Paperback sold out. Kobo ebook. Available for download Not available in stores. This book provides empirical evidence from Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique and from different production systems of the importance of livestock as an asset to women and their participation in livestock and livestock product markets. It explores the issues of…. This is probably because women depend more on crops to pay for food, clothing, and school fees. Male domination of crop income held for all crops, not only maize, as their larger plots generated four times as much income.
No women in the household survey reported depending mainly on husbands for cash. In the past, our duties were those men told us to do. That is no longer. Today he builds the house, sires the children, looks for someone to herd, and then he goes. Women cultivate, do the herding, care for children, and spray the cows. They have become wanderers and loiterers. Women just struggle on their own. Is not life for women harder? There was variability among households in how people perceived labor division.
Some households reported spousal cooperation in generating income. In this household, the wife felt her status had improved. We are strong in business and can get our own money and go to market and buy and sell. We have become important people in society because we cultivate and do business. Today we do cultivation. We all go looking for our daily bread with our women. The man and cows are not the only ones to be depended on. Families were highly dependent on this labor because children were in school and men were often away. Before a man might have 10 children and only one in school.
So, the man could go look for the daily bread and the women stay at home. The children, who once gave them a rest, are all in school. When full ownership control over cattle assets was accounted for aitore , the gender disparity index was 0. Other livestock index values were higher, e. Chickens were the only animal women owned more of than men. Gender disparity for non-livestock livelihood assets was 0. In Nvivo content analysis, both men and women mentioned education most often as a driver of cultural change. In the past, women could not sell cows they owned.
Because of education we are strong in business and can get our own money and go to market and buy and sell animals. In the past it was just by name you owned a cow. Your husband would take that cow in the night and you would not see a coin from it. This decline was erroneously interpreted as forest loss in a global gaze dataset Hansen et al.
Daystar University Library catalog › Details for: Women, livestock ownership and markets :
The cows are increasing in Empurputia. They are grazing in the swamp and they step on it which makes the water go down. In the past, the cows were few and grazed on the edge of the swamp. You could not cross the swamp the water was so deep. The grass was so tall you could not see the elephants. Legal threats to communal land tenure of Loita Forest emerged in the s, and a contentious debate about subdividing all of Loita continues to this day.
Eighty-two percent of household informants were firmly against the idea of private subdivided land parcels. Subdivision is a bad idea. It will affect women because it will bring family conflict. Husbands will take the title deeds and sell the parcels to get money for drinking alcohol and leave children without land.
These findings are inconsistent with oft-cited references to relatively undisturbed forest in Loita Zaal and Adano Satellite data and interviews highlight dramatic land changes taking place in Loita highlands and support its characterization as an endangered ecosystem KWS in a biodiversity hotspot BirdLife International ; CEPF They also contrast with reports of forest gain nationwide at an annual rate of 0.
These discrepancies may be partially accounted for by differing remote sensing methods and varying definitions of forest. The negative association between dense forest and bush suggests ecological forest succession dynamics aligned with multiple variables including fire, climate, groundwater levels, wild herbivores, and anthropogenic influences. Forest gain from to likely ensued from the prevalent use of fire to establish grasslands in earlier decades Talbot and the fire cycle of African pencil cedar co-dominant canopy tree: Bussmann ; Maundu et al. Rainfall was certainly a variable in the doubling of wetland vegetation between and when impassable water levels and dangerous wildlife meant fewer people and minimal grazing.
Such synergistic effects of people with non-anthropogenic variables have been observed in other wooded Maasai landscapes Dublin ; Homewood and Rodgers making simplistic explanations about climax vegetation and ecological balance in this area very unlikely. Building on the work of Geist and Lambin , gender appears as a cultural variable influencing the same proximate drivers of forest loss operating worldwide wood extraction, agricultural expansion, infrastructure expansion.
Given the small sample size, gender differences pertaining to house building, medicinal plants, fuelwood, cultivation, livelihood assets, and subdivision may reflect local realities only. Nonetheless, the triangulation of gender analysis with remote sensing methods offers a fresh perspective for other settings where gender simplifications about resource use persist. Variations in crop income among Maasai households are attributed to many factors Homewood et al.
Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the gender gap in Eastern and Southern Africa
With higher resolution satellite imagery to differentiate cultivated plots from low vegetation, linkages between land change and gendered roles, power relations, and income can become clearer. In Loita Forest, gender variation in who goes to the forest for what and when has direct relevance for gender-sensitive forest planning, with immediate attention needed for oloirien , an anti-malarial considered threatened with extinction World Agroforestry Center and the severely locally threatened oltarakuai and olpiripiri Maundu et al. Pernicious gender inequities e. These findings advance a new empirically based gender-inclusive narrative about land change and livelihood shift in Maasailand.
They extend the meaning of the metaphor— we needed a co-wife for the cow— beyond adopting cultivation to remain pastoralists McCabe et al. They align with assertions that gender must constantly be reconstructed as men and women rework power relations when production systems change Moore As land cover continues transforming in response to abiotic drivers and land tenure change, gender ideologies and oversimplifications will be counterproductive to pathways out of poverty and resource scarcity.
- The Secret Piano: From Maos Labor Camps to Bachs Goldberg Variations.
- Gender aspects in the dairy value chain in Tanzania: A review of literature?
- This item appears in the following Collection(s).
- Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets Bridging the Gender Gap in Eastern and Southern Africa?
- Passar bra ihop.
- The Omega Scroll.
Gender is a variable in land change dynamics that is worthy of attention. I wish to express my gratitude to the men and women of Loita for graciously welcoming this study and allowing me, with my endless questions, into their lives over the past six years. Deep thanks also to reviewers whose generous time and comments improved this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Human Ecology. Hum Ecol Interdiscip J. Published online Nov Miriam O. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Westervelt, Email: ku. Corresponding author. Linking Land Change and Social Dimensions In pastoral rangelands, remote sensing, census data, household surveys, and interviews are being used to identify land change drivers.
Table 1 Maa words and their meanings. Maa word Meaning a aitore To command, to rule e. Open in a separate window. See Westervelt for complete list of local plants used by men and women a An age-set olaji includes two circumcision groups, a right-hand group and a left-hand group olporror. Materials and Methods I used an interdisciplinary mixed methods approach to data collection. Table 2 Loita Forest area and Empurputia: Extent of land cover in , and and land change between and Land cover change in Loita Forest area and Empurputia — Discussion These findings are inconsistent with oft-cited references to relatively undisturbed forest in Loita Zaal and Adano Conclusion These findings advance a new empirically based gender-inclusive narrative about land change and livelihood shift in Maasailand.
Acknowledgements I wish to express my gratitude to the men and women of Loita for graciously welcoming this study and allowing me, with my endless questions, into their lives over the past six years. Compliance with Ethical Standards Conflict of Interest The author declares she has no conflict of interest. African Journal of Ecology. Qualitative Data Analysis with NVivo. London: Sage; Betts, officer-in-charge, Masai forests. Nairobi: National Archives of Kenya; Accessed 15 August Brockington D.
A review. Systematics and Geography of Plants. Final Version 24 January Accessed 14 August Dharani, N. Capetown Struik Nature. Dublin HT. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; ArcGIS Release Redlands, CA. Fairhead J, Leach M. London: Routledge; Galaty JG.
- Early Gastrointestinal Cancers!
- TP-Model Transformation-Based-Control Design Frameworks?
- The Cooks Illustrated Meat Book;
- Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets.
- Building Brand Value the Playboy Way!
Nomadic Peoples. What Drives Tropical Deforestation.
African women and the Sustainable Development Goals
LUCC Report series. World Development. Central Bureau of Statistics. Kenya Population Census, Vol. Population Distribution of Administrative units. Kenya Census Counting Our People for Implementation of Vision Nairobi: KNBS; National Forest Programme of Kenya.
Nairobi: MENR; Wealth Ranking. West Hartford: Kumarian Press; High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change. Science — Journal of African History. Nomadic peoples: — Hodgson DL. Oxford: James Currey; Ecology of African Pastoralist Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Staying Maasai? New York: Springer; Forest Ecology and Management. Naroosura rain station data — Made available by KMD.
Nairobi, Kenya. Accessed 12 August Accelerated Deforestation in the Humid Tropics from the s to the s. Geophysical Research Letters. African Studies Collection Volume Wageningen University. Leach M. Gender Equality and Sustainable Development. Pastoralism and Development in Africa. New York: Routledge; Women, warriors, and patriarchs. Sexual Meanings. Cambridge: The University of Cambridge; People and plants working paper 8. Die Masai. Berlin: D. Reimer; Maasai Mara. Maasai Language and Culture Dictionary. Lemek: Maasai Centre; Understanding Sex and Gender.
In: Ingold T, editor. Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology. Earth Observatory. Is that a Forest?
That Depends on How You Define it. NASA website. Accessed November 17, Nightingale A. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. Gender and Ownership of Livestock Assets. The Professional Geographer. Conservation Policy and the Measurement of Forests. Nature Climate Change. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Journal of Development Studies. A Survey of Variation among Maasai. Unpublished Appendix to Spencer, P.
Manchester: Manchester University Press; Land use survey of Narok District. Nairobi: National Archives of Kenya. Talle, A. Women at a loss: Changes in Maasai pastoralism and their effects on gender relations Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stockholm Studies in Anthropology, University of Stockholm, Sweden. Gender and GIS: Guidance notes. Waller R. Part Five: Conclusions. In: Spear T, Waller R, editors. Being Maasai. London: James Currey; Agriculture and Human Values.
A co-wife for the cow: Gender dimensions of land change, livelihood shift, forest use, and decision-making among Loita Maasai of southern Kenya. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University College London, United Kingdom.
White F. Antimalarial trees in East Africa threatened with extinction. Accessed 3 September Zaal F, Adano WR. In: Witzenberg K, Zaal F, editors. Spaces of Insecurity.