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New research suggests that mangroves may break rather than bend under the stress of the climatic changes to come. The team found that within each species, mangroves are so low in genetic diversity that individual trees are essentially indistinguishable from one another. This means they will have less chance of adapting to a changing world than more diverse species. The finding is surprising, as mangroves seem like paragons of survival. Mangroves are adapted to living in salt water that is often too harsh for other trees and shrubs.

And, over the past several hundred thousand years, mangroves have survived changes in sea levels as the oceans have risen and fallen with the ice ages. They can withstand regular swings in salinity and temperature. Reaping the benefits: Science and the sustainable intensification of global agriculture. London: Royal Society; Climate Change Synthesis Report. Godfray H. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Tester M. Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world. Evenson R. Assessing the impact of the green revolution, to Nelson G.

Pingali P. Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead. Baker A. Replace, reuse, recycle: improving the sustainable use of phosphorus by plants. Protecting crop genetic diversity for food security: political, ethical and technical challenges. Metzker M. Sequencing technologies — the next generation. Alonso-Blanco C.

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What has natural variation taught us about plant development, physiology, and adaptation? Plant Cell. Barboza L. Arabidopsis semidwarfs evolved from independent mutations in GA20ox1, ortholog to green revolution dwarf alleles in rice and barley. Brock M. Natural variation in GA1 associates with floral morphology in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. Kellermeier F. Natural variation of Arabidopsis root architecture reveals complementing adaptive strategies to potassium starvation.

Plant Physiol. Luo N. Natural variation of drought response in Brachypodium distachyon. Khan N. Exploring the natural variation for seedling traits and their link with seed dimensions in tomato. PLoS One. Ream T. Interaction of photoperiod and vernalization determine flowering time of Brachypodium distachyon.

Ren Z. Schwartz C. BioEnergy Res. Bloomer R. Natural variation in GL1 and its effects on trichome density in Arabidopsis thaliana. Wingler A. Adaptation to altitude affects the senescence response to chilling in the perennial plant Arabis alpina. Kwon C-T. Natural variation in Early flowering1 contributes to early flowering in japonica rice under long days.

Plant Cell Environ. Juenger T. Natural variation and genetic constraints on drought tolerance. Plant Biol. Tang J. Natural variation of salinity response, population structure and candidate genes associated with salinity tolerance in perennial ryegrass accessions. Abraham M. Natural variation identifies multiple loci controlling petal shape and size in Arabidopsis thaliana. Weigel D. The genomes project for Arabidopsis thaliana.

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Genome Biol. Cao J. Whole-genome sequencing of multiple Arabidopsis thaliana populations. Feldmann K. T-DNA insertion mutagenesis in Arabidopsis : mutational spectrum. Plant J. Jeon J.

Assessment of genetic diversity in crop plants - an overview

T-DNA insertional mutagenesis for functional genomics in rice. Sundaresan V. Horizontal spread of transposon mutagenesis: new uses for old elements. Trends Plant Sci. Izawa T. Transposon tagging in rice. Plant Mol. Walden R.

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Activation tagging: a means of isolating genes implicated as playing a role in plant growth and development. Odell J. Identification of DNA sequences required for activity of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Ichikawa T. The FOX hunting system: an alternative gain-of-function gene hunting technique.

Sprink T. Bortesi L. Osakabe Y. Genome editing with engineered nucleases in plants. Plant Cell Physiol. Alonso J. Moving forward in reverse: genetic technologies to enable genome-wide phenomic screens in Arabidopsis. Sega G. A review of the genetic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate. Greene E. Spectrum of chemically induced mutations from a large-scale reverse-genetic screen in Arabidopsis. Botticella E. BMC Plant Biol. Cooper J. Xin Z. Okabe Y. Zhu Q. High-throughput discovery of mutations in tef semi-dwarfing genes by next-generation sequencing analysis. Kurowska M.

Nilan R. Azide — a potent mutagen. Mutagenic effect of sodium azide in barley. Japanese J. Engvild K. Mutagenesis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon with sodium azide. Al-Qurainy F. Mutagenic effects of sodium azide and its application in crop improvement. World Appl. Konzak C.

Surprising Genetic Diversity in Old Growth Trees — In Defense of Plants

Hadwiger L. Sodium azide-induced mutants of peas that accumulate pisatin. Sander C. Mutagenic and chromosome-breaking effects of azide in barley and human leukocytes. Morita R. Molecular characterization of mutations induced by gamma irradiation in rice. Genes Genet. Chono M. Isolation of a wheat Triticum aestivum L. Phillips T. In vivo radiobiology of heavy ions. Kraft G. Heavy-ion effects on cellular and subcellular systems: inactivation, chromosome aberrations and strand breaks induced by iron and nickel ions. Ward J. The complexity of DNA damage: relevance to biological consequences.

Goodhead D. Molecular and cell models of biological effects of heavy ion radiation. DNA damage induced by radiation of different linear energy transfer: initial fragmentation. Yokota Y. Initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA Fragmentation patterns depend on linear energy transfer in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions. Shikazono N. Analysis of mutations induced by carbon ions in Arabidopsis thaliana. Miyazaki K. Flower pigment mutations induced by heavy ion beam irradiation in an interspecific hybrid of Torenia.

Plant Biotechnol. Kanaya T. Miyamoto M. Performance comparison of second- and third-generation sequencers using a bacterial genome with two chromosomes. BMC Genomics. Eid J.

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Real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules. Koren S. Hybrid error correction and de novo assembly of single-molecule sequencing reads. Berlin K. Assembling large genomes with single-molecule sequencing and locality-sensitive hashing. Reifenberger J. Quantitative trait loci QTL analysis is a powerful approach to understand complex multigenic traits in plants and animals. Indeed, QTL mapping has been a successful approach for dissecting the molecular basis of flowering-time control in Arabidopsis, as reviewed by Bloomer and Dean Natural variation in these genes underpins evolution of diverse life history strategies within Arabidopsis that has allowed it to colonize a wide geographic range, spanning different environmental conditions Bloomer and Dean, Studies in Arabidopsis have identified key genes controlling flowering time and elucidation of their molecular mechanisms, including epigenetic silencing of FLC by vernalization, which involves the Polycomb repression system and long non-coding RNAs Bloomer and Dean, Flowering is a key trait that can determine the extent of plant inter- and intra-specific hybridization Schmickl et al.

Yant and colleagues examine how hybridization can lead to allele introgression and be connected to speciation events Schmickl et al. As discussed, the utility of new DNA sequencing technologies is accelerating study of these phenomena Legget and Clark, Sequencing of populations occurring at hybrid zones is discussed as an approach for identifying introgressed adaptive alleles, in addition to examples of horizontal gene transfer HGT between species.

Importantly, application of deep-sequencing technologies is proving to be a powerful approach for identifying genomic islands of divergence associated with adaptive allele introgression. Such islands are typically detected as regions with high genetic divergence compared to non-differentiated regions elsewhere in the genome Schmickl et al.

Once hybrids form, natural variation can be further recombined via the meiotic cell division Hunter, Meiosis generates haploid gametes from diploid progenitor cells, using a single round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation Hunter, Importantly, during the first meiotic cell division homologous chromosomes pair and undergo recombination, which can result in reciprocal crossover Hunter, Henderson and colleagues review how, in addition to reassorting natural variation, sequence polymorphism can itself modify the meiotic recombination process Lawrence et al.

This can occur by both cis - and trans -acting effects of variation, and QTL-mapping approaches have been successful in identifying genes controlling recombination, including the conserved E3 ligase gene HEI10 Lawrence et al. Plants also show high rates of polyploidy, which can create challenges for stable genome transmission during meiosis Otto, Importantly, genetic variation and loci associated with stable meiotic inheritance of polyploid genomes have also been identified Griffiths et al. Natural genetic and epigenetic variation in plants is extensive, and remains to be fully described and harnessed in crop species.

Nevertheless, new sequencing technologies provide opportunities to explore plant variation at greater depth and accuracy. This is particularly important in species with large, repetitive genomes, or in chromosomal regions typified by repeated sequences.

Genetic diversity

For example, centromeres and ribosomal RNA clusters remain poorly understood due to our inability to completely sequence these regions. As technology advances it will be possible to obtain near-complete descriptions of genetic variation in natural populations. This will provide the opportunity to examine patterns of variation in relation to environmental adaptation at unprecedented resolution in space and time.

  • Genetic Diversity in Plants?
  • Mangroves Lack the Genetic Diversity to Adapt to Climate Change | Hakai Magazine.
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  • As our climate continues to change, understanding global patterns of natural genetic variation and its relationship to plant adaptation will thus be of critical importance. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account.

    Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Genotype, phenotype and epistasis. Flowering, hybrids and meiosis. Future directions.