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The forecourt is still supported by the m wide Pergamon Bridge. Byzantines converted the temple into a Christian church dedicated to St John, but was subsequently destroyed. In , Humann was in charge of the Istanbul-Izmir railroad, when a worker brought him a fragment of the frieze from the Pergamon site. Humann took the artifact to Conze, a museum curator in Berlin, who recognized its importance, and the Ottomans granted permission to excavate in The German Institute of Archaeology took over the excavations in , and the excavations have continued to the present day, interrupted only by the two World Wars.

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He ruled not only Babylonia, but the entire enormous eastern part of Alexander's empire, as described by Appian:Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations, strong in arms and persuasive in council, he acquired Mesopotamia , Armenia,'Seleucid' Cappadocia , Parthia, Arabia, Sogdia , Arachosia and other adjacent peoples, subdued by Alexander, as far as the river Indus, so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander; the whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus. Chandragupta conquered the Nanda Empire in Magadha , relocated to the capital of Pataliputra.

Chandragupta redirected his attention back to the Indus and by BC he conquered the remaining Greek satraps left by Alexander. Expecting a confrontation, Seleucid marched to the Indus, it is said that Chandragupta himself fielded an army of 9, war elephants. Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory, sealed in a treaty, west of the Indus, including the Hindu Kush, modern day Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan.

Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka , are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. According to Appian : He [Sel. Lysimachus was born to a family of Thessalian Greek stock, he was the second son of his wife. Lysimachus and his brothers grew up with the status of Macedonians ; the historian Justin relates the story that Lysimachus smuggled poison to a person Alexander had condemned to a slow death and was himself thrown to a lion as punishment, but overcame the beast with his bare hands and became one of Alexander's favorites..

Some coins issued during Lysimachus's appointment had his image on a lion on the other, he was appointed Somatophylax during the reign of Philip II. During Alexander's Persian campaigns, in BC he was one of his immediate bodyguards. In BC, in Susa , he was crowned in recognition for his actions in India. After Alexander's death in BC, he was appointed to the government of Thrace as strategos although he faced some difficulties from the Thracian Dynasty Seuthes. However, he managed to consolidate his power in the east of his territories, suppressing a revolt of the cities on the Black Sea coast.

In BC, he founded Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the Chersonese with the mainland, forming a bulwark against the Odrysians. In BC, when the second alliance between Cassander and Seleucus was made, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance. On the approach of Antigonus he retired into winter quarters near Heraclea , marrying its widowed queen Amastris , a Persian princess. Antigonus' dominions were divided among the victors.

Lysimachus' share was Lydia, Ionia and the north coast of Asia Minor. Feeling that Seleucus was becoming dangerously powerful, Lysimachus now allied himself with Ptolemy , marrying his daughter Arsinoe II of Egypt. Amastris, who had divorced herself from him, returned to Heraclea; when Antigonus' son Demetrius I renewed hostilities, during his absence in Greece , Lysimachus seized his towns in Asia Minor, but in BC concluded a peace whereby Demetrius was recognized as ruler of Macedonia. He tried to carry his power beyond the Danube , but was defeated and taken prisoner by the Getae king Dromichaetes , however, set him free in BC on amicable terms in return for Lysimachus surrendering the Danubian lands he had captured.

Demetrius subsequently threatened Thrace, but had to retire due to a sudden uprising in Boeotia and an attack from King Pyrrhus of Epirus. Lysimachus left Pyrrhus in possession of Macedonia with the title of king for around seven months before Lysimachus invaded. For a short while the two ruled jointly but in BC Lysimachus expelled Pyrrhus, seizing complete control for himself. Amastris had been murdered by her two sons. On his return, Arsinoe II asked the gift of Heraclea, he granted her request, though he had promised to free the city. Many of the cities of Asia Minor revolted, his most trusted friends deserted him; the widow of Agathocles and their children fled to Seleucus, who at once invaded the territory of Lysimachus in Asia Minor.

After some days his body was found on the field, protected from birds of prey by his faithful dog. Lysimachus' body was given over to Alexander, by whom it was interred at Lysimachia. Lysimachus was married three times and his wives were: First marriage: Nicaea , a Greek noblewoman and daughter of the powerful Regent Antipater. Lysimachus and Nicaea married in c. Second marriage: Persian Princess Amastris.

Lysimachus married her in BC. Caria Caria was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia south to Lycia and east to Phrygia. The Ionian and Dorian Greeks colonized the west of it and joined the Carian population in forming Greek-dominated states there; the inhabitants of Caria, known as Carians , had arrived there before the Dorian Greeks.

They were described by Herodotus as being of Minoan Greek descent, while the Carians themselves maintained that they were Anatolian mainlanders intensely engaged in seafaring and were akin to the Mysians and the Lydians ; the Carians did speak an Anatolian language, known as Carian, which does not reflect their geographic origin, as Anatolian once may have been widespread. Associated with the Carians were the Leleges , which could be an earlier name for Carians or for a people who had preceded them in the region and continued to exist as part of their society in a reputedly second-class status.

Cramer's detailed catalog of Carian towns in classical Greece is based on ancient sources. The multiple names of towns and geomorphic features, such as bays and headlands, reveal an ethnic layering consistent with the known colonization. In the vicinity is Naziandus, exact location unknown. On the tip of the Bodrum Peninsula is Termera, on the other side Ceramicus Sinus, it "was crowded with numerous towns. These with Myndus and Synagela constitute the eight Lelege towns. On the north coast of the Ceramicus Sinus is Ceramus and Bargasus.

At the base of the peninsula is Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names, the Bybassia Chersonnese, had been derived. It was now Doulopolis. There are three bays in it: Bubassius and Schoenus , the last enclosing the town of Hyda. On the south shore is Onugnathos Promontory, opposite Symi. Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River.

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On the other side is Caunus , with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos between. Other Carian towns in the gulf are Lydae and Aenus. At the base of the east end of Latmus near Euromus , near Milas where the current village Selimiye is, was the district of Euromus or Eurome Europus Idrieus and Chrysaoris. The name Chrysaoris once applied to all of Caria, its towns are Tauropolis and Chrysaoris. These were all incorporated into Mylasa.

Connected to the latter by a sacred way is Labranda. Further inland towards Aydin is Alabanda , noted for its marble and its scorpions , Coscinia or Coscinus on the upper Maeander and Halydienses, Alinda or Alina. At the confluence of the Maeander and the Harpasus is Harpasa.

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At the confluence of the Maeander and the Orsinus, Corsymus or Corsynus is Antioch on the Maeander and on the Orsinus in the mountains a border town with Phrygia , Gordiutichos near Geyre. Founded by the Leleges and called Ninoe it became Megalopolis and Aphrodisias , sometime capital of Caria. Other towns on the Orsinus are Plarasa. Tabae was at various times attributed to Phrygia and Caria and seems to have been occupied by mixed nationals. Caria comprises the headwaters of the Indus and Eriya or Eriyus and Thabusion on the border with the small state of Cibyra.

Caria arose as a Neo-Hittite kingdom around the 11th century BC; the coast of Caria was part of the Doric hexapolis when the Dorians arrived after the Trojan War , in c. Herodotus , the famous historian was born in Halicarnassus during the 5th century BC. Greek apoikism. Battle of Corupedium The Battle of Corupedium called Corupedion or Curupedion is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi , the rival successors to Alexander the Great.

Lysimachus had ruled Thrace for decades and parts of modern western Turkey since the Battle of Ipsus , he had gained control over Macedon. Nothing is known about the battle itself save that Seleucus won the battle. Lysimachus died during the fighting. Although the victory gave Seleucus nominal control over nearly every part of Alexander's empire, save the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt , his victory was short-lived. After crossing the Hellespont to take possession of Lysimachus' European holdings not long after the battle, Seleucus was assassinated by Ptolemy Keraunos and Macedon swiftly became independent once again.

Known to history since the records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire in the Late Bronze Age , it was populated by speakers of the Luwian language group. Written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language after Lycia's involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid Empire in the Iron Age.

At that time the Luwian speakers were decimated, Lycia received an influx of Persian speakers.

Attalid dynasty

Ancient sources seem to indicate. Lycia fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars , but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks , it became intermittently a free agent. After a brief membership in the Athenian Empire , it seceded and became independent, was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria , returned to the Persians, fell under Macedonian hegemony upon the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great.

Due to the influx of Greek speakers and the sparsity of the remaining Lycian speakers, Lycia was Hellenized under the Macedonians , the Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage. In these latter stages of the Roman republic Lycia came to enjoy freedom as a Roman protectorate ; the Romans validated home rule under the Lycian League in BC.

This native government was an early federation with republican principles. Despite home rule, Lycia had not been since its defeat by the Carians. In 43 AD the Roman emperor Claudius dissolved the league, Lycia was incorporated into the Roman Empire with provincial status, it became an eparchy of the Eastern, or Byzantine Empire , continuing to speak Greek after being joined by communities of Turkish language speakers in the early 2nd millennium. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century, Lycia was under the Ottoman Empire , was inherited by the Turkish Republic on the fall of that empire.

The Greek and Turkish population was exchanged when the border between Greece and Turkey was negotiated in The borders of Lycia varied over time, but at its centre was the Teke peninsula of southwestern Turkey, which juts southward into the Mediterranean Sea, bounded on the west by the Gulf of Fethiye , on the east by the Gulf of Antalya. In ancient times the surrounding districts were, from west to east, Caria and Pamphylia , all as ancient, each speaking its own Anatolian language; the name of the Teke Peninsula comes from the former name of Antalya Province, Teke Province, named from the Turkish tribe that settled in the region.

Four ridges extend from northeast to southwest forming the western extremity of the Taurus Mountains. This is a low range peaking at about 2, m. This massif may have been ancient Mount Cragus. It is most the ancient Masicytus range. The two lakes are dry, the waters being captured on an ongoing basis by irrigation systems for the trees; the Aedesa once drained the plain through a chasm to the east, but now flows through pipelines covering the same route, but emptying into the water supplies of Arycanda and Arif.

He was the first cousin once removed and the adoptive son of Eumenes I , whom he succeeded, was the first of the Attalid dynasty to assume the title of king in BC, he was the son of his wife Antiochis. Attalus won an important victory over the Galatians , newly arrived Celtic tribes from Thrace , who had been, for more than a generation and exacting tribute throughout most of Asia Minor without any serious check; this victory, celebrated by the triumphal monument at Pergamon and the liberation from the Gallic "terror" which it represented, earned for Attalus the name of "Soter", the title of "king".

A courageous and capable general and loyal ally of Rome , he played a significant role in the first and second Macedonian Wars , waged against Philip V of Macedon , he conducted numerous naval operations, harassing Macedonian interests throughout the Aegean , winning honors, collecting spoils, gaining for Pergamon possession of the Greek islands of Aegina during the first war, Andros during the second, twice narrowly escaping capture at the hands of Philip. Attalus was a protector of the Greek cities of Anatolia and viewed himself as the champion of Greeks against barbarians.

During his reign he established Pergamon as a considerable power in the Greek East , he died in BC, shortly before the end of the second war, at the age of 72, having suffered an apparent stroke while addressing a Boeotian war council some months before. He and his wife were admired for their rearing of their four sons, he was succeeded as king by his son Eumenes II. Little is known about Attalus' early life, he was born a Greek, the son of Attalus, Antiochis.


The elder Attalus was the son of a brother of both Philetaerus , the founder of the Attalid dynasty, Eumenes , the father of Eumenes I, Philetaerus' successor. Attalus was a young child when his father died, sometime before BC, after which he was adopted by Eumenes I, the incumbent dynast. Attalus' mother, was related to the Seleucid royal family with her marriage to Attalus' father arranged by Philetaerus to solidify his power. This would be consistent with the conjecture that Attalus' father had been Philetaerus' heir designate, but was succeeded by Eumenes, since Attalus I was too young when his father died.

According to the 2nd century AD Greek writer Pausanias , "the greatest of his achievements" was the defeat of the "Gauls". Pausanias was referring to the Galatians, immigrant Celts from Thrace, who had settled in Galatia in central Asia Minor, whom the Romans and Greeks called Gauls, associating them with the Celts of what is now France and northern Italy. Since the time of Philetaerus, the first Attalid ruler, the Galatians had posed a problem for Pergamon, indeed for all of Asia Minor, by exacting tributes to avoid war or other repercussions.

Eumenes I had, along with other rulers, dealt with the Galatians by paying these tributes. Attalus however refused being the first such ruler to do so; as a consequence, the Galatians set out to attack Pergamon. The victory brought Attalus legendary fame.

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A story arose, related by Pausanias, of an oracle who had foretold these events a generation earlier: Then verily, having crossed the narrow strait of the Hellespont , The devastating host of the Gauls shall pipe. For right soon the son of Cronos Shall raise a helper, the dear son of a bull reared by Zeus Who on all the Gauls shall bring a day of destruction. Pausanias adds that by "son of a bull" the oracle "meant Attalus, king of Pergamon , styled bull-horned".

On the acropolis of Pergamon was erected a triumphal monument, which included the famous sculpture the Dying Gaul , commemorating this battle. Several years after the first victory over the Gauls, Pergamon was again attacked by the Gauls together with their ally Antiochus Hierax , the younger brother of Seleucus II Callinicus , ruler of Seleucid Asia Minor from his capital at Sardis. Attalus defeated the Gauls and Antiochus at the battle of Aphrodisium and again at a second battle in the east.

Subsequent battles were fought and won against Antiochus alone: in Hellespontine Phrygia , where Antiochus was seeking refuge with his father-in law, Ziaelas the king of Bithynia. He was able to hold on to these gains in the face of repeated attempts by Seleucus III Ceraunus , eldest son and successor of Seleucus II , to recover the lost territory, culminating in Seleucus III himself crossing the Taurus , only to be assassinated by members of his army in BC.

Online The Sanctuary Of Demeter At Pergamon Architecture And Dynasty In The Early Attalid Capital

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kingdom of Pergamon. Alexander to Actium, pp. Ancient Greece. History Geography. City states Politics Military. Apella Ephor Gerousia. Synedrion Koinon. List of ancient Greeks. Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants. Society Culture. Greek colonisation. Category Portal Outline. The division of Alexander's empire. Hellenistic rulers. Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos. Hellenistic rulers were preceded by Hellenistic satraps in most of their territories. History of Anatolia. Categories : States and territories established in the 3rd century BC States and territories disestablished in the 2nd century BC Attalid dynasty Dynasty genealogy.

Related Images. YouTube Videos. The reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon. The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art. Hellenistic period. Dionysus sculpture from the Ancient Art Collection at Yale. Philip V , "the darling of Hellas", wearing the royal diadem. The Colossus of Rhodes , one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The " Capitoline Brutus ", a bust possibly depicting Lucius Junius Brutus , who led the revolt against Rome's last king and was a founder of the Republic.

Pyrrhus was a brave and chivalrous general who fascinated the Romans, hence his presence in a Roman house. Coin of Seleucus I Nicator. In Bactria , the satrap Diodotus asserted independence to form the Greco-Bactrian kingdom c. Drachm of the Frataraka ruler Vahbarz Oborzos , thought to have initiated the independence of Persis from the Seleucid Empire.