cattle is one of cattle the largest contributed the national meat production of ruminant particular group of cattle so that the livestock has the potential to be developed as a profitable business if doing of farmer.
One of advantages is potential areas in South Kalimantan mainly swamp lands was very large. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle. A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen N flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.
Manure and urine were collected over two Genetics of postweaning performance of beef cattle on forage. Increases in the costs of feed grains have revived interest in increasing the use of forages and grazing in order to either market as forage-finished beef or to produce heavy calves that will finish on less grain. However, little is known about the interactions of animal genetics and grazing enviro Modeling growth from weaning to maturity in beef cattle breeds.
To better understand growth trajectory and maturity differences between beef breeds, three models — Brody, spline, and quadratic — were fit to cow growth data, and resulting parameter estimates were evaluated for 3 breed categories — British, continental, and Brahman-influenced. The data were weight Parasites of the digestive tract in beef cattle imported from France to Italy. Beef cattle heads heads, 6 batches imported for fattening from France to Italy were examined.
Coprological qualitative and quantitative tests were performed, and the results analysed in relation to sex, breed, age, date of arrival, geographical origin French department in which the animal was bred , and gathering centre French department in which the animal was grouped with the others before travelling to Italy. The following parasites were identified: Eimeriidae overall prevalence All the observed parasites are widely reported in beef cattle either in Italy or in France. However, the seeming absence of Fasciola hepatica was unexpected, as well as the high prevalence of Paramphistomum spp.
The variables that appeared to be more linked to parasite epidemiology were sex, altitude of the geographical origin and season. ABSTRACT Exploring compositional and functional characteristics of the rumen microbiome can improve the understanding of its role in rumen function and cattle feed efficiency. Active bacterial and archaeal compositions were estimated based on 16S rRNAs, and active microbial metabolic functions including carbohydrate-active enzymes CAZymes were assessed based on mRNAs from the same metatranscriptomic data sets. In total, six bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, Cyanobacteria, and Synergistetes , eight bacterial families Succinivibrionaceae, Prevotellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Veillonellaceae, Spirochaetaceae, Dethiosulfovibrionaceae, and Mogibacteriaceae , four archaeal clades Methanomassiliicoccales, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, and Methanosphaera , metabolic pathways, and CAZymes were identified as core components of the active rumen microbiome.
As determined by comparative analysis, three bacterial families Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Veillonellaceae tended to be more abundant in low-feed-efficiency inefficient animals P cattle P 2 with a P value of cattle , while 2 metabolic pathways and 1 CAZyme were more abundant in efficient animals. These findings suggest that the rumen microbiomes of inefficient cattle have more diverse activities than those of efficient cattle , which. Genetics and genomics of reproductive performance in dairy and beef cattle.
Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance.
A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable 0. Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals e.
The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk dairy cattle and meat beef cattle yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased milk and meat yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible.
The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for. Abstract We developed a stochastic simulation model to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli OH7 O vaccination on key epidemiological outcomes.
The model evaluated a reduction in the O prevalence in feedlot cattle as well as concentration in cattle feces due to vaccination. The uncertainty and variability associated with the O contamination was explicitly modeled in production, slaughter, and consumption modules. Our results show that vaccination can have a significant benefit with respect to relevant outcomes such as 1 the number of human O illnesses due to the consumption of ground beef , 2 the number of production lots with high O contamination levels, 3 the likelihood of detection by U.
Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service testing, and 4 the probability of multiple illnesses due to ground beef servings from the same lot. These results show that these outcomes are strongly impacted by preharvest vaccination. For example, if the vaccine is used so as to reduce the prevalence of E. The analysis shows that resulting reduction in the number of shedding animals and the reduced concentration of E.
An outcomes model to evaluate risks and benefits of Escherichia coli vaccination in beef cattle. We developed a stochastic simulation model to evaluate the impact of Escherichia coli OH7 O vaccination on key epidemiological outcomes. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia. A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones AEZs of Cambodia.
In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs.
The body condition score of all cattle types was 3. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.
Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia. Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia.
In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia.
Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and. Beef carcass contamination is a direct result of pathogen transfer from cattle hides harboring organisms such as enterohemorrhagic E. Hide contamination occurs from direct and indirect fecal contamination in cattle production and lairage environments. In each of these environments, individua The accuracies of DNA-based estimates of genetic merit derived from Angus or multibreed beef cattle training populations.
Several organizations have developed prediction models for molecular breeding values MBV for quantitative growth and carcass traits in beef cattle using BovineSNP50 genotypes and phenotypic or EBV data. Polymorphisms in POMC are not associated with dry matter intake and average daily gain phenotypes in beef cattle.
The cost of feed for beef cattle is the largest expense incurred by cattle producers. The ability to genetically select for more efficient animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production will result in a substantial cost savings. The purpose of this study was to Public opinion towards castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production.
Recent publications have shown that citizens in developing nations are gaining interest in farm animal welfare. The aims of this study were to assess the opinion of Chilean citizens about surgical castration without anaesthesia and lack of access to pasture in beef cattle production, to investigate how involvement in livestock production influences opinions, and to evaluate if different types of information would affect their opinion towards these management practices.
The study was carried out in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, and consisted of two surveys with participants in each study. The first one used an online, self-administered questionnaire and the second one used a face to face questionnaire. The second questionnaire had four information treatments assigned randomly to survey participants no information; negative information; negative and positive information; positive information.
Most participants were aware that the two management practices are common in beef production systems and were opposed to them. Involvement in animal production was associated with greater acceptance of both management practices and participants that had visited a beef production farm before the study were more likely to support castration without anaesthesia in Survey 1. Belonging to any socioeconomic group and providing negative or positive information had no impact on participants' opinion.
The results show a disconnection between the views of participants recruited for this study and beef production systems that do not provide pain control for male cattle surgical castration or provide little or no access to pasture. A review of Neospora caninum in dairy and beef cattle — a Canadian perspective. Abstract Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in cows. The occurrence of N. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of N. The review covers the life cycle of the agent, its mechanisms of transmission, clinical signs, and tests for diagnosing the infection.
Data on the prevalence of the infection in Canadian dairy and beef cattle are reviewed and briefly compared with estimates from other parts of the world. Most importantly for Canadian bovine practitioners, the impacts of the infection, risk factors for its occurrence, and methods of control are also discussed. By reviewing the scientific literature on N. The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.
Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals i. The transport of pharmaceuticals from animal manure in surface runoff and soil leachate was relatively low and appears to be limited by desorption and transport of pharmaceuticals entrained in the manure. In surface runoff, less than 4. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface runoff and leachate never exceeded 0.
Based on the minimal transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin, the risk of significant transport for these targeted beef cattle pharmaceuticals to surface water and groundwater from manure on irrigated pasture appears to be relatively low. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin via surface runoff and leachate from manure amended to grass-vegetated soil boxes under irrigated pasture conditions.
Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes. Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals.
Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle , and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score 0 to 4. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI.
Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI. BILL E. The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies e. Dietary mineral concentrations often considered adequate for maximum growth, reproductive performance, or optimal immune function have been found to be insufficient at times of physiological stress weaning, transport, comingling, etc.
The impacts of these deficiencies on beef cattle health are not apparent until calves have been subjected to these stressors. Health problems that are exacerbated by mineral or vitamin deficiencies include bovine respiratory disease, footrot, retained placenta, metritis, and mastitis. Many micronutrients have antioxidant properties through being components of enzymes and proteins that benefit animal health. In dairy cattle , high levels of supplemental Zn are generally associated with reduced somatic cell counts and improved foot health, possibly reflecting the importance of Zn in maintaining effective epithelial barriers.
Neutrophils isolated from ruminants deficient in Cu or Se have reduced ability to kill ingested bacteria in vitro. Supplemental vitamin E, in its role as an intracellular antioxidant has been shown to decrease morbidity in stressed calves. There is more understanding of the important biological role that these nutrients play in the functioning of the complex and multifaceted immune system.
However, there is still much to be learned about determining the micronutrient status of herds and hence. Deciphering signature of selection affecting beef quality traits in Angus cattle. Angus cattle are among the famous cattle breeds developed for superior beef quality. This paper aimed at exploring genomic regions under selection in Angus cattle that are associated with meat quality traits and other associated phenotypes.
As a result, and genes were revealed under selection from A-H and A-J comparisons, respectively. Several pathways associated with meat quality traits insulin signaling, type II diabetes mellitus pathway, focal adhesion pathway, and ECM-receptor interaction , and feeding efficiency olfactory transduction, tight junction, and metabolic pathways were enriched. Genes affecting beef quality traits e. The study identified genes and pathways that are related to meat quality traits and other phenotypes of Angus cattle. The findings in this study, after validation using additional or independent dataset, will provide useful information for the study of Angus cattle in particular and beef cattle in general.
The nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle before and after transport to a feedlot. The nasopharyngeal NP microbiota plays an important role in bovine health, comprising a rich and diverse microbial community. The nasopharynx is also the niche for potentially pathogenic agents which are associated with bovine respiratory disease BRD , a serious and costly illness in feedlot cattle. We used 14 beef heifers from a closed and disease-free herd to assess the dynamics of the NP microbiota of cattle that are transported to a feedlot.
Cattle were sampled prior to transport to the feedlot day 0 and at days 2, 7, and This study investigated the effect that feedlot placement has on the NP microbiota of beef cattle over a d period. Within two days of transport to the feedlot, the NP microbiota changed significantly, increasing in both phylogenetic diversity and richness.
These results demonstrate that there is an abrupt shift in the NP microbiota of cattle after transportation to a feedlot. This may have importance for understanding why cattle are most susceptible to BRD after feedlot placement. Producer attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in beef cattle in Tennessee. To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and management practices involving antimicrobial use among Tennessee beef producers. Mail survey. A population-based, stratified random sample of 3, beef producers across the state.
Questionnaires were mailed to beef producers. Questions focused on producer practices related to education, biosecurity, veterinary use, and the purchase and use of antimicrobials. Operation types were categorized as either cow-calf only or multiple operation type MOT. Associations between various factors and antimicrobial use were evaluated by use of multivariable logistic regression, with the outcome variable being any antimicrobial use injectable or by mouth in the past year. Of 3, questionnaires mailed, 1, A significantly higher proportion of producers with MOTs reported giving antimicrobials by mouth or by injection than did producers with cow-calf only operations.
In addition, higher proportions of producers with MOTs than producers with cow-calf only operations reported treating with macrolides, florfenicol, ceftiofur, and aminoglycosides. Results suggested that producers who engaged in more progressive farming practices were also more likely to use antimicrobials. Incorporating training on judicious antimicrobial use into educational programs would likely increase awareness of best management practices regarding antimicrobial use.
Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef. The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o Effect of castration and carcass suspension method on the quality and fatty acid profile of beef from male dairy cattle.
The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages; however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physicochemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian HF bull and steer beef. HF steer beef had higher redness, yellowness and chroma values, whereas bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss at different ageing times, moisture, and insoluble and total collagen were higher for HF bull beef , whereas intramuscular fat, soluble collagen and collagen solubility were higher for steer beef.
For young dairy cattle , steer beef would likely have superior eating quality but a relatively less favourable nutritional fatty acid profile to bull beef. Suspension method affected the tenderness and colour intensity of dairy steer beef at different ageing times. Evaluation of a functional variant assay for selecting beef cattle. A commercially available genotyping assay for functional variants was chosen to obtain genotypes needed for a selection experiment in populations of pedigreed cattle that have not been extensively genotyped.
Genomewide association study of methane emissions in Angus beef cattle with validation in dairy cattle. There has been substantial effort from the livestock scientific community toward tools that can help reduce this percentage. One approach is to select for lower emitting animals.