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Pro Milone. In Pisonem. Pro Scauro. Pro Fonteio. Pro Rabirio Postumo. Pro Marcello. Pro Ligario. Pro Rege Deiotaro. In Fasti , Ovid 43 BCE—17 CE sets forth explanations of the festivals and sacred rites that were noted on the Roman calendar, and relates in graphic detail the legends attached to specific dates. The poem is an invaluable source of information about religious practices. De Vita Beata. De Otio. De Tranquillitate Animi. De Brevitate Vitae. De Consolatione ad Polybium. De Consolatione ad Helviam. Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines.

Callistratus, Descriptions. Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus born c. Fourteen descriptions of statues in stone or bronze attributed to Callistratus were probably written in the fourth century CE. Dio Chrysostomus c. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE. The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings.

Its subject matter consists of almost any topic, excluding only the scurrilous and obscene. The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear. The Little Carthaginian. The Rope. On the Confusion of Tongues.

On the Migration of Abraham. Who Is the Heir of Divine Things? On Mating with the Preliminary Studies. The letters of Saint Jerome c. The Two Gallieni. The Thirty Pretenders. The Deified Claudius. The Deified Aurelian. Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. Carus, Carinus and Numerian. This is the first of two volumes giving a selection of Greek papyri relating to private and public business. Most were found in rubbish heaps or remains of ancient houses or in tombs in Egypt.

From such papyri we get much information about administration and social and economic conditions in Egypt, and about native Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Byzantine law, as well as glimpses of ordinary life. This volume contains: Agreements 71 examples ; these concern marriage, divorce, adoption, apprenticeship, sales, leases, employment of labourers. Receipts Wills 6.

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Deed of disownment. Personal letters from men and women, young and old Memoranda 2. Invitations 5. Orders for payment 2. Agenda 2. Accounts and inventories Questions of oracles 3. Christian prayers 2. A Gnostic charm. Horoscopes 2. Letters, Volume IV: Letters On Greek Literature. The three surviving works by Sextus Empiricus c. Their value as a source for the history of thought is especially that they represent development and formulation of former skeptic doctrines. On Flight and Finding. On the Change of Names.

On Dreams. It also echoes poets, especially Virgil, and employs techniques traditional in Latin epic. Library of History, Volume I: Books Books 1—5 and 11—20 survive complete, the rest in fragments. Greek papyri relating to private and public business in Egypt from before BCE to the eighth century CE inform us about administration; social and economic conditions in Egypt; Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine law.

They also offer glimpses of ordinary life. Elegies on Maecenas. Calpurnius Siculus. Laus Pisonis. Einsiedeln Eclogues. Duff, J. Wight Duff, Arnold M. Works such as those of the mime-writer Publilius Syrus , who flourished c. Athenian Constitution. Eudemian Ethics. Virtues and Vices.

Gaius Valerius Flaccus flourished c. Valerius effectively rehandles the story already told by Apollonius Rhodius , recalls Virgilian language and thought, displays learning, and alludes to contemporary Rome. Metaphysics, Volume II: Books Magna Moralia. On the Soul. Parva Naturalia. On Breath. In Secret History , the Byzantine historian Procopius late fifth century to after CE attacks the sixth century CE emperor Justinian and empress Theodora and alleges their ruinous effect on the Roman empire.

Celsus , a layman, provides in On Medicine more information about the condition of medical science up to his own time probably first century CE than any other author. Book 1 is on Greek schools of medicine and dietetics; Book 2 on prognosis, diagnosis, and general therapeutics; Book 3 on internal ailments; Book 4 on local bodily diseases. Epic Fragments. Quintus Ennius — , widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits.

He inspired major developments in Roman religion, social organization, and popular culture. Extant works by Sidonius born c.

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Against Androtion. Against Aristocrates. Against Timocrates. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2. Ammianus c. History of Rome, Volume X: Books The Passing of Peregrinus. The Runaways. Toxaris or Friendship. The Dance. The Mistaken Critic. The Parliament of the Gods. The Tyrannicide. Book 5 is on treatment by drugs of general diseases, Book 6 on treatment by drugs of local diseases. Greek Questions. Greek and Roman Parallel Stories. On the Fortune of the Romans. On the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander. Moralia, Volume V: Isis and Osiris. The E at Delphi. The Obsolescence of Oracles.

Minor Works: On Colours. On Things Heard. On Plants. On Marvellous Things Heard. Mechanical Problems. On Indivisible Lines. The Situations and Names of Winds. On Melissus, Xenophanes, Gorgias. Antiphon of Athens, born c. Of his fifteen extant works three concern real murder cases. The others are academic exercises.

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Andocides of Athens, born c. Of his four extant speeches, Against Alcibiades is doubtful. Against Physicists. Against Ethicists. Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius , Caecilius , Livius Andronicus , Naevius , Pacuvius , Accius , Lucilius , and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions.

Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought. Problems, Volume II: Books Rhetoric to Alexander. Roman Antiquities, Volume I: Books Of the twenty books from the earliest times to BCE we have the first nine complete; most of 10 and 11; extracts; and an epitome of the whole. On the Decalogue. On the Special Laws, Books Moralia, Volume X: Love Stories. To an Uneducated Ruler. Precepts of Statecraft.

On Monarchy, Democracy, and Oligarchy. That We Ought Not to Borrow. Parts of Animals. Movement of Animals. Progression of Animals. In Catilinam Pro Murena. Pro Sulla. Pro Flacco. On Interpretation. Prior Analytics. Three-Dollar Day. The Tale of a Traveling-Bag. The Twelve Tables. Topics included are the mathematics and metrology of the universe; world geography and ethnography; human anthropology and physiology; zoology; botany, agriculture, and horticulture; medicine; minerals, fine arts, and gemstones.

Excerpta Valesiana. Greek mathematics from the sixth century BCE to the fourth century CE is represented by the work of, e. On Moral Virtue. On the Control of Anger. On Tranquility of Mind. On Brotherly Love. On Affection for Offspring. On the Special Laws, Book 4. On the Virtues. On Rewards and Punishments. In On Buildings , the Byzantine historian Procopius late fifth century to after CE describes the churches, public buildings, fortifications, and bridges Justinian erected throughout his empire, from the Church of St.

Sophia in Constantinople to city walls at Carthage. The work is richly informative about architecture of the sixth century CE. On the Orator: Book 3. On Fate. Stoic Paradoxes. Divisions of Oratory. Eight works or parts of works were ascribed to Manetho , a third century BCE Egyptian, all on history and religion and all apparently in Greek. In Neaeram. Fragments of ancient literature, from the seventh to the third century BCE, found on papyri in Egypt include examples of tragedy; satyr drama; Old, Middle, and New Comedy; mime; lyric, elegiac, iambic, and hexametric poetry.

Columella first century CE included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture , but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy. Every Good Man is Free. On the Contemplative Life. On the Eternity of the World. Against Flaccus. Apology for the Jews. On Providence. Jewish Antiquities, Volume V: Books History of Alexander, Volume I: Books The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and Natural History, Volume V: Books Roman Antiquities, Volume V: Books Concerning the Team of Horses.

Against Callimachus. Against Lochites. Against Euthynus. Erotic Essay. On the Embassy to Gaius. General Indexes. Alciphron, Aelian, and Philostratus: The Letters. The fictitious, highly literary Letters of Alciphron second century CE are mostly to invented characters. The Letters of Farmers by Aelian c. The Erotic Epistles of Philostratus perhaps born c. Library of History, Volume V: Books On Invention. The Best Kind of Orator. Daily Round. Divinity of Christ. Origin of Sin. Fight for Mansoul.

Against Symmachus 1. Prudentius born CE used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity. Library of History, Volume X: Books Lycurgus was with Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian faction. But Dinarchus favored an oligarchy under Macedonian control and Demades supported the Macedonian cause too.

Against Symmachus 2. Crowns of Martyrdom. Scenes From History. On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos. Alexandrian War. African War. Spanish War. African War and Spanish War are detailed accounts clearly by officers who had shared in the campaigns. But most recent editors attribute it to an unknown author. Julius Obsequens. On Compliancy. On Envy and Hate. On Praising Oneself Inoffensively. On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance. On the Sign of Socrates. On Exile. Consolation to His Wife. On the Principle of Cold.

Beasts Are Rational. On the Eating of Flesh. On Trees. City of God, Volume V: Books Natural History, Volume X: Books Aetia, Iambi, Hecale and Other Fragments. Hero and Leander. Callimachus Musaeus Trypanis, C. Gelzer, T. Whitman, Cedric H. Hero and Leander by Musaeus fifth or sixth century CE is a short epic poem. Dialogue on Love. Causes of Natural Phenomena. Reply to Colotes in Defence of the Other Philosophers. Is "Live Unknown" a Wise Precept? On Music.

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How to Write History. The Dipsads. Herodotus or Aetion. Zeuxis or Antiochus. A Slip of the Tongue in Greeting. Apology for the "Salaried Posts in Great Houses. A Conversation with Hesiod.

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The Scythian or The Consul. Hermotimus or. Dialogues of the Dead. Dialogues of the Sea-Gods. Dialogues of the Gods. Dialogues of the Courtesans. Lucius or The Ass. Dicta Catonis. Rutilius Namatianus. In Tetrabiblos , a core text in the history of astrology, the preeminent ancient astronomer Ptolemy c. From the same period come the lively fables in Latin verse written by Phaedrus , which satirize social and political life in Augustan Rome.

History of Animals, Volume I: Books Ennead I. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry , who published them sometime between and CE in six sets of nine treatises each Enneads , with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles. In On the Characteristics of Animals , Aelian c. Pro Caelio. De Provinciis Consularibus. Pro Balbo. Natural Questions, Volume I: Books Seneca c. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere; in 2, lightning and thunder; in 3, bodies of water.

Libanius — CE , who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE. His works include Orations , the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters. History of the Empire, Volume I: Books The History of Herodian born c. Ancient Testimonia. Eusebius's Reply to Hierocles. Unidentified Fragments. Bacchylides wrote masterful choral poetry of many types. Letters to Quintus and Brutus. Letter Fragments. Letter to Octavian. Handbook of Electioneering.

Two invective speeches linked with Cicero are probably anonymous exercises. The Letter to Octavian likely dates from the third or fourth century CE. The Handbook of Electioneering was said to be written by Quintus to Cicero. Declamations, Volume I: Controversiae, Books Seneca the Elder? Dionysius of Halicarnassus , born c. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors.

Letters to Ammaeus and Pompeius. Cornelius Nepos c.

Exhibitions and Events

Extant are parts of his De Viris Illustribus , including biographies of mostly Greek military commanders and of two Latin historians, Cato and Atticus. In Astronomica first century CE , the earliest extant treatise we have on astrology, Manilius provides an account of celestial phenomena and the signs of the Zodiac. He also gives witty character sketches of persons born under particular constellations. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. Books 1 and 2 are concerned with generation, sprouting, flowering and fruiting, and the effects of climate. Diseases 3.

Internal Affections. In Books 3 and 4, Theophrastus studies cultivation and agricultural methods. In Books 5 and 6, he discusses plant breeding; diseases and other causes of death; and distinctive flavours and odours. Letters Places in Man. Prorrhetic Use of Liquids. Haemorrhoids and Fistulas. Children of Heracles. Nemean Odes. Isthmian Odes. Wasps satirizes Athenian enthusiasm for jury service. Peace is a rollicking attack on war-makers. Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius 14—37 CE. Homeric Hymns. Homeric Apocrypha.

Lives of Homer. Genealogical epic of that archaic era includes poems that create prehistories for Corinth and Samos. These works are an important source of mythological record. Thebaid, Volume II: Books The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian. The collection originally consisted of sample cases for legal training. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education.

Over forty of his plays were read in antiquity, from which nearly a thousand fragments survive. The Shield. Catalogue of Women. Other Fragments. Though attributed to Hesiod eighth or seventh century BC in antiquity, the Catalogue of Women , a presentation of legendary Greek heroes and episodes according to maternal genealogy; The Shield , a counterpoint to the Iliadic shield of Achilles; and certain poems that survive as fragments were likely not composed by Hesiod himself.

Fragments: Oedipus-Chrysippus. Hellenistic Collection: Philitas. Alexander of Aetolia. Works by authors such as Philitas of Cos , Alexander of Aetolia , Hermesianax of Colophon , Euphorion of Chalcis and, especially, Parthenius of Nicaea , who composed the mythograpical Sufferings in Love , represent rich inventiveness in Hellenistic prose and poetry from the fourth to the first century BCE. How else might the sensorium be divided for purposes of cultural analysis? In so far as a major impetus behind the sensorial revolution was to liberate the study of sense perception from the psychology laboratory and insert it back into society by insisting on the historicity and sociality of sensation Bull et al , it has succeeded.

One of these concerns theorizing the aforementioned interactivity of the senses. Consider the following quotation from an essay by Renaissance literary scholar Bruce R. Smith, in which he reflects on the principles that hold the field of sound studies together. Smith writes,. At the same time, there is a problem with the kind of boundary work this passage is doing.

This observation illustrates how the interface of the senses here, sight and hearing deserves no less attention than their specificity as modalities of apperception. Put another way, charting the relations among the senses, and how these shift over time, should occupy us no less than seeking to fathom the depths of each of the senses in any given historical period or culture. To cite another example, the ancients following Aristotle viewed taste as a form of touch whereas in the modern period taste is commonly seen as most closely connected to smell.

Mark Smith has signalled the centrality of this concept to future research in sensory studies. It helps to think of each of these dyads as describing a continuum. Thus, for instance, the senses may be arranged and deployed: a more or less synergetically, b more or less hierarchically, and c more or less interconnectedly, depending on the context and the culture concerned. This is given in the way most objects and events affect multiple senses at the same time. At the opposite pole there is the careful sequencing of sensations that occurs in certain ritual contexts, such as the Japanese tea ceremony Howes ch.

While the image of the knot is suggestive, it cannot stand alone. A more refined and extensive vocabulary is needed. Fortunately, there are some terms already at hand, and new terms being developed, which can help describe and analyze the many different forms of interrelation among the senses. All these terms warrant extended investigation, critique and further elaboration. The definition of synaesthesia is particularly in need of rethinking from a cultural perspective as distinct from the neurological definition which currently holds sway: see van Campen ; Howes and Classen ch 6.

The question of the classification of the senses is another area that has attracted increased attention of late, as evidenced by The Sixth Sense Reader Howes The list continues see www. According to the latest scientific estimates, there are at least ten senses and possibly as many as 33 Howes But there is no necessary reason to prefer scientific enumerations over any other because sensory experience is culturally well as physically ordered, and because the science of sensation, like any branch of science, is itself subject to constant revision Rivlin and Gravelle ; Geurts The point is rather to recognize and accept the cultural and historical contingency of any taxonomy of the senses see McHugh ; Howes and Classen This becomes apparent when the window on the past is expanded to include popular representations of the senses in place of concentrating exclusively on the discourse of philosophers and scientists.

In Old English, for example, we do not find the five-sense division to which we are so accustomed today. The word smec, for instance, stood for both smell and taste. The cultural contingency of sensory taxonomies becomes even more apparent when the wisdom of other traditions is factored into the debate over categorization. In classical Indian philosophy the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad , a list of eight senses is given:.

It is significant that in this categorization the olfactory organ is listed first. This agrees with the importance attached to breathing in the various meditative traditions of India, such as yoga. It would seem that breathing is the sense of reflection in India as sight is the sense of reflection in the West. It is striking that mind is listed too. However, it is common to a range of Eastern philosophies, including Buddhism see Klima The Western tradition would appear to be the odd person out in this connection. That speech should be considered a sense might seem curious at first glance, though this categorization is not altogether foreign to the Western tradition, as we saw in the case of Piers Ploughman.

A further, particularly compelling example comes from the play Lingua which dates from the seventeenth century. In Lingua, the tongue argues that she should be counted among the senses, and not only that, but that she language should be recognized as supreme see Classen 4; Mazzio The argument did not succeed, on either count, but the notion of speech as a sixth sense has never completely disappeared, and continues to crop up from time to time see Howes 5.

The other four or five senses in the list given in the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad — sight, hearing, taste and touch which is divided internally into the hands and skin — appear more recognizable. However, they stand in different relations to each other being part of an eightfold scheme as opposed to a fivefold scheme so there is no one-to-one correspondence.

Hence, the matter of the translatability of the senses cannot be decided in advance. It takes patience, and constant tacking back and forth between the cultures concerned. It can help to imagine the sensorium on the analogy of a kaleidoscope, with each culture representing a different twist of the cylinder. However, the analogy is of limited use, because the kaleidoscope operates on the principle of multiple reflection, whereas multiple sensation is different. The trick, as discussed elsewhere Howes ch. Some contemporary Western philosophers have argued that the five senses are natural kinds Macpherson , but this position is difficult to maintain in the face of the historical and ethnographic record.

In other words, every ordering of the senses is at the same time a social ordering. Oken posited the following equivalences:. The skin-man is the black, African 2. The tongue-man is the brown, Australian-Malayan 3. The nose-man is the red, American 4. The ear-man is the yellow, Asiatic-Mongolian 5. The eye-man is the white, European see Howes His ostensibly biological categorization of senses and peoples was actually shot through with social values. We can see this in the way the ranking of the senses is often allied with the ranking of social groups whether on the basis of race as above , gender, class or age.

Such was the power of this categorization that those women who challenged the sensory division of labour e. As regards social class, the traditional association of the lower classes with manual labour is telling. As noted by Classen above , there can be resistance to the dominant sensory model by marginal groups within society. For example,. When we look across cultures we find no end of ways in which sensory ordering and social ordering are intertwined. They function in the same way as such technological extensions of the senses as the telephone and the microscope function to channel perception along modality-specific lines.

Male chiefs are further distinguished by their powers of listening and strident voices, whereas witches who tend to be female are said to be hard of hearing, prone to mumble and ascribed extraordinary powers of vision, such as being able to see at a distance, instead. Significantly, all of their major ceremonies take place at night, a time of diminished visibility and heightened aurality Howes I would like to expand on the Kwoma case a little here, because it contains some important lessons regarding intersensoriality and intracultural diversity.

In Kwoma society, men control the means of communication with the spirits. No woman is permitted to see these sacra, and men must keep apart from the women when creating them, or the effigies and images will crack and the paint will lack the desired lustre. It is the men who guard the large bamboo flutes, bullroarers and other instruments which make manifest the presence of the spirits at the annual yam harvest ceremony.

The din created by these instruments is deafening and unnerving. The women and youths believe their ears. They officially suppose that the awesome sounds are the voices of the spirits. Things were not always this way, however. The Myth of the Origin of the Flutes relates how, one day, a group of women chanced upon the flutes when they were out fishing. Recognizing them to be spirits, they decided to keep their discovery a secret. Each day they told their husbands they were going fishing but instead repaired to a ceremonial house they had built high in the branches of a hardwood tree.

There they would play the flutes. This left the men having to do the work of gardening and caring for children. In time, the women started ordering the men to cook and bring them food so they could continue with their ceremonies. When the men, who were ignorant about ceremonies, came to the base of the tree with the food, they could hear the sounds of the instruments but not know who or what was making them. Then, one day, after a man was beaten by his wife for failing to follow orders, the men teamed up with a borer beetle which ate through the trunk, causing the tree house to topple.

The men speared the women as they fell, appropriated the flutes for themselves, and from that moment on kept them secret from women and noninitiates. This myth presents a blunt sensory and social charter. Gender inequality is taken as given, but, unlike in most societies, it is not rationalized in essentialist terms. Rather, the myth portrays social dominance as entirely dependent on which sex controls the means of communication with the spirits.

Men enjoy the upper hand because they have mastery over the media of sight and sound. The myth further acknowledges that this mastery is the result of an act of treachery the men teaming up with the borer beetle and continuing acts of duplicity the impersonation of the spirits by aural means at the yam harvest ceremonies. One area, besides fishing and cooking and childcare, in which women are thought to excel and from which men are excluded is the weaving of bilums netbags.

The looping techniques which the women employ are highly intricate. The resulting weave is extremely supple, and the texture of the netbags is quite singular. Bilums are used to carry almost everything: garden produce, personal belongings, even children. Indeed, the term for netbag also means womb. The netbags thus facilitate transportation. They make movement happen. Stepping back, we can see that while the men have arrogated seeing and sounding to themselves, the women have made much of touch.

It is their field of specialization, even though it be a secondary sense. And when they weave a bag for a relative or a spouse, and present it to the latter, they are literally weaving this visually fragmented, and highly fractious society together. The sensory division of labour gives Kwoma society its structure, and its dynamic.. By way of closing for the time being , I would like to propose a set of eight propositions for sensory studies inspired by Heywood and Sandywell ch.

The first few propositions are expressed negatively to underscore the extent to which they depart from the received wisdom about the senses and language in Western philosophy and culture. The last few propositions are expressed more affirmatively. They bring out the sociality of sensations, and highlight a series of topics for further research in the expanding field of sensory studies. The senses are not simply passive receptors. They are interactive, both with the world and each other.

Perception is not solely a mental or physiological phenomenon. The senses collaborate, but they may also conflict. The unity of the senses should not be presupposed, pace Merleau-Ponty No account of the senses in society can be complete without mention being made of sensory differentiation, for example, by gender, class, ethnicity.

They mediate the relationship between idea and object, mind and body, self and society, culture and environment. Each culture elaborates its own ways of understanding and using the senses. No one sensory model will fit all. I wish to thank various colleagues who have taken the time to read and comment on earlier drafts of this essay. I would also like to extend an invitation to any reader who wishes to comment on the observations and arguments contained in this essay to write us at senses concordia. The Senses and Society journal, launched in , represents one manifestation of this convergence.

The Sensory Studies website, which went live in , is another. The overview presented here is limited to book-length studies that were published or translated into English and the occasional survey article. It is also very much a work-in-progress, with the first iteration v. Cursory though this review may be, it should nevertheless provide some helpful signposts for the interested reader. The following sources provide additional insight into the origin and development of the anthropology of the senses: Howes ; Serematakis ; Classen ; Herzfeld ch.

One of the advantages of a sense-based rather than language-based approach is that it can be extended across species boundaries. The sensory life of plants and even cells has also become the subject of sensory ethnography see Chamvitz ; Myers ; Myers and Dumit Displace dispensed with objects and instead immersed the visitor in a symphony of sensations inspired in part by the sensory code of an Amazonian society.

It also suggested interesting new possibilities for collaboration between artists and anthropologists. Simmel entertained some highly stereotypical and hence distinctly unsociological views regarding the nature of the senses and certain disabilities. What is not so often recognized is how it has contributed to reproducing and further entrenching the hierarchical division of the senses. The proliferation of visual culture studies has been challenged by some. For example, there are those who question the ranging of architecture with visual culture because of how this deflects attention from the acoustic, tactile, thermal and other sensory qualities of buildings Palasmaa ; Blesser and Salter Paradoxically, relative to the previous note, were it not for the pictorial turn there might have been no sensory turn.

The pictorial turn occupied a lead role, first, by questioning the privileging of language and the idea or model of language in the humanities and social sciences through exposing the increasing salience of visual communication in contemporary culture. This created a space for exploring how not only vision but all the senses function as signifying systems independent of their representation in language. It did so, second, by coming to figure as a target, partly on account of its success as a paradigm like the linguistic turn before it. The goal of the pilgrimage is for the adept to achieve union with the deity.

Alpers, S. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Amato, J. Barasch, M. Baxandall, M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Blesser, B. Bourdieu, P. Bull, M. Burnett, C. Bynum, W. Chamovitz, D. Book The Convivial and Satirical Epigrams. Book Strato's Musa Puerilis. Book Arithmetical Problems, Riddles, Oracles. Book Miscellanea. Lives, Volume V: Agesilaus and Pompey. Pelopidas and Marcellus. Hellenica by Xenophon c. The Anabasis by Xenophon c. Bite and wit characterize two seminal and stellar authors in the history of satirical writing, Persius 34—62 CE and Juvenal writing about sixty years later.

The latter especially had a lasting influence on English writers of the Renaissance and succeeding centuries. The Exhortation to the Greeks. The Rich Man's Salvation. To the Newly Baptized. Born probably CE in Athens, Clement was a key figure in early Christianity with wide knowledge of Greek literature and culture. His Exhortation to the Greeks to give up their gods and turn to Christ shows familiarity with the mystery cults.

Pausanias fl. He shares his enthusiasm for great sites, describing them with care and an accuracy confirmed by comparison with monuments that still stand today. Epigrams, Volume I: Spectacles, Books In his epigrams, Martial c. His poems are sometimes obscene, in the tradition of the genre, sometimes affectionate or amusing, and always pointed.

The surviving works of Ausonius c. There is also an address of thanks to Gratian for the consulship. Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus. Alexander and Caesar. Phocion and Cato the Younger. Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius. Lives, Volume X: Agis and Cleomenes. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. Philopoemen and Flamininus. Lives, Volume XI: Aratus. General Index. As examples of Greek oratory the speeches of Aeschines or — BCE rank next to those of Demosthenes, and are important documents for the study of Athenian diplomacy and inner politics.

Gothic War. The Peloponnesian War was really three conflicts —, —, and — BCE that Thucydides was still unifying into one account when he died some time before BCE. Although unfinished and as a whole unrevised, in brilliance of description and depth of insight this history has no superior. What survives of Histories covers the dramatic years 69— What survives of Annals tells an often terrible tale of 14—28, 31—37, and, partially, 47— Fronto c. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the second century. His correspondence offers an invaluable picture of aristocratic life and literary culture in the 2nd century.

Of its books 1—10, 21—45 except parts of 41 and 43—45 , fragments, and short summaries remain. Ausonius, Volume II: Books Paulinus Pellaeus: Eucharisticus. The War with Catiline. The War with Jugurtha. Although Sallust is decidedly unsubtle and partisan in analyzing people and events, his works are important and significantly influenced later historians, notably Tacitus. After personal inquiry and study of hearsay and other evidence, Herodotus born c. Attributed to Apollodorus of Athens born c.

Acknowledged masterpieces among his works are the Symposium , which explores love in its many aspects, from physical desire to pursuit of the beautiful and the good, and the Republic , which concerns righteousness and also treats education, gender, society, and slavery. Quintilian , born in Spain about 35 CE, became a renowned and successful teacher of rhetoric in Rome. It provides not only insights on oratory, but also a picture of Roman education and social attitudes. In his history, Polybius c. The main part of the work, a vital achievement despite the incomplete state in which all but the first five books of an original forty survive, describes the rise of Rome, its destruction of Carthage, and its eventual domination of the Greek world.

Hymns and Epigrams. Lycophron: Alexandra. Aratus: Phaenomena. Callimachus third century BCE authored hymns and epigrams. The monodrama Alexandra is attributed to his contemporary, Lycophron. Phaenomena , a poem on star constellations and weather signs by Aratus c. The Double Indictment or Trials by Jury.

On Sacrifices. The Ignorant Book Collector. The Dream or Lucian's Career. The Parasite. The Lover of Lies. The Judgement of the Goddesses. On Salaried Posts in Great Houses. Unlike his predecessors, Epictetus c. Dis Exapaton. Lives of the Sophists. Eunapius: Lives of the Philosophers and Sophists. Panegyric on Probinus and Olybrius. Against Rufinus 1 and 2. War against Gildo. Against Eutropius 1 and 2. Fescennine Verses on the Marriage of Honorius. Epithalamium of Honorius and Maria. Panegyrics on the Third and Fourth Consulships of Honorius. Claudius Claudianus c.

A panegyric on the brothers Probinus and Olybrius consuls together in CE was followed mostly by epics in hexameters, but also by elegiacs, epistles, epigrams, and idylls. On Stilicho's Consulship Panegyric on the Sixth Consulship of Honorius. The Gothic War. Shorter Poems. Rape of Proserpina. Historia Augusta, Volume I: Hadrian. Antoninus Pius. Marcus Aurelius. Avidius Cassius. Didius Julianus. Septimius Severus.

Pescennius Niger. Clodius Albinus. Of uncertain reliability and authorship, it is now attributed by many authorities to one late fourth century CE author. Opellius Macrinus. Severus Alexander. The Two Maximini. The Three Gordians. Maximus and Balbinus.

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  • Sappho , the most famous woman poet of antiquity, whose main theme was love, and Alcaeus , poet of wine, war, and politics, were two illustrious singers of sixth-century BCE Lesbos. Anacreon c. The Anacreonta were composed over several centuries. Dithyrambic poets of the new school were active from the mid-fifth to mid-fourth century BCE. Seven against Thebes.

    Prometheus Bound. Aeschylus c. Seven of his eighty or so plays survive complete, including the Oresteia trilogy and the Persians , the only extant Greek historical drama. Oresteia: Agamemnon. Ancient Medicine. Airs, Waters, Places. Epidemics 1 and 3. The Oath. Regimen in Acute Diseases. The Sacred Disease. The Art. Physician Ch. On Wounds in the Head. In the Surgery. On Fractures. On Joints. Nature of Man. Regimen in Health. Regimen Heracleitus: On the Universe. Compendium of Roman History.

    Res Gestae Divi Augusti. Ecclesiastical History, Volume I: Books Eusebius , Bishop of Caesarea from about CE, was the most important writer in the age of Constantine. His history of the Christian church from the ministry of Jesus to CE is a treasury of information, especially on the Eastern centers. On Old Age. On Friendship. On Divination. Demosthenes — BCE , orator at Athens, was a pleader in law courts who also became a champion of Athenian greatness and Greek resistance to Philip of Macedon. His steadfastness, pungent argument, and control of language gained him early reputation as the best of Greek orators, and his works provide vivid pictures of contemporary life.

    Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus, and Onasander. The surviving work of Aeneas fourth century BCE is on defense against siege. Asclepiodotus first century BCE wrote a work on Tactics as though for the lecture room, based on earlier manuals, not personal experience. Against the Galilaeans. Pro Archia. Post Reditum in Senatu. Post Reditum ad Quirites. De Domo Sua. De Haruspicum Responsis. Pro Plancio. The main part of his history covers the years — BC, describing the rise of Rome, the destruction of Carthage, and the eventual domination of the Greek world.

    It is a vital achievement despite the incomplete survival of all but the first five of forty books. For this six-volume edition of The Histories , W. All but the first five of forty volumes survive in an incomplete state. Volume VI includes fragments unattributed to particular books of The Histories. Anacharsis or Athletics. Menippus or The Descent into Hades. On Funerals. A Professor of Public Speaking. Alexander the False Prophet. Essays in Portraiture. Essays in Portraiture Defended.

    The Goddesse of Surrye. The Merchant. The Braggart Soldier. The Ghost. The Persian. Greater Hippias. Lesser Hippias. In Memorabilia and in Oeconomicus , a dialogue about household management, we see the philosopher Socrates through the eyes of his associate, Xenophon. In the Symposium , we obtain insight on life in Athens. The Aqueducts of Rome , written in 97—98, gives some historical details and a description of the aqueducts for the water supply of the city, with laws relating to them. Aristophanes c. In Acharnians a small landowner, tired of the Peloponnesian War, magically arranges a personal peace treaty; Knights is perhaps the most biting satire of a political figure Cleon ever written.

    Women at the Thesmophoria. The protagonists of Birds create a utopian counter-Athens. In Lysistrata wives go on conjugal strike until their husbands end war. Women in Women at the Thesmophoria punish Euripides for portraying them as wicked. Traditional Aeschylus and modern Euripides compete in Frogs. In Assemblywomen , Athenian women plot against male misgovernance. Lucretius lived ca. In his didactic poem De Rerum Natura On the Nature of Things he expounds Epicurean philosophy so as to dispel fear of the gods and death, and promote spiritual tranquility.

    Constitution of the Lacedaemonians. Ways and Means. Cavalry Commander. Art of Horsemanship. On Hunting.

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    Constitution of the Athenians. Minor works by Xenophon c. The Constitution of the Athenians , though not by Xenophon, is an interesting document on Athenian politics. Diogenes Laertius probably early third century BCE compiled his compendium on the lives and doctrines of the ancient philosophers from hundreds of sources.

    It ranges over three centuries, from Thales to Epicurus, portraying 45 important figures, and is enriched by numerous quotations. The major works of Josephus c. Also by him are an autobiographical Life and a treatise Against Apion. Basil the Great was born into a family noted for piety. About he founded a convent in Pontus and in succeeded Eusebius in the archbishopric of Caesarea. His reform of monastic life in the east is the basis of modern Greek and Slavonic monasteries.

    In the Satires Horace mocks himself as well as the world. His verse epistles include the Art of Poetry , in which he famously expounds his literary theory. Aulus Gellius ca. On Listening to Lectures. How to Tell a Flatterer from a Friend. His extant works other than the Parallel Lives are varied, about sixty in number, and known as the Moralia Moral Essays. They reflect his philosophy about living a good life, and provide a treasury of information concerning Greco-Roman society, traditions, ideals, ethics, and religion.

    Pro Lege Manilia. Pro Caecina. Pro Cluentio. Pro Rabirio Perduellionis Reo. Longinus: On the Sublime. Demetrius: On Style. Hamilton Demetrius Innes, Doreen C. Rhys Roberts, W. The subject of On the Sublime , attributed to an unidentifiable Longinus and probably composed in the first century CE, is greatness in writing.

    On Style , attributed to an unidentifiable Demetrius and perhaps composed in the second century BCE, analyzes four literary styles. Alcibiades I and II. The Lovers. Isaeus c. He shares with Lysias pure Attic and lucidity of style, but his more aggressive and flexible presentation undoubtedly influenced Demosthenes. Of at least fifty attributed orations, there survive eleven on legacy cases and a large fragment dealing with a claim of citizenship.

    In The Learned Banqueters late-2nd century CE , Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature.

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    The work provides quotations from works now lost, and preserves information about wide range of information about Greek culture. Letters to Friends, Volume I: Letters The verse is light in touch, with a distinct pictorial quality. Mozley, is now reissued with corrections by Christopher A.

    Greek literary education and Roman political reality are evident in the poetry of Statius c. His Silvae are thirty-two occasional poems. His masterpiece, the epic Thebaid , recounts the struggle for kingship between the two sons of Oedipus. To Demonicus. To Nicocles. Nicocles or the Cyprians. To Philip. Twenty-one discourses by Isocrates survive; these include political essays, treatises on education and on ethics, and speeches for legal cases. Nine letters, more on public than private matters, are also extant. De Constantia. De Ira. De Clementia. In Moral Essays , Seneca c.

    History of the Wars, Volume V: Books 7. Discourses, Books The Encheiridion. In Fishing , Oppian of Cilicia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century CE, discusses fish and gives angling instructions. The Chase , on hunting, may be the work of a Syrian imitator. The poem is also called Pharsalia. Against Verres, Part 1; Part 2, Books On Having Many Friends.

    Virtue and Vice. Letter of Condolence to Apollonius. Advice About Keeping Well. Advice to Bride and Groom. The Dinner of the Seven Wise Men. Herodas: Mimes. Sophron and Other Mime Fragments. Fictionalized faults are the focus of Characters by Theophrastus c. The Hellenistic poet Herodas wrote mimes in which everyday life is portrayed and character—as opposed to plot—depicted.

    Mimes by Sophron fifth century BCE and anonymous mime fragments also represent that genre. On the Creation. Allegorical Interpretation of Genesis 2 and 3. In attempting to reconcile biblical teachings with Greek philosophy he developed ideas that had wide influence on Christian and Jewish religious thought. On the Cherubim. The Sacrifices of Abel and Cain. The Worse Attacks the Better. On the Posterity and Exile of Cain. On the Giants. On the Peace. Against the Sophists. Florus second century CE wrote, in brief pointed rhetorical style, a two-book summary of Roman history especially military in order to show the greatness and decline of Roman morals.

    Art of Love. Remedies for Love. Sea Fishing. His Ibis is an elegiac curse-poem. History of Rome, Volume V: Books History of Rome, Volume V: Books 21— This Loeb edition replaces the original by B. Anabasis of Alexander, Volume I: Books The Anabasis of Alexander by Arrian ca. Orations, Volume I: Orations and Olynthiacs Philippic 1.

    Philippic 2. On Halonnesus. On the Chersonese. Philippics 3 and 4. Answer to Philip's Letter. Philip's Letter. On Organization. On the Navy-boards. For the Liberty of the Rhodians. For the P. Pro Quinctio. Pro Roscio Amerino. Pro Roscio Comoedo. On the Agrarian Law. Jewish Antiquities, Volume I: Books Lysias c. Of a much larger number about thirty complete speeches by him survive.

    Fluent, simple, and graceful in style yet vivid in description, they suggest a passionate partisan who was also a gentle, humorous man. Sayings of Romans. Sayings of Spartans. The Ancient Customs of the Spartans. Sayings of Spartan Women. Bravery of Women. On the Unchangeableness of God. On Husbandry. Concerning Noah's Work As a Planter. On Drunkenness. On Sobriety. Lives of the Abbots. Letter to Egbert. Histories: Books Annals: Books De Spectaculis.

    Minucius Felix: Octavius. Tertullian c. Octavius by Minucius , an early Christian writer of unknown date, is a debate between belief and unbelief that depicts Roman religion and society. On Architecture , completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture. Topics include town planning, building materials, temples, the architectural orders, houses, pavements, mosaics, water supply, measurements, and machines.

    Pro Milone. In Pisonem. Pro Scauro. Pro Fonteio. Pro Rabirio Postumo. Pro Marcello. Pro Ligario. Pro Rege Deiotaro. In Fasti , Ovid 43 BCE—17 CE sets forth explanations of the festivals and sacred rites that were noted on the Roman calendar, and relates in graphic detail the legends attached to specific dates.

    The poem is an invaluable source of information about religious practices. De Vita Beata. De Otio. De Tranquillitate Animi. De Brevitate Vitae. De Consolatione ad Polybium. De Consolatione ad Helviam. Philostratus the Elder, Imagines. Philostratus the Younger, Imagines. Callistratus, Descriptions. Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus born c.

    Fourteen descriptions of statues in stone or bronze attributed to Callistratus were probably written in the fourth century CE. Dio Chrysostomus c. What survives of his works make him prominent in the revival of Greek literature in the late first and early second century CE. The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings.