Excellence in Coaching: The Industry Guide by Jonathan Passmore
We are likely to see a continued shift to professionalization, which means more coaching degrees and accreditation from professional bodies. Life coaching In the arena of life coaching the market too has been growing.
The market itself is even more diverse, ranging from coaches working in health areas such as smoking cessation, stress and diet management, to more traditional lifestyle work. For these health interventions, coaches with backgrounds in health services or psychology are typically trained. The emergence of this work may develop further as the health sector recognizes the potential of coaching as an alternative to counselling, with its associated negative images.
At the lifestyle end of the spectrum coaches and coachees are working on relationships, faith and work—life balance. As of , becoming a coach is still as easy as saying the word. While national or state-managed licens- ing is some way off, accreditation and training through professional bodies are continuing to grow. The challenge, however, with such voluntary schemes is ensuring that coaches participate and that the public understand the scheme, and this is why we have included a chapter on the issue in the second edition. The issue is still not settled and there is ongoing debate about the benefits and value of accreditation, training and licensing.
Such debate mirrors much of what has gone before in other professions, such as counselling and psycho- therapy, as they moved towards standards in the s Mowbray, While the debate continues, the professional bodies have responded through establishing accreditation schemes. Coaching competencies In an environment where few coaches were trained, knowing which behaviours were effective was arguably of limited importance. The development of coach- ing and its journey towards becoming a profession brings with it the question of standards and training.
What does a coach need to learn to be effective? A small number of writers have sought to answer this question. Alexander and Renshaw suggest that a number of key competencies are important. They felt that coaching com- petencies should be divided into three clusters: relationship, being and doing. In the first of these, relationship, coaches need to demonstrate that they are open and honest and that they value others.
In the second cluster, being, coaches need to have self-confidence to be able to work with their coachee through difficult challenges. They also need to maintain an enabling style, to avoid slip- ping into a directive approach with their coachee, and to be self-aware. In the third cluster, doing, coaches need to hold a clear methodology, to be skilful in applying the method and its associated tools and techniques, and to be fully present. Few of these competencies easily lend themselves to a formal training.
Research suggests that coachees have a very clear view of what they value within a coaching relationship. The senior executives in the study also expressed the view that relationship skills were important. In this respect, credibility and previous experience helped to establish and maintain the relationship, alongside empathy and affirming the coachee. There was also a view that knowledge about human behaviour and knowledge of the sector were valued. The second of these, sector knowledge, is often contested but this may reflect a desire to divide coaching The table suggests pure forms, while in reality coaching and mentoring run between the polarities illustrated.
What this means for training is that we need to review the coaching training that is being offered to ensure it meets the needs of the sector. First, training should have a strong skills component. Coaches should be encouraged to use learning logs as a minimum, and where possible to record their coaching practice for discussion with their supervisor at a later date. Second, coaching and mentoring should be viewed in parallel, as the skills between these two areas overlap. Third, coaches should have two or more sub-qualifications of specialism.
This may include areas such as executive coaching, health coaching, stress coaching and lifestyle coaching. A coach skilled in one area may not necessarily have the skills to operate successfully in another. A fourth implication is the need for coaches to develop an understanding of a range of models. We should expect trained coaches to be able to move from basic intervention using behavioural models, through intermediate stages of using cognitive models, to more advanced skills in specialist trained areas such as motivational interviewing and eye movement desensitization and reprocess- ing EMDR.
The final area is that training needs to be evidence based. Coaching students need to understand which interventions will offer the best results in different cases. There is no reason to assume that coaching is any different, and that cognitive behavioural may be the best intervention to address low self- esteem and poor performance, while transpersonal may offer a more effective model to work on issues of life purpose.
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Conclusions This book, we hope, will provide readers with an enjoyable, stimulating read across the current debate within coaching. Table 0. Level of formality More formal: contract or ground rules set, often involving a third-party client Less formal: agreement, most typically between two parties 2.
Length of contract Shorter term: typically between 4 and 12 meetings agreed over 2 to 12 months Longer term: typically unspecified number of meetings with relationships often running over 3 to 5 years 3. Focus More performance-focused: typically a greater focus on short-term skills and job performance More career-focused: typically a concern with longer-term career issues, obtaining the right experience and longer-term thinking 4. Level of sector knowledge More generalist: typically coaches have limited sector knowledge More sector knowledge: typically mentors have knowledge of organization or business sector 5.
Training More relationship training: typically coaches have a background in psychology, psychotherapy or HR More management training: typically mentors have a background in senior management 6. Focus Dual focus: more typically a dual focus on the needs of the individual and the needs of the organization Single focus: more typically a single focus on the needs of the individual 5 Part 1 The business of coaching 7 Frank Bresser and Carol Wilson Coaching: the new profession This chapter sets out to describe the nature of coaching: its boundaries with other helping interventions, the skills required to make an effective coach and the evidence of the impact of coaching on individuals and organizations.
Coaching is one of the fastest-growing professions. Accordingly, various forms of coaching life coaching, executive coaching, career coaching, sports coaching, etc now exist. This chapter addresses the question of what is the essence of coaching, what qualities, skills and competencies a coach actually needs, what are the relevant differences between coaching and other disciplines, and what benefits coaching offers.
Although different definitions abound, they mostly describe the same phenomenon. At the heart of coaching lies the idea of empowering people by facilitating self- directed learning, personal growth and improved performance. Beyond this shared understanding, a host of issues are still under discussion within the profession. The slow movement to professionalization of the sector will help both coachees and clients better understand what coaching is, how it can help and when to use it.
History A number of writers argue that coaching, as a one-to-one learning conversation, has existed since the dawn of civilization. A contrary approach presents this discipline as a new invention of the second half of the 20th century. Most writers recognize that although single coaching elements may always have existed, the development of models and their use in workplace environments are more recent. Questions still, however, remain about what models, methods and techniques are most effective.
What is coaching? One question remains the subject of ongoing debate: whose goals — those of the coachee or the sponsor organization — should be primarily served by coaching? A middle view stresses the importance of professional contracting in the beginning to ensure a win—win situation all the time. In any case, an effec- tive coach needs to be able to identify and address the issue of competing priorities. Fundamental principles Commonly agreed fundamental principles of coaching are self-responsibility, respect, acceptance, confidentiality, integrity, transparency, flexibility and neu- trality.
However, debate continues about the interpretation and practice of the principles. How should the coach handle possible conflicts of interest? How can the coach be resilient towards external pressures? How does the coach most effectively deal with his or her own blind spots? Coaching requires a coaching contract as the fundamental basis for a good coaching relationship. This relationship is commonly described as an equal one, neither participant being superior nor subordinate to the other.
Can a manager coach a direct report at all? Coaching techniques The techniques of listening, questioning, clarifying and giving feedback are essential.
What other tools are admissible and how these may be applied in coaching, however, is subject to debate. What effect do these have on the coaching process and outcomes? Target groups Coaches vary in whom they offer services to. Some coaches are willing to work across issues and sectors, others are more specialist. A debate persists over whether and to what extent coaching is equally applicable to all these target groups, what approaches work best with different issues and whether coaches are more, or less, effective when they attempt to work across all domains. Relationship to other services A clear distinction between coaching and other services eg mentoring, therapy, counselling is crucial and is dealt with below.
Qualification Listening, questioning and clarifying skills are indispensable for any coach. Depending on each coaching approach, additional coaching skills may also be required. But how far should the coach understand the issues faced by the coachee? Should the coach have management or sector knowledge? However, that coaching is a professional service provided by professional coaches is commonly accepted. Also, there is no doubt that companies are now in- creasingly starting to make use of coaching forms beyond the one-to-one coach- ing paradigm as well and to ingrain the coaching principles at the workplace.
One distinction that is useful to be aware of is between managers who coach their direct reports and managers who demonstrate a coaching leadership style. While the first category are acting like professional coaches and giving formal sessions, the latter maintain their role as leaders and integrate coaching elements, such as listening, skilful questioning and empowerment, into their everyday methods of leadership.
It is advisable to be very reluctant and careful about using the first category due to the inherent, likely conflicts of roles. Cultural view Coaching extends across various cultures at the global, regional, national, organizational and individual level and is a worldwide phenomenon today. Coaching in a Japanese organization might therefore tend to be slightly directive at first, which may not be the practice in other countries. People may see and define coaching in a certain way simply because of how they came across it for the first time.
The 12 themes illustrate the issues that are part of the ongoing debate as the coaching profession develops. The diagram below adds another seven and encapsulates the core principles as understood in coaching internationally today: Action Blame free Self- belief Awareness Self- Directed Learning Trust Challenge Responsibility Solution focus Figure 1. The most well-known framework developed for coaching is the GROW model, which was created by Sir John and his associates, and popularized through his book: Reality what is happening now? Options what could you do? Will what will you do?
Figure 1. There is a tendency to move immediately into considering what might be done to achieve the goal; where coaching differs is in the exploration or Reality, by asking exploratory questions like: l What is happening now? If enough Goal and Reality questions are asked, the coachee will usually be- come clear about what can be done, and options for actions will start to present themselves without effort.
The final section is W for Will rather than A for Action because it is about exploring what the coachee can actually commit to doing, rather than ending up with a list of what she or he should or would like to be able to do. The GROW model is flexible and it is acceptable to jump backwards and forwards through its four elements within a session. It is a robust framework which can be applied to projects and plans as well as conversations.
Many other excellent coaching models have since been devised and they are broadly similar to the framework of GROW. There are countries where the locals nod when they mean no, and shake their heads when they mean yes. This is a result of their cultural background, and some big misunderstandings can result if we visit such a country without knowing about this custom. People have different customs across the world, arising from their cultural background, their upbringing or experiences in life.
It would literally take a lifetime for a coach to map all these experiences in enough detail to understand where the coachee has come from and where he or she needs to go next. However, in the space of a session, an effective coach is able to reveal significant points on this map to the coachee and uncover what- ever self-knowledge the coachee needs to see the way forward.
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Coaching skills Listening Clearly, the coach will expect to spend a large part of each session listening to the coachee. In human communication, five levels of listening can be identified. Effective coaching only takes place at Levels 4 and 5: 5. Active listening 4. Listening and asking for more 3. Giving advice 2. Giving our own experience 1. Waiting for our turn to speak Figure 1. At best, a coach listens at Level 5 throughout every session. This may sound like hard work, but is in fact stimulating and energizing, rather like being in a game and calculating how and when to return the ball.
Some examples of questions have already been included in the previous section, because questioning is a helpful element of active listening. They think we should just focus on one thing and do it well. All my businesses have had several threads. I seem to be quite good at knitting different elements together simultaneously to make one strong business. I realize that now. Diversification is the right thing for me to focus on. I have the ideas, test them out, follow them through, and when the framework is there I put someone in charge to look after the details.
Clarifying Clarifying encompasses the skills of: l repeating back in different words; l summarizing; l reflecting back the exact words. Repeating back in different words Repeating back in different words enables both coach and client to understand what has been said. I got stuck on the telephone, then the train was late so I missed my connection. How are you feel- ing now? Another reason for reflecting back is to ensure that both coach and coachee are on the same cultural map, as we discussed earlier in this section.
Goals, strategies and actions Goals To be effective, a goal must be inspiring, challenging, measurable and have a deadline. A goal with such qualities emanates a magnetism that pulls the coachee towards it. A goal featuring the qualities specified above will embed itself into the subconscious and, through the RAS, we will start to notice pointers along the way that we might otherwise have missed. People frequently find that once they know what they want and to find out is often the reason they hire a coach in the first place , extraordinary coinci- dences seem to occur that bring their goal closer.
An effective coach ensures that all the essential groundwork is in place to achieve the goal, always remembering that it is the coachee who must decide what that groundwork will consist of. Strategies act like a ladder to take the coachee up to the goals. Actions If strategies are a ladder, then actions are the rungs upon it.
Setting actions in coaching is quite different from setting them in ordinary life. Actions in the real world are often regarded as chores that we tend to put off. A good coach will not ask the coachee to set an action until that coachee has reached a new level of in- sight. Once this is reached, the insight acts as a springboard catapulting the coachee into action; indeed it would be hard to stop someone from taking action at this point.
A coach who can bring both structure and the principles of self-directed learning to coaching is most likely to achieve great results. It also pays to re- member that there is an underlying journey for the coachee: uncovering new awareness and new insights, and changing deep-seated habits. At the end of a series of sessions, it is often the case that whatever coachees have achieved in terms of their goals, the result that they prize most highly is the new knowledge they have gained about themselves along the way.
Coaching, counselling, psychotherapy and mentoring Coaching draws its influences from, and stands on the shoulders of, a wide range of disciplines, including counselling, management consultancy, personal development and psychology. However, there are a number of core differences that distinguish coaching from its related fields and these are most easily high- lighted through the metaphor of driving a car: l A therapist will explore what is stopping you driving your car.
Coaching is forward focused Coaching always focuses on moving the coachee forward. Counselling may be more appropriate than coaching for, say, the newly bereaved who need to Psychotherapy is a broad field and is usually sought in order to fix a particular problem arising from past trauma. While therapy may be about damage and counselling about distress, coaching is about desire. Coaching is coachee led Psychotherapists sometimes use techniques that lead and influence the patient and which could cause damage to the psyche if applied by an insufficiently experienced practitioner.
However, coaches should be trained not to lead, judge, advise or influence their coachees. Their role is to respond to the desires and expressed needs of their coachees, and to operate with the belief that the coachee has all the required knowledge to solve his or her own problem. Coaching is about improving performance The focus of coaching is about enhancing performance.
In this sense, executive and personal coaching are similar to sports coaching. As a result, a key feature of coaching is behaviour, supported by cognition and motivation. Coaching is not mentoring Mentoring, while having similarities to coaching, is fundamentally different. A mentor has experience in a particular field and imparts specific knowledge, acting as adviser, counsellor, guide, tutor, or teacher. The benefits of coaching Coaching, when properly applied, can create win—win situations to the benefit of all stakeholders.
Potential outcomes of coaching — both short and long term — can be identified at an individual, team, organizational and social level. The key benefits for each level are specified below: Individual level: l better self-awareness and self-reflection; l increased individual performance; The actual impact of a coaching intervention varies, of course, from case to case and is influenced by a number of factors, for example organizational receptive- ness or the coaching approach taken.
The Manchester study in see Johnson, measured a return of 5.
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Qualitative, perceptual evaluation of outcomes There are plenty of research studies and company experiences documenting a highly perceived value of coaching by organizations and people. Here are some examples: according to the CIPD study in the UK, 99 per cent of the organizations using coaching say that it can deliver tangible benefits to both individuals and organizations. Four out of five executives think they would benefit from coaching at work and 93 per cent of managers believe coaching should be available to all employees regardless of seniority Industrial and Commercial Training, Moreover, more than 70 per cent of HR professionals believe that coaching is actually more effective than training courses as a means of changing behaviour and improving the performance of senior executives and high-flyers Training Strategies for Tomorrow, These and other findings make a strong case for coaching as a worthwhile investment leading to potentially tremendous benefits.
At the same time we need to continue to develop our understanding of which coaching elements specifically support these outcomes and to use this knowledge in refining coach- ing practice and training. For this learning process, sound detachment and good sense are needed to allow for realistic assessments of the impact of coaching. Manager mit Coaching. Naisbitt declared that in order for human beings to evolve, we need to find greater ways to connect and find balance as society and technology accelerate. In other words, become more high touch in a high-tech world.
Today, we find ourselves in an even quicker, more complex society, where technology reaches most parts of the globe. Organizations need to take notice of how they lead, develop and engage their stakeholders in a climate where e-mails and remote ways of working can hamper effective communication. We are in a society where many baby-boomers in white-collar jobs are feeling tired, unfulfilled, or are looking for deeper meaning and purpose.
Added to this is an emerging need for employees to find more meaning at work. Also, there are the questions that have arisen out of the recent economic downturn, requesting a new form of leadership. If you accept that profes- sionals and leaders in our high-tech world will need to further connect with themselves and others in their quest for deeper meaning, balance and success, then this is both an opportunity and a role for coaches and coaching providers working within organizations. Additionally, this creates a responsibility.
As the emerging coaching profes- sion on a global scale is still in its early growth stages, those now within it are pioneers. Our actions and ways of working will help to shape and harness the uptake of coaching services in decades to come. Our profession will hopefully be one that is not only sustainable and models excellence, but continues to provide a human touch to help our clients evolve and achieve significant, lasting change.
Organizational coaching framework Successful coaching within organizations goes far beyond the quality of the delivery. When coaching was in the early adapter stage, there may have been more scope where the external coach and the executive could go off into a private room somewhere, enjoy six months of coaching or one-to-one professional development, then conclude the sessions with little or no reporting back to the sponsor or line manager.
Now, however, the tides are changing. Coaching, along with its perceived benefits, is much more visible across the organization; it is no longer mainly a intervention for the most senior executives. Team coaching, along with coaching skills programmes, continues to grow in popularity. WhiletherearevariancesacrossEurope TulpaandBresser, as well as other parts of the world, indicators are reinforcing that coaching has become, or is on track to become, mainstream.
Many within the profession are pleased we are in this dynamic period, for this is where alliances form to benefit all parties involved and ensure acceptable levels of standards are achieved. These organizations are further up the growth curve. Therefore, as coaching grows in demand, this also creates greater pressure, in particular for the buyers or sponsors of coaching within organizations, to investigate how they procure coaching services, how they manage them, and how they measure them.
My personal view is that if we want to make a real difference and stay within the organiza- tional coaching arena, as coaches we will need to master our game and stretch ourselves to have greater discipline. This includes aligning with the needs of not just the coachee, but also his or her manager, the sponsor and organization as a whole.
When the fit is right, this is highly energizing and one where there is the most added value. Building the business case — systemic profiling; — key challenges; — gain commitment. Ensuring focus — maintain drive; — identify stakeholders; — clarify business drivers. Creating alignment — establish aims; — matching criteria; — best fit teams.
Contracting — goals and outcomes; — agreements; — commitments. Delivering success — build confidence; — solicit feedback; — measure value. Building the business case In Chapter 1, the role of the coach, coaching definitions, the business return on investment and the potential outcomes at the individual, team and organiza- tional levels were described. These are useful as a baseline of knowledge when meeting with potential clients.
To expand upon this, this section looks at helping organizations understand and buy into the real value of coaching. Essential Business Coaching. Averil Leimon. The Talent Wave. David Clutterbuck.
Coaching and Mentoring. Ed Parsloe. Coaching Psychology. Understanding Gender at Work. Delee Fromm. Leadership Results. Sebastian Salicru. Jim Knight. James Robbins. The Process Matters. Joel Brockner. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals. Marilyn L. Hodges Golson. Brian Miller. Power Up! Gene Knott. Steven Haines.
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